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Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention

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Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey www.fisherandfrey.com * Pair for greater impact * * * * * Explicitly state what is being taught ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enhancing RtI: Instruction and Intervention


1
Enhancing RtI Instruction and Intervention
  • Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey
  • www.fisherandfrey.com

2
Traditional View of Learning
When time and instruction are held constant
LEARNING
learning outcomes vary.
Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009
3
A New View of Learning
When time and instruction are variable
LEARNING
learning is held constant.
Adapted from Buffum, Mattos, Weber, 2009
4
Purpose of RtI
An alternative way to identify students as having
learning disabilities, making sure that students
who struggle were not misidentified as disabled
when different and/or more intensive instruction
addressed their needs.
Big RTI
5
A school improvement process designed to ensure
that students receive the instruction,
intervention, and support necessary to be
successful.
little rti
6
Response to Instruction and Intervention (RtI2)
  • Tier 1 Quality core instruction
  • Tier 2 Supplemental intervention
  • Tier 3 Intensive intervention

Tier 2 20-30
Tier 1 70
Tier 3 5-15
Manipulate variables
7
What Variables Can You Control?
  • Frequency (time)
  • Duration (time)
  • Assessment (instruction)
  • Group size (instruction)
  • Access to expertise (instruction)
  • Staff collaboration (instruction)
  • Student Monitoring Team (instruction)
  • Others?

8
Tier 1 Quality Core Instruction
  • Based on a Gradual Release of Responsibility
  • Formative assessments (feed forward, not just
    feedback)
  • Push-in supports and incidental benefits

9
TEACHER RESPONSIBILITY
I do it
Focus Lesson
Guided Instruction
We do it
You do it together
Collaborative
You do it alone
Independent
STUDENT RESPONSIBILITY
A Structure for Instruction that Works
10
Tiers 2 and 3 intervention are not a Band-Aid
for ineffective Tier 1 instruction.
11
The Role of Assessment in RtI2
12
Screening Tools
Progress Monitoring
Diagnostic
13
DIBELS Oral fluency SAM SALLI Writing
sample Spelling inventory
Screening Tools
14
Which do you use? Are they working for you?
15
Curriculum-based measures (CBM) mostly
skills-based
16
Curriculum-based assessments (CBA) course
curriculum
17
Both are needed for progress monitoring
18
Progress Monitoring
Checklists Rubrics Self-assessments
Observations Competencies
19
Which do you use? Are they working for you?
20
Homework is NOT a progress monitoring tool!
21
Traditional homework occurs too soon in the
instructional cycle.
22
Cleavers
Slackers
Cheaters
Bewildered
23
Goals of Homework
  • Fluency building
  • Application
  • Spiral review
  • Extension

Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2008). Homework and the
gradual release of responsibility Making
responsibility possible. English Journal,
98(2), 40-45.
24
(No Transcript)
25
Spiral Review Homework Opinionnaire
Whats your opinion? SA A D SD
A patriot is heroic.
Sometimes the only thing left to do is fight for what you believe in.
The American Revolutionary War could have been avoided if both sides had compromised on taxes.
All the colonists were in support of the war.
26
Extension Homework
27
Compare English language learners to true
peers
28
What could Tier 2 look like?
Tier 2 10-15
29
The focus of the monitoring team
30
Manipulate the variables
31
Access to Expertise
32
Who provides Tier 2?
  • Mostly classroom teachers as students work
    productively
  • Push-in staff (15 rule)

33
Time and Duration
34
Group size
35
CBMs 2 times per month for progress monitoring
36
Academic Recovery and After school tutorials
37
Involve the family
38
Increased guided instruction with smaller groups
39
  • Teacher Role
  • What is the teacher doing while productive
    group work is occurring?

40
Zone of Proximal Development
Scaffolding
41
As easy as learning to ride a bike
42
Scaffolds in Classroom Instruction
  • Robust questions to check for understanding
  • Prompts that focus on cognitive and metacognitive
    processes
  • Cues to shift attention to sources
  • Direct explanation and modeling to re-teach

43
Robust Questions to Check for Understanding
44
Intention
uncovering, not testing
45
  • Teacher What is a nocturnal animal?
  • Student An animal that stays awake at night.
  • Teacher Good. What is a diurnal animal?

I-R-E
46
  • Teacher What is a nocturnal animal?
  • Student An animal that stays awake at night.
  • Teacher Tell me more about that. Does a
    nocturnal animal have special characteristics?
  • Student Well, it doesnt sleep a lot.

Probe
47
  • Teacher What is a nocturnal animal?
  • Student An animal that stays awake at night.
  • Teacher Tell me more about that. Does a
    nocturnal animal have special characteristics?
  • Student Well, it doesnt sleep a lot.

Misconception
48
Prompting for Cognitive and Metacognitive
Thinking
49
Prompts
So the student does the cognitive work
50
Prompts can be cognitive
or metacognitive
Note to elf
51
Background knowledge prompts
invite students to use what they know to
resolve problems
52
Process or Procedure Prompts
To perform a specific task
53
Reflective prompt
knowing about knowing
What did you learn today?
54
Heuristic prompt
Informal and less defined
Make a graph so you can see it.
55
  • Teacher What is a nocturnal animal?
  • Student An animal that stays awake at night.
  • Teacher Tell me more about that. Does a
    nocturnal animal have special characteristics?
  • Student Well, it doesnt sleep a lot.
  • Teacher Im thinking of those pictures we saw of
    the great horned owl and the slow loris in the
    daytime and at night. Does your answer still
    work?

PROMPT
56
Cues to Shift Attention
57
Cues
Shift attention to sources of information
More direct and specific than prompts
58
  • the expert commentator sees things you dont
  • cues do the same for novices

Attention grows with competence
59
  • Visual
  • Physical
  • Gestural
  • Positional
  • Verbal
  • Environmental

6 Types
60
Using Prompts and Cues
  • Context Students are creating a Jeopardy-style
    game. The teacher is building the background
    knowledge of a group of students. He draws their
    attention to a sentence in the text When you
    eat foodssuch as bread, meat, and
    vegetablesthey are not in a form that the body
    can use as nourishment. He asks Mauricio to
    retell it is his own words...

61
  • Mauricio So, I think it says that your body
    cant use meat like it is meat. It has to be
    changed.
  • Jessica But thats what we eat to live. Thats
    good eating.
  • Russell I dont eat any vegetables. I only
    like the meat and bread from this, like a
    hamburger.
  • Mr. Jackson How does that meat change so that
    your body can use it? Russell?
  • Russell It doesnt change. Its meat.
  • Mr. Jackson So lets think about what we know
    about nourishment and our food. Theres a
    process that it goes through, right? they nod in
    agreement Whats the first step? You know this
    because you do it several times a day.
  • Sarah The first thing to eat? Is that what you
    mean?
  • Mr. Jackson Yeah, the first thing.
  • Sarah You take a bite.
  • Mr. Jackson Exactly, right on. So youve
    changed the food, right?
  • Russell Yeah, but its still meat.
  • Mr. Jackson It sure is. But its changed a bit,
    and will change more. Remember we talked about
    different kinds of changes. Physical Chemical
  • Russell So the first thing, when you bite it,
    its a physical change, right?
  • Mr. Jackson You know it! And then what
    happens?

62
Direct Explanation and Modeling
63
When prompting and cueing fail,
its time for direct
explanation.
64
Direct Explanation
Identify Explain Think aloud Monitor
Take care not to re-assume responsibility too
quickly
65
What could Tier 3 look like?
Tier 3 5-10
66
Tier 3 Intensive
  • Individual
  • 30 minutes at least three times per week
  • Increase assessment and monitoring frequency
  • Increase expertise
  • A whole school focus

67
Keep the teacher at the center of communication
68
Daily 11 instruction
69
Increased Progress Monitoring with specialized
assessments
70
Every certificated adult meets with students
71
What is special about special education?
  • Formalized system of support (continuing
    interventions)
  • Funding
  • Goals and objectives
  • Curriculum accommodations and modifications
  • Testing support
  • Assistive technology
  • Related Services

72
The Takeaway
  • Instruction and Intervention are linked
  • Manipulate variables (time, assessment,
    expertise, instruction) to intensify intervention
  • Build in a feed forward method so that RtI2
    results inform classroom instruction and
    programmatic improvements
  • Keep the teacher and family at the center of
    communication
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