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Coastal Landforms

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Coastal Landforms Basic Concepts Eustatic Change and Submergent vs. Emergent Coastlines Submergent Coastlines Emergent Coastlines COASTAL FLUVIAL PROCESSES/LANDFORMS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coastal Landforms


1
Coastal Landforms
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Basic Concepts
  • I. Sea level changes repeatedly
  • 422 ft. eustatic rise since 18,000 years ago.
  • specific landscapes submergent or emergent
    depending on tectonic change
  • II. Waves and resultant currents erode,
    transport, and deposit sediment load.
  • rocky headlands
  • beaches
  • III. Tides affect all coastal life but have
    little topographic effect.
  • tidal bores

4
Eustatic Change and Submergent vs. Emergent
Coastlines
  • during ice ages sea level sinks as ocean water
    compresses and more water is tied up in glaciers.
  • During interglacial periods sea level rises,
    flooding many former river valleys creating bays
    and estuaries.
  • In areas with rapid tectonic uplift emergent
    cliffs common and bays rare.

5
Submergent Coastlines
Sea level rise inundated many coastal valleys
creating bays and estuaries. These coasts are
referred to as ria coastlines. Estuary - An arm
of the sea that extends inland to meet the mouth
of a river.
6
Emergent Coastlines
Tectonic forces lift coastlines faster than
sea-level rises. Dramatic cliffs and marine
terraces tower above the sea.
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COASTAL FLUVIAL PROCESSES/LANDFORMS
  • Coastal Erosion - dependent on wave size, angle,
    and frequency. Focused where waves contact coast.
  • Headlands, sea cliffs, bluffs, sea stacks,
    natural bridges
  • Beach Erosion
  • Coastal Transportation - wave action creates
    strong currents parallel to shore. Large waves
    move beach sand offshore. Small waves push it
    back on shore.
  • Longshore current
  • Coastal Deposition where wave action is
    reduced, beaches and dunes form.
  • beaches
  • dunes
  • sand spits

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Isla Vista Beach, October 2001
15
Isla Vista Beach, December 2002
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Beach Erosion
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Marine Terraces
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Point Reyes National Seashore
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Wave Refraction - waves change directional trend
as they approach shore.
Raglan, New Zealand
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Tombolo
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Tombolo
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Sand Spit
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Sand Spit
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Sand Spit
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Sea Stacks
29
Natural Bridges and Arches
30
Barrier Islands
31
Barrier Islands
32
Outer Banks, North Carolina
33
Tropical Coasts
34
Factors Correlated with Healthy Coral Reef Growth
  • water temperature range 18 29?C
  • normal seawater salinity 32 35
  • clear, transparent water
  • little or no sedimentation
  • vigorous water motion

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Tropical Mangroves
43
Mangroves create tidal forests. These rich
ecosystems provide habitat for countless
creatures and help to stabilize and, by catching
sediment, even create coastline.
44
Tides
Tides rise and fall with the rising moon, an
interval of 24 hours and 50 minutes. There is a
bulge on both sides of the earth. Thus two high
tides each cycle. Flood tide (low to high) takes
613 and then ebb tide (back to low) is another
613.
45
Tides
Tide range dependent on relative position of
earth, moon, and sun. Spring Tides - highest
tidal range Neap Tides - lowest tidal range
46
Tides
Tide range dependent on relative position of
earth, moon, and sun. Spring Tides - highest
tides. Neap Tides - lowest tides.
Full Moon
Half Moon
47
Tides
Low Tide, New Brunswick
48
Tides
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