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Title: Biology Final Review


1
Biology Final Review
2
Chromosomes
  • Chromosomes are DNA its associated proteins.
  • We have 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs of
    chromosomes.
  • In a prokaryotic cell, it is the main ring of
    DNA.

3
Autosomes vs. Sex Chromosomes
  • Autosomes are any chromosomes that are not
    directly involved in determining the sex of an
    individual.
  • We have 22 pairs.
  • Sex chromosomes contain genes that will determine
    the sex of the individual.
  • We have one pair.
  • Females are XX.
  • Males are XY.

4
Autosomes vs. Sex Chromosomes
5
Gametes
  • Gametes are an organisms reproductive cells.
  • Females gametes are eggs or ova.
  • Males gametes are sperm.

6
Haploid vs. Diploid
  • Haploid refers to a cell (gamete) that contains
    only 1 set of chromosomes.
  • It is represented by n.
  • Diploid refers to a somatic or body cell that
    contains 2 sets of chromosomes.
  • It is represented by 2n.

7
Define Haploid
  • Describes a cell, nucleus or organism that has
    only one set of unpaired chromosomes.

8
Define Diploid
  • A cell that contains 2 sets of haploid
    chromosomes
  • Body or somatic cells contain a diploid number of
    chromosomes.

9
Karyotype
  • A picture of the chromosomes found in an
    individuals cells at metaphase of mitosis
    arranged in homologous pairs in order of
    diminishing size with the sex chromosomes last.
  • Downs Syndrome
  • is trisomy 21.

10
Parts of a Microscope
11
Microscopes and Magnification
  • Ocular lens x objective lens total
    magnification
  • Magnification making image appear larger
  • Resolution clarity of image

12
Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells.
  • Cells are the basic units of structure and
    function in organisms.
  • All cells come from existing cells.

13
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
  • Prokaryote
  • No nucleus
  • No membrane bound organelles
  • Circular DNA
  • Relatively small
  • Reproduce quickly (20 min.)
  • Examples Bacteria

14
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote
  • Nucleus
  • Many membrane bound organelles
  • Linear DNA
  • Relatively large
  • Reproduce slowly (24 hours)
  • Examples Plants, animals, fungi protists

15
Cell Parts Functions
  • Cell membrane
  • Controls what enters leaves a cell separates
    protects the cell from the environment.
  • Nucleus
  • Contains the DNA in eukaryotic cells controls
    cellular activities.
  • Vacuole
  • Membrane bound sac that stores water, may also
    contain ions, nutrients waste.

16
Cell Parts Functions
  • Chloroplast
  • Organelle that uses light energy to make
    carbohydrates from CO2 H2O.
  • Cytoplasm
  • Region of the cell within the membrane that
    includes the fluid, the cytoskeleton and all of
    the organelles except the nucleus.
  • DNA
  • Material that contains the information that
    determines hereditary characteristics.

17
Cell Parts Functions
  • Ribosomes
  • Organelle composed of RNA protein site of
    protein synthesis.
  • Mitochondrion
  • Cell organelle surrounded by 2 membranes is the
    site of cellular respiration, which produces ATP.
  • Cell Wall
  • Rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane
    provides support to the cell.

18
5 Stages of the Cell Cycle
19
5 Stages of the Cell Cycle
  • The first 3 stages are collectively called
    interphase. (90 of a cells life is spent here.)
  • First growth (G1) phase
  • Cell grows rapidly carries out routine
    functions. (Major portion of a cells life is
    spent here.)

20
5 Stages of the Cell Cycle
  • Synthesis (S) phase
  • Cells DNA is copied.
  • Each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids attached
    at the centromere.
  • Second growth (G2) phase
  • Preparations are made for the nucleus to divide.
  • Microtubules are rearranged.
  • Organelles are manufactured or reproduced.

21
5 Stages of the Cell Cycle
  • Mitosis
  • The nucleus of a cell divides into 2 nuclei each
    with the same and kinds of chromosomes as the
    original cell.
  • Cytokinesis
  • The cytoplasm divides and 2 new cells are formed.

22
3 Checkpoints
  • A checkpoint is an inspection point at which
    feedback signals from the cell can trigger the
    next phase of the cell cycle or delay it.
  • Cell Growth (G1) checkpoint at the end of the G1
    phase
  • Makes the decision of whether or not a cell will
    divide.

23
3 Checkpoints
  • DNA synthesis (G2) checkpoint at the end of the
    G2 phase
  • DNA replication is checked by DNA repair enzymes.
  • Mitosis checkpoint at the end of mitosis
  • Triggers the exit from mitosis

24
4 Phases of Mitosis
  • Prophase
  • Chromosomes become visible.
  • Nuclear envelope dissolves.
  • The spindle forms.
  • In animal cells, the centrioles move to opposite
    poles and the spindle forms between them.

25
4 Phases of Mitosis
  • Metaphase
  • Chromosomes move to the center of the cell line
    up along the equator.
  • Spindle fibers link the chromatids of each
    chromosome to opposite poles.

26
4 Phases of Mitosis
  • Anaphase
  • Centromeres divide.
  • The 2 chromatids (now called chromosomes) move
    toward opposite poles as the spindle fibers
    attached to them shorten.

27
4 Phases of Mitosis
  • Telophase
  • A nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes
    at each pole.
  • The chromosomes uncoil and return to chromatin
    form.
  • The spindle dissolves.
  • Cytokinesis begins.

28
Cytokinesis
  • Division of the cytoplasm of a cell
  • Follows the division of the cells nucleus by
    mitosis or meiosis
  • Cytokinesis in animal cells occurs when a belt of
    protein threads pinches the cell membrane in
    half.
  • Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs when vesicles
    from the Golgi apparatus fuse to form a cell
    plate.

29
Cytokinesis
  • Cytokinesis in Cytokinesis in
  • animal cells plant
    cells

30
Define Meiosis
  • A process in cell division during which the
    number of chromosomes decreases to half the
    original number by two divisions of the nucleus,
    which results in the production of sex cells
    (gametes or spores)

31
What are the 4 things that give rise to variation
within a species?
  • Independent assortment
  • Crossing-over
  • Random fertilization
  • Mutations

32
Differentiate between spermatogenesis oogenesis.
  • Spermatogenesis
  • 2 nuclear divisions in which the cytoplasm is
    divided equally
  • 4 sperm produced from parent cell

33
Differentiate between spermatogenesis oogenesis.
  • Oogenesis
  • First nuclear division, cytoplasm divides
    unequally one of the cells gets nearly all of
    the cytoplasm
  • This cell will ultimately give rise to one egg
    the 3 polar bodies will die

34
Complete the following diagrams
2n
2n
2n
Process Mitosis
Process Meiosis
35
Compare Mitosis and Meiosis
36
What are the 3 different ways asexual
reproduction occurs?
  • In asexual reproduction, a single parent passes
    exact copies of all of its DNA to its offspring.
  • Fission
  • Fragmentation
  • Budding

37
Nondisjunction
  • One or more chromosomes fail to separate properly
    during meiosis.
  • One gamete ends up receiving both chromosomes and
    the other gamete receives none.
  • Trisomy occurs when the gamete w/ both
    chromosomes fuses w/ a normal gamete, resulting
    in an offspring w/ 3 copies of a chromosome
    instead of 2.

38
Diffusion vs. Osmosis
  • Diffusion
  • The movement of particles from regions of higher
    concentration to regions of lower concentration.
  • Ex perfume spreading across a room.
  • Osmosis
  • The diffusion of water from an area of high
    concentration to an area of low concentration
    across a membrane.
  • Ex Getting thirstier when you drink salt water.

39
Passive vs. Active Transport
  • Passive Transport
  • Does not require energy.
  • Movement down the concentration gradient.
  • Examples
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Facilitated diffusion

40
Passive vs. Active Transport
  • Active Transport
  • Requires energy.
  • Movement against the concentration gradient.
  • Examples
  • Sodium-potassium pump
  • Endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pinocytosis
  • Exocytosis

41
Fig. 5-1a
Carbohydrate of glycoprotein
Glycoprotein
Glycolipid
Integrin
Phospholipid
Microfilaments of cytoskeleton
Cholesterol
42
ATP
  • The energy currency of the cell.
  • An organic molecule that acts as the main energy
    source for cell processes
  • Composed of a nitrogen base, a sugar 3
    phosphate groups.
  • The energy is stored in the phosphate bonds.
  • Powers metabolism.

43
Photosynthesis
  • Process by which plants, algae some bacteria
    use sunlight, CO2 H2O to produce carbohydrates
    O2.
  • Takes place in the chloroplast
  • Main pigment is chlorophyll.
  • Reactants are CO2 and H2O
  • End products are glucose O2

44
Photosynthesis
  • Stage 1
  • Consists of the absorption of light energy which
    excites the electrons in chlorophyll.
  • The electrons enter the ETC (electron transport
    chain).
  • Water is split to produce O2, H, and the
    electrons to replace those lost by the
    chlorophyll molecules.

45
Photosynthesis
  • Stage 2
  • The conversion of light energy into chemical
    energy that is temporarily stored in ATP and
    NADPH.
  • The energy from ATP and NADPH will be used to
    power the third stage.

46
Photosynthesis
  • Stage 3
  • CO2 fixation occurs
  • Inorganic CO2 is fixed into organic compounds
    (sugars).

47
Cellular Respiration
  • Process by which cells produce energy from
    carbohydrates O2 combines w/ glucose to form H2O
    CO2.
  • Takes place in the mitochondrion.
  • Reactants are glucose and oxygen.
  • Products are carbon dioxide water.

48
Aerobic Respiration vs. Anaerobic Respiration
  • Aerobic Respiration
  • Requires oxygen.
  • Produces much more ATP (38 net ATP)
  • Anaerobic Respiration
  • Does not require oxygen.
  • Regenerates NAD so that gylcolysis can continue.
  • (2 net ATP from glycolysis)

49
Aerobic Respiration
  • Stage 1 Glycolysis takes place in the
    cytoplasm.
  • Does not require oxygen.
  • Glucose is broken down to 2 pyruvate molecules
  • Produces 2 net ATP and 2 NADH
  • Stage 2 Bridge reaction carries pyruvates into
    the mitochondrion.
  • 2 CO2 and 2 NADH are produced

50
Aerobic Respiration
  • Stage 3 Krebs Cycle occurs in the matrix of the
    mitochondrion
  • In the presence of oxygen.
  • In two turns of the Krebs Cycle
  • 4 CO2 are produced
  • 6 NADH are produced
  • 2 ATP are produced
  • 2 FADH2 are produced.

51
Aerobic Respiration
  • Stage 4 Electron Transport Chain occurs in the
    inner membrane of the mitochondrion
  • In the presence of oxygen.
  • 34 net ATP produced
  • 2NADH from glycolysis 6ATP
  • 2 NADH from bridge reaction 6 ATP
  • 6 NADH from Krebs cycle 18 ATP
  • 2 FADH2 from Krebs cycle 4ATP

52
Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation
  • Alcoholic Fermentation
  • Occurs in the absence of oxygen
  • Occurs in yeast and some bacteria
  • Produces
  • Ethyl alcohol
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Regenerates NAD so glycolysis can continue

53
Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation
  • Lactic Acid Fermentation
  • Occurs in the absence of oxygen
  • Occurs in the muscle tissue of animals in
    lactic acid bacteria
  • Produces
  • Lactic acid
  • Regenerates NAD so glycolysis can continue

54
Atom and Its Parts
  • An atom is the smallest unit of an element that
    maintains the properties of that element.
  • Nucleus contains
  • Proton ()
  • Neutron (Neutral)
  • Electron cloud
  • Electron ()

55
Covalent vs. Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bond
  • Bond formed when atoms share pairs of electrons.
  • Ionic Bond
  • Bond formed by the attraction between oppositely
    charged ions.

56
Covalent vs. Ionic Bonds
57
Molecules and Polar Molecules
  • Molecule
  • A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.
  • Polar Molecule
  • Shares its electrons unequally and therefore has
    partially positive and negative ends, or poles.
  • Water is a polar molecule.

58
Molecules and Polar Molecules
59
Solvents
  • Solvent
  • A substance, usually a liquid, capable of
    dissolving another substance.
  • Universal Solvent
  • Water.

60
pH Scale and Acids Bases
  • pH Scale ranges from 0 - 14
  • Acid
  • A compound that forms hydrogen ions (H) in
    water.
  • Its pH is 0 to less than 7. (0 to lt 7)
  • Base
  • A compound that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in
    water.
  • Its pH is greater than 7 to 14. (gt7 to 14)
  • Neutral
  • Substances that have a pH of 7.

61
Organic Macromolecules
  • Organic macromolecules
  • Contain carbon atoms that are covalently bonded
    to other elements typically hydrogen, oxygen
    and other carbon atoms.
  • 4 principal classes of organic compounds found in
    living things are
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids

62
Organic Macromolecules
  • Carbohydrates organic compounds made of carbon,
    hydrogen and oxygen in a 121 ratio.
  • Monomers are monosaccharides.
  • Ex Glucose and fructose
  • Polymers are polysaccharides.
  • Ex Starches, potatoes, paper, crab shells
  • Functions
  • Stores energy.
  • Makes up cell walls in plants and fungi.
  • Makes up exoskeleton in some animals.

63
Organic Macromolecules
  • Lipids are nonpolar molecules that are insoluble
    in water include fats, phospholipids, steroids
    and waxes.
  • Monomers are glycerol fatty acids
  • Polymer examples
  • Butter oil
  • All membranes
  • Cholesterol and Steroids
  • Functions
  • Stores energy
  • Makes up cell membranes
  • Acts as chemical messengers

64
Organic Macromolecules
  • Proteins
  • Monomers are amino acids
  • Polymer examples
  • Hemoglobin and antibodies
  • Muscle, hair and nails
  • Functions
  • Hemoglobin carries oxygen and antibodies help
    defend against infection.
  • Make up tissues that support body structures and
    provide movement
  • Speed up chemical reactions (enzymes)

65
Organic Macromolecules
  • Nucleic acids
  • Monomers are nucleotides
  • Polymer examples
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Functions
  • Controls cellular activities
  • Stores hereditary information
  • Plays key role in the manufacture of proteins

66
Catalyst vs. Enzyme
  • Catalyst
  • Speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the
    activation energy.
  • Enzyme
  • Specialized protein that acts as an organic
    catalyst.

67
Test Indicators Positive Results
  • Benedicts solution
  • Tests for simple sugars blue color changes to
    red, orange, yellow, green.
  • Lugols iodine
  • Tests for starch reddishorange iodine turns
    blue-black or black.
  • Biuret solution
  • Tests for protein blue turns purple.
  • BTB (Bromthymol blue)
  • Tests for CO2 blue turns green, or yellow.
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