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COURSE CODE: FWM 203 COURSE TITLE: PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA

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Title: COURSE CODE: FWM 203 COURSE TITLE: PRINCIPLES OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA


1
COURSE CODE FWM 203COURSE TITLE PRINCIPLES
OF CONSERVATION IN TROPICAL AFRICA
  • NUMBER OF UNIT 2 UNITS
  • COURSE DURATION TWO HOURS PER WEEK
  • DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY AND WILDLIFE
    MANAGEMENT
  • COLLEGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCES
    MANAGEMENT
  • UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,
    ABEOKUTA

2
  • COURSE COODINATOR DR I. O. O. OSUNSINA
  • E-mail osunsinaisrael_at_yahoo.com
  • Office Location E 211, COLERM
  • OTHER LECTURERS DR M. O. O. OYATOGUN

3
COURSE CONTENT
  • The need for conservation. Aims and
    objectives of conservation. Target species,
    courses of migration and emigration in fish and
    wildlife species. Conservation methods and
    techniques for critical ecosystems such as
    watersheds, hilly areas, grazing lands, open pit
    mining ,areas of broken topography and marginal
    environment preservation of endangered plants and
    animals.

4
COURSE REQUIREMENT
  • This is a compulsory course for all students
    in Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management
    and Aquaculture and Fisheries Management. In view
    of this, students are expected to participate in
    all the course activities and have minimum of 75
    attendance to be able to write the final
    examination.

5
READING LIST
6
Definition of Terms
  • Conservation is the management of human use of
    the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
    sustainable benefit to present generations, while
    maintaining its potential to meet the needs and
    aspiration of future generations. Conservation as
    rendered involves preservation, maintenance,
    sustainable utilization, restoration and
    enhancement of the natural environment.
  • Wildlife or Wild animal species refers to all
    living things, plants, invertebrates and
    vertebrates outside the direct control of man
    (that is, all non-cultivated plants and
    non-domesticated animals). It embraces all
    animals in their natural habitat. They are
    undomesticated animals which may be small
    organisms only visible to humans if seen through
    a microscope or as big as the elephant or whale.
    Wildlife includes but it is not limited to
    insects, spiders and birds, reptiles, fish,
    amphibians, and mammals if not domesticated (NCF,
    1994).
  • Biodiversity or Biological diversity refers to
    the total variability of living organisms on the
    planet (UNEP, 1995). It is defined in terms of
    genes, species and ecosystem which are the
    outcome of over 3,000 million years of evolution.
    As biological concept, biodiversity is an
    essential or a necessary tool for human survival.

7
Definition of Terms (CONTD)
  • Wildlife management has been defined as the
    combination and application of business methods
    and ecological knowledge to manipulate
    undomesticated fauna and flora (wild animal and
    plant) resources in a way that ensures their
    products and services will be sustained. The
    application of ecological principles and
    knowledge to the management of wildlife entails
    certain basic approaches viz
  • Preservation of wild species and allowing nature
    to follow a balance, devoid of any human
    intervention.
  • Direct or indirect manipulations of wild fauna
    population such as through cropping, culling,
    habitat alteration and other habitat management
    tool so as not to exceed carrying capacity.
  • Maintenance of useful and desirable species.
  • Sustained-yield management through limiting
    consumptive utilization to annual production
    capacity.

8
Definition of Terms (CONTD)
  • Consumptive utilization is the extraction of
    resources for the production of consumer goods
    and services. Apart from providing food other
    types of consumptive uses of wildlife include
    products such as skins and hides, materials for
    hand crafts, or ceremonial uses , oils and
    medicines, live animal trades, sport, hunting,
    stock resources for domestication or improvement
    of domesticated breeds, farming activities and
    mineral resources exploitation. All activities
    directed towards production of goods and services
    which often lead to the degradation of the
    environment.
  • Non-consumptive utilization is defined as the
    provision of natural amenities and services for
    recreational use such as game viewing, nature
    trail, swimming, boating and other water related
    recreational activities in lake and waterfall. It
    includes spiritual and religious values, values
    due to the willingness of local and international
    user-public (tourist) to pay to see living and
    non-living resources in the natural setting.
  • Sustainable use is the rate of harvest within the
    capacity of species and their habitats to
    maintain themselves. Sustainable use can be
    non-consumptive or consumptive in nature.
  • Commercial use is defined as the management of
    native wildlife for profit. The terms utilization
    and commercial use are interchangeable.

9
Status Categories of Species
  • Extinct (Ex) species has not been seen in the
    wild or in captivity during the past 50 years.
  • Extinct In the Wild (BW) As above, but the
    species is still held in zoological gardens on
    other live collection.
  • Ecological Extinction is defined as the reduction
    of a species to such low abundance that though it
    is still present in the community, it no longer
    interacts significantly with other species.

10
Status Categories of Species
  • Extirpation species is not extinct, but no
    longer occurring in a wild state or no longer
    exhibiting patterns of use.
  • Critically Endangered (CR) The species is very
    threatened and at risk of becoming extinct.
  • Endangered (EN) Any native species in immense
    danger of extirpation or extinction. Species is
    unlikely to survive if the factor thus is posing
    threat persists.
  • Vulnerable (VU) Likely to become endangered in
    the future if factor that is posing threat
    persists.

11
Status Categories of Species
  • Near Threatened (NT) Species is approaching the
    threshold of vulnerability.
  • Data Deficient (DD) Strongly suspected or
    thought to belong to one of the above categories
    but data is insufficient to substantiate.
  • Rare (R) Species has small global population
    that is not threatened but is at risk.

12
Status Categories of Species
  • Low Risk-Conservation Dependent (LR/CD) Species
    is in no immediate danger, but survival will
    depend on implementation of effective
    conservation measures in its range.
  • Low Risk-Not threatened (LR/NT) Species is in no
    immediate danger, but needs to be consistently
    monitored.
  • (Adapted from IUCN threatened species categories
    1996)

13
NATURAL RESOURCES
  • Natural resources are naturally occurring
    resources in the environment that have not been
    disturbed by mankind. By resource is meant any
    physical entity, which has limited availability.
    These resources occur in their natural form. Few
    examples of natural resources are
  • Air, wind and atmosphere
  • Plants (Flora)
  • Animals (Fauna)
  • Wildlife
  • Forest
  • Coal and fossil fuels
  • Range and pasture
  • Soils
  • Water, oceans, lakes and rivers

14
NATURAL RESOURCES
  • Biotic Natural ResourcesNatural resources
    extracted from the biosphere of earth are
    categorized as biotic. The biotic resources can
    be obtained in the raw form, or by means of
    cultivation through agriculture. Petroleum is a
    resource that has to be included in the category
    of biotic natural resources. This is because, it
    has an organic origin. The following list
    provides names of resources directly obtained
    from the biosphere. Timber , Petroleum, Natural
    Gas, Fruits, Wax (tree wax).
  • Abiotic Natural ResourcesMinerals, metals and
    other such materials (non-living) fall in the
    category of abiotic natural resources.The
    different abiotic natural resources are enlisted
    below. Gold, Coal ,Diamond , Silver, Bauxite ,
    Nickel, Copper , Limestone e.t.c.

15
THE NEED FOR CONSERVATION
  • It is known that mans survival, comfort and
    development depends largely on materials
    obtainable from natural resources. We rely on
    these resources for air, food, water, clothing,
    shelter minerals and drugs. However, these
    resources can become non renewable if the demand
    and utilization exceeds its recycling capacity.
    In this case, exploitation is said to have
    exceeded the rate of the production of these
    resources. Indicators of such hazard
    exploitation of such natural resources in Nigeria
    include
  • (1) Increase desertification and drought in the
    north.
  • (2) Soil erosion and gully erosion e.g in Gombe
    Eastern States
  • (3) Deforestation in the west
  • (4) It result in poor yield of crops in farmlands
    that are not artificially fertilised
  • (5) It results in the decline in the population
    of wild flora and fauna species.

16
SPECIES LOSS A GLOBAL CONCERN
  • Available evidence indicates that human
    activities are leading to the loss of the
    planets biological diversity which implies
    erosion of biological resources that are
    essential for future development. For instance
    it has been observed that normal states of
    extinction (disappearance of species) of many of
    the worlds biological resources have accelerated
    and result of on going destruction of forests and
    other biological rich habitats. It is estimated
    that by the year 2020, one million or more
    species of plants animals and other microbes
    would have been lost to the planet (United Nation
    Agenda 21, 1993).

17
FACTORS THAT HINDERS SPECIES ABUNDANCE
  • 1. Changing environment
  • 2. Man wild life conflict
  • 3. Hunting and poaching
  • 4. The use of mammals as foods
  • 5. Wild mammals as pests
  • 6. Wild mammals as disease vectors
  • 7. Economic policies
  • 8. Climaterics changes in weather condition
  • 9. Pollution

18
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES
  • In-situ Conservation
  • In-situ conservation means "on-site
    conservation". It is the process of protecting an
    endangered plant or animal species in its natural
    habitat, either by protecting or cleaning up the
    habitat itself, or by defending the species from
    predators. In-situ conservation, the conservation
    of species in their natural habitats, is
    considered the most appropriate way of conserving
    biodiversity. Conserving the areas where
    populations of species exist naturally is an
    underlying condition for the conservation of
    biodiversity. That's why protected areas form a
    central element of any national strategy to
    conserve biodiversity.

19
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES
  • Ex-situ Conservation
  • Ex-situ conservation means literally, "off-site
    conservation". Ex-situ conservation is the
    preservation of components of biological
    diversity outside their natural habitats.  It is
    the process of protecting an endangered species
    of plant or animal by removing part of the
    population from a threatened habitat and placing
    it in a new location, which may be a wild area or
    within the care of humans. This involves
    conservation of genetic resources, as well as
    wild and cultivated species, and draws on a
    diverse body of techniques and facilities.  Some
    of these include
  • Gene banks, e.g. seed banks, sperm and ova banks,
    field banks

20
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES
  • In vitro plant tissue and microbial culture
    collections
  • Captive breeding of animals and artificial
    propagation of plants, with possible
    reintroduction into the wild and
  • Collecting living organisms for zoos, aquaria,
    and botanic gardens for research and public
    awareness.

21
METHOD OF CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES
  • Ex-situ conservation measures can be
    complementary to in-situ methods as they provide
    an "insurance policy" against extinction. These
    measures also have a valuable role to play in
    recovery programmes for endangered species.  The
    Kew Seed Bank in England has 1.5 per cent of the
    world's flora - about 4,000 species - on deposit.
  • In agriculture, ex-situ conservation measures
    maintain domesticated plants which cannot survive
    in nature unaided. Ex-situ conservation provides
    excellent research opportunities on the
    components of biological diversity. Some of these
    institutions also play a central role in public
    education and awareness raising by bringing
    members of the public into contact with plants
    and animals they may not normally come in contact
    with. It is estimated that worldwide, over 600
    million people visit zoos every year. Ex situ
    conservation measures should support in-situ
    conservation measures (in-situ conservation
    should be the primary objective).

22
CONSERVATION POLICIES AND OBJECTIVES
  • There are four main policies and objectives of
    conserving wildlife spp. They are
  • 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes
    and life support system
  • 2. Preservation of genetic diversity
  • 3. Sustainable Utilization of Flora and Fauna spp
    and the ecosystem
  • 4. Preservation of historical site, land scopes,
    or geomorphological formation that has cultural
    scientific or aesthetic value.

23
METHODS OF CONSERVING RARE FAUNA SPP.
  • These are divided into two
  • A. Saving Endangered wild Fauna spp. From
    extinction
  • 1. Granting national park or game reserves status
    to operate
  • 2. Taking most of the animals if not all into
    captivity for breeding and returning them back to
    the natural wild habitat
  • 3. Translocating the animals from endangered zone
    to a place of safety such as the national park,
    game reserve, wildlife sanctuary and release
    them.
  • Public education and scientific research into
    captive breeding.

24
METHODS OF CONSERVING RARE FAUNA SPP.
  • B. Method relating to preventing fauna spp from
    spp reaching near extinction
  • 1. Effective and regular public enlightenment
    programme on values of conserving natural
    resources rather than emphasizing penalties on
    poaching.
  • 2. Motivating and increasing the numbers of game
    reservation staffs for regular patrol and
    effective surveillance within and outside the
    protected area.
  • 3. Equipping the staff in the game reserve with
    good communication gadgets and modern weapons for
    defence.
  • 4. Imposing stiffer penalty or imprisonment or
    fines on poachers
  • 5. Check illegal grazing of domestic livestock
    and poaching in conservation area to reduce
    lopping of trees, illegal bush fire, curtail
    diseases transmission from domestic livestock to
    wildlife stock e.g. the rinderpest disease out
    break in Yankari National Park Bauchi state was
    believed to have originated from domestic
    livestock.

25
Reasons for Controlling Stocking
  • 1. To maintain the ecological relationship
    existing between the biotic and a biotic
    communities.
  • 2. To maintain the production capacity of the
    habitat without deterioration.
  • 3. To avoid depletion of the food resources.

26
METHODS OF CONSERVING VEGETATION
  • i. Imposing stiffer penalties on indiscriminate
    cutting of trees.
  • ii. Enlightening the citizens on the
    indiscriminate or uncontrolled bush burning
  • iii. Afforestation programme nationwide and if
    all levels, states, federal, family, world and
    individual
  • iv. Encourage the use of coal, gas, kerosene,
    solar energy and other non-wood energy sources
  • v. Provision of subsidies by federal and state
    government for use of other fuels instead of fuel
    wood and the adoption of improved and efficient
    cooking stove.

27
TRAITS OF VULNERABLE SPECIES
  • Some species of animals have attributes that make
    them more
  • vulnerable than others some of the major
    characteristic traits are
  • Specialization Not all species are equally
    vulnerable to being destroyed or wipeout. Those
    vulnerable tend to be specialists, organisms that
    live within a narrow range of tolerance. Owen
    and Charias (1985) categories the feeding habit
    of animals into two categories. The stenophagous
    animal, which maintains a specialized, or limited
    diet and are therefore prone to starvation when
    their usual foods are scarce. An example is the
    Chinas panda, which eats the leaves of certain
    bamboo trees. If the bamboo is destroyed the
    panda will vanish.

28
TRAITS OF VULNERABLE SPECIES
  • Low Biotic Potential
  • Some animal species are extremely vulnerable to
    environmental stress such as storms, drought and
    disease, because of their low biotic potential.
    The female polar bear for example breeds only
    once every three years and then gives birth to
    only two cubs. The female California condor lays
    only a single egg every other year. The problem
    is further complicated by the fact that Condors
    require 6 to 7 years to reach reproductive age
    (Owen and Charias, 1985).
  • As earlier stated the African elephant have a
    gestation period of 2 years and requires 14 16
    years to reach reproductive age (Shortridge,
    1934). So also the African rhinoceros, which
    have a gestation period of about 15 months and
    requires long period to reach reproductive age
    (Petrides, 1965 and Walker, 1978).
  • Non Adaptive Behaviour
  • Some animal species posses a characteristic
    trait, which makes them an easy target for
    hunter. The endangered drills (Mandrillus
    leucophaeus) found in some part of Nigeria and
    Cameroon has certain feeding and other
    behavioural traits which makes them an easy
    target for hunters. The Drills unique food,
    foraging technique of turning up the forest floor
    and stripping the lowmid level vegetation,
    provides hunters with signs of track of the drill
    (Gadsby, 1990 Schafer et al., 1990 Hearn and
    Berghaier, 1996).

29
FIRE ECOLOGY
  • This deals with bush burning which occurs
    worldwide. It affects
  • the life of plants, animal and their habitats
  • Causes of Fire
  • Fire in the savannah is caused by natural
    phenomena such as
  • lightening, volcanic eruption, sparks from rock
    boulder andman.
  • It should be noted that even though effects of
    fires caused by
  • lightning, volcanic eruptions and sparks from
    rocks may be
  • significant in natural ecosystems, they are
    relative milder in their
  • destructive effects and spread than the man
    caused fires. Man
  • causes fire deliberately or accidentally.

30
Types of Fire
  • There are three main types of fires considering
    the portion of
  • the vegetation that is consumed by the fire
    Ground fires,
  • Surface fires and Crown fires.
  • 1. Ground fires Ground fires are usually
    flameless and can penetrate to the Subterranean.
    They are mostly common in places where the soil
    is laid with thick layer of leaf litters, dry
    twigs, branches and organic matter
  • 2. Surface fires Surface fires feature above the
    round surface and their flames usually consume
    the litter, herbs and shrubs. They also scorch
    the bases of any tree along their route.
  • 3. Crown fires Crown fires are fires that burn
    on the crown of trees and shrubs.

31
Reasons Of Burning
  • 1. Pre-historic men uses fire for warfare and
    roasting meat
  • 2. For the cultivation of land preparation,
    settlement and Urbanization
  • 3. Fire smoke is used by hunters to drive away
    bees for honey collection
  • 4. To drive out wild animals during hunting
  • 5. For religious and social festivals prior to
    rain season
  • 6. Cattle rearers use fire to keep away tse-tse
    fly and destroy the vectors

32
IMPACT OF BUSH BURNING IN THE SAVANNAH
  • Bush burning has several advantage and
    disadvantages
  • Advantages of Bush Burning in the Savannah
  • 1. Early burning reduces the danger of accidental
    fire, therefore it protect game reserve, Natural
    park and forest reserves
  • 2. Burning improve visibility for game view
  • 3. Burning increase the nutritive value of fresh
    grass. It improves herbage, higher herbage is
    obtain after burning
  • 4. Burning eliminates undesirable plant
  • 5. Fire facilitate the movement of animals, man
    and fire fighting Equipments
  • 6. Fire is use in pest control e.g tse-tse fly
    and tick which transmit human diseases

33
Disadvantage of Bush Burning
  • 1. Burning injure range plants by removing top
    shoot.
  • 2. It causes the deterioration of vegetation and
    destroy the ecosystem or modify them
  • 3. Burning lead to lost of organic Nitrogen,
    carbonaxious materials and organic matter i.e.
    there is decrease in the fertility of the soil
    leading to decrease in output
  • 4. Uncontrolled burning destroy mulching, thereby
    reduces effective rainfall through increase run
    off and decrease percolation.
  • 5. Burning removes vegetation leading to drying
    off of perennial streams and accelerate drought

34
Effects of Fire on Environmental/Ecological
Variables and Processes
  • Fire can affect the following environmental
    variables either directly or indirectly
  • Soil Fire can affect the soil in the following
    ways
  • 1. Affects numbers and rate of activity of soil
    organism.
  • 2. Removing or changing rates of soils organic
    matter formation and accumulation
  • 3. Affecting surface compactness
  • 4. Affecting soil water retention properties.
  • 5. Affecting amounts and availability of
    essential nutrients
  • Removing soil surface horizons through surface
    run-off and sheet erosion.
  • Water Fire can affect the water in the following
    ways
  • 1. Changing rates of transpiration and
    evaporation
  • 2. Changing rates of permeability and subsurface
    flow/ run-off
  • Affecting amount and rate of sedimentation
  • 4. Changing stream and river structure, through
    bank and surrounding vegetation
  • destruction.

35
Effects of Fire on Environmental/Ecological
Variables and Processes
  • Vegetation Both directly and directly through
    the habitat effects mentioned above e.g.
  • 1. Changing direction and speed of vegetation
    succession
  • 2. Affect plant biomass, structure and shape
  • 3. Affect plant phenology
  • Affect plant quality in terms of nutrient content
    and availability
  • Animal Fire can affect the animal in the
    following ways
  • 1. Changing the shape or amount of cover used by
    the animal
  • 2. Changes in animal food, plant palatability and
    availability.
  • 3. Indirectly altering water availability
  • 4. Causing death or injury to young animals and
    destroys nests and eggs of animal

36
General Guideline on the Use of Fire as a
Management Tool in Protected Areas
  • Do not burn in periods of extreme drought
  • Do not burn in very windy conditions when fire
    can get out of hand of spread to unscheduled
    habitat
  • Ensure wildlife will not be trapped by fires
  • Burn small areas at a time- do not start longer
    fire lines than you can control
  • Cut, rather than burn, where feasible
  • Know the fire ecology and fire history of the
    area and monitor and record all burns

37
SOIL EROSION PROBLEM
  • Soil erosion is the systematic removal of soil
    particles
  • from the earth surface. It is the major
    environmental
  • degradation occurring mostly when the soil is
    exposed.
  • 5 major types that has been identify in Nigeria
  • 1. Wind Erosion
  • 2. Coastal Erosion
  • 3. Riverine Erosion
  • 4. Sheet Erosion
  • 5. Gully Erosion

38
EFFECTS OF EROSION
  • 1. It renders farmland barren. Imo State, Abia,
    Enugu, Cross river.
  • 2. It can result in desertification
  • 3. Siltation of water courses and breeding site
    of aquatic animals
  • 4. It causes overall reduction in water quality
    of creeks, river and coastal areas
  • 5. It removes top soil that is rich in nutrient
    and organic matter

39
CONSERVATION TECHNIQUE FOR CRITICAL ECOSYSTEM
  • CONSERVATION TECHNIQUE FOR CRITICAL ECOSYSTEM for
    example Wetland,
  • hilly land, grazing area and marginal lands
  • 1. Wetland e.g Hadejia Nguru. Wet land have
    marshy soil with permanent or seasonal water, its
    conservation is essential for survival of plants
    and animals including man.
  • USES OF WET LAND
  • 1. In Alluvia soil - Fadama is very fertile to
    support Agric through the rain fed cultivation
    and impacted farming Crops cultivated are Rice,
    beans, millet, maize and groundnut
  • 2. The large area of the surface water and water
    flowing in rivers channels recharge the ground
    water system or else bore-holes in adjacent 150
    villages will dry up
  • 3. The surface water support fishing for local
    consumption and sales
  • 4. The forest near the wet land support fuel
    wood, plant and vegetative

40
USES OF WATER BIRDS AND WETLANDS
  • 1. Serve as ecological indicator, wherever they
    are found in wet land area show that the water is
    healthy for man
  • 2. The bird dropping enrich the water by
    supplying necessary nutrient use by aquatic plant
    to flourish
  • 3. Some of them e.g cattle egret and heron eat
    finger lings to reduce over stocking of fish
  • 4. Other Birds feed on Insect which may damage
    crop therefore serve as pest control
  • 5. This migrant bird improve international
    co-operation between nation,

41
Problems of Wetland
  • 1. Over-razing by domestic livestock
  • 2. Over-fishing, some even use mosquito net for
    fishing
  • 3. Tree felling use of tractor to clear land for
    cultivation
  • 4. The exposed water will dry-up
  • 5. Dry-up of wetland during draught

42
Conservation Technique for Wet Land
  • 1. Vegetative along water courses must not be cut
    down, this is to conserve and stabilise water
    generation
  • 2. Over-grazing must be avoided
  • 3. Stop the use of obnoxious chemicals for
    killing fish
  • 4. Avoid wild fire or uncontrolled bush burning

43
Steps in the Process of Developing a Management
Plan
  • 1 Form the planning team include a variety of
    people with expertise in planning, ecology,
    sociology, economics and various other resource
    sciences. Also include the protected area
    authorities and the people who manage the park,
    as well as those who will be affected by the
    plan. The team should consult with scientists,
    experts on tourism, educators, concessionaires
    and people living in and around the protected
    area.
  • 2 State the objectives of the area analyse the
    original reasons for creating the protected area
    and, if necessary, update the objectives as a
    function of modern conditions.
  • 3 Gather basic background information this
    includes legislation, data on biophysical
  • features, cultural resources and socio-economic
    data. (These and the next points will be expanded
    below in the section on information required for
    the management plan).
  • 4 Field inventory consult and update existing
    data, gather new information and develop the
    information base to make informed management
    decisions.
  • Assess constraints limitations of an
    environmental, economic, political,
    administrative, or legal, nature should be
    recognized and analyzed, with an emphasis on
    realism.

44
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA
  • CATEGORY 1 STRICT NATURE RESERVES / WILDERNESS
    AREAS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for science or
    wilderness protection. These two types of
  • protected area are treated as sub-categories
  •  
  • Category 1a Strict Nature Reserves
  • Areas of land and / or sea possessing some
    outstanding or representative ecosystems,
  • geological or physiological features and / or
    species, available primarily for scientific
    research and / or environmental monitoring.

45
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  •  
  • Category 1b Wilderness areas
  • These are protected areas managed mainly for
    wilderness protection. They should include a
    large area of unmodified or slightly modified
    land, and / or sea, retaining their natural
    character and influence, without permanent or
    significant habitation and should be protected
    and managed so as to preserve their natural
    condition.

46
CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY II NATIONAL PARKS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for ecosystem
    protection and recreation. These are natural
    areas of land and / or sea, designated to
  • a) protect the ecological integrity of one or
    more ecosystems for present and future
  • generations
  • b) exclude exploitation or occupation likely to
    degrade the area and
  • c) provide a foundation for spiritual,
    scientific, education, recreational and visitor
    uses,
  • all of which must be environmentally and
    culturally compatible.

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CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY III NATURAL MONUMENTS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for conservation
    of specific natural features. These are
  • areas containing one, or more, specific natural
    or natural / cultural features which are of
  • outstanding or unique value because of their
    inherent rarity, representative or aesthetic
    qualities,or cultural significance.
  • CATEGORY IV HABITAT / SPECIES MANAGEMENT AREAS
  • Areas of land and / or sea where active
    management interventions are undertaken so as to
  • ensure the maintenance of habitats and / or to
    meet the requirements of specific species.

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CATEGORIES OF PROTECTED AREA (contd)
  • CATEGORY V PROTECTED LANDSCAPES / SEASCAPES
  • Protected areas managed mainly for landscape /
    seascape conservation and recreation. They
    consist of areas of land, sometimes with coast
    and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of
    people and nature over time has produced a
    landscape of distinct character with significant
    aesthetic, ecological and / or cultural value,
    and often with high biological diversity.
    Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional
    interaction is vital to the protection,
    maintenance and evolution of such an area.
  • CATEGORY VI MANAGED RESOURCE PROTECTED AREAS
  • Protected areas managed mainly for the
    sustainable use of natural ecosystems. They are
  • areas containing predominantly unmodified natural
    systems, managed to ensure long term protection
    and maintenance of biological diversity, while
    providing at the same time a sustainable flow of
    natural products and services to meet community
    needs.

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Development of Protected Area Buffer Zones
  • Definition of Buffer zone
  • Buffer zone can be defined as an area adjacent to
    protected areas, on which land use is partially
    restricted to give an added layer of protection
    to the protected area itself while providing
    valued benefits to neighbouring rural
    communities. Buffer zones may serve two main
    functions

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FUNCTION OF BUFFER ZONE
  • Extension Buffering, which in effect extends the
    area of those habitats contained within the
    protected area into the buffer zone, thus
    allowing larger total breeding populations of
    plants and animal species than could survive
    within the reserve alone. Example of such
    buffering can include selectively logged
    production forests, hunting areas, natural
    forests used by villagers for fire-wood
    collection, unused wilderness and grazing
    pastures.

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FUNCTION OF BUFFER ZONE
  • Socio-Buffering, where wildlife use of the buffer
    zone is of secondary importance and management is
    aimed primarily at providing products of use or
    value (cash crops) to local people but such land
    use should not conflict with the objective of the
    protected area itself. This generally involves
    planting species that are unattractive as
    habitats for local wildlife or allowing a
    controlled harvest of wildlife.

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Buffer Zone Requirements and Restrictions
  • In determining the types and extent of buffer
    zones needed, the following factors should be
    considered
  • Needs of threatened wildlife species for use of
    additional habitat outside the reserve
    boundaries. Knowledge of the size and habits of
    the species will give some indication of the
    extent of an adequate buffer zone.
  • The need for the buffer zone to serve other
    protective functions, such as soil and water
    conservation or fire-break protection.
  • The need to contain wildlife species likely to
    move out of the reserve.
  • The reasonable needs of local people for land,
    forest products, grazing areas or meat.
  • The amount of land available for use, whether it
    is currently under natural or other vegetation,
    and whether it is vacant or being used.
  • The suitability of possible buffer crops for the
    particular land type and climatic conditions and
    the interests of local wildlife. For instance,
    bananas or oil palms should not be planted if the
    buffer zone is next to an elephant reserve, and
    maize would be unsuitable near macaques or
    baboons.

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Types of Buffer Zones
  • The main types of buffer zone for protected areas
    include
  • 1. Traditional Use Zones inside Protected Areas
    There are situations when no suitable land exists
    outside reserves for buffer zone establishment
    and it is preferable to permit collection of
    certain natural products from some part of the
    reserve or at certain times rather than have to
    exercise valuable lands as buffers.

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Types of Buffer Zones
  • 2. Forest Buffers. These include fuel-wood or
    timber forests outside protected area boundaries
    but on public land. These may be natural forests,
    enriched secondary forest or even plantations
    where the emphasis is on maximizing sustained
    yield for local village use, while maintaining
    good soil and water protection. The encouragement
    of plantation forests in buffer zones is probably
    the single most effective resource management
    strategy for ensuring long-term integrity of
    protected areas themselves
  • 3. Economic Buffers. Sometimes economic buffering
    is needed to reduce the needs of villagers to
    take resources from protected areas. This could
    take the form of special agricultural, social or
    communication assistance in lieu of, or as well
    as provision of productive buffer lands. Other
    examples include cash tree plantations, and
    wildlife cropping outside protected area
    boundaries, where the emphasis is on maximizing
    cash returns to benefit villagers.

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Types of Buffer Zones
  • 4. Physical Buffers. Where no land is available
    for buffer zone development the boundary itself
    must serve as a buffer and there is sometimes a
    need for physical barriers such as fences,
    ditches, canals, walls or spiny hedges. These
    help discourage wildlife from leaving the reserve
    and deter people and domestic stock from
    entering. In some cases all that my be required
    is a clearly visible boundary such as a cut trace
    line or single row or thin belt of distinctive
    tree (bright leaves or flowers) as a living
    boundary.

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Selection of Crop for Buffer Zones
  • The merits of various plantation types as buffer
    zones and their attraction for
  • wildlife have been identified below
  • 1. Natural forest, disturbed forest and secondary
    forest provide additional habitat for wildlife
    species and excellent protection of soil.
  • 2. Fast growing firewood plantations (various
    species are of some use to wildlife species and
    provide good soil protection. This is most
    suitable in areas where land is limited and where
    the demand for firewood is pressing. Coppiceable
    species should be selected.
  • 3. Timber plantations (various species) give good
    to excellent soil protection i.e. reforesting
    steep slopes.
  • 4. Mixed plantations providing firewood, poles
    and timber are of some use to use to wildlife and
    give good protection.
  • 5. Fruit plantations protect the soil and provide
    cash and food, but problems may arise with
    certain wild species e.g. monkeys or bats raiding
    the crops.
  • 6. Cinnamon provides cash and fire wood but is of
    no use to wildlife soil protection is good
    although the tree have to be cut every few years.
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