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WISTR: WESTCONN

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WISTR: WESTCONN s INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE TEACHER RESEARCH Department of Education and Educational Psychology INQUIRY IN SCIENCE EDUCATION Dr. Marcy Delcourt – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WISTR: WESTCONN


1
WISTR WESTCONNs INSTITUTE FOR SCIENCE TEACHER
RESEARCH
  • Department of Education and Educational
    Psychology
  • INQUIRY IN
  • SCIENCE EDUCATION
  • Dr. Marcy Delcourt
  • Dr. Aram Aslanian
  • Dr. Edward Duncanson

2
INQUIRY IN SCIENCE EDUCATION
  1. What is inquiry?
  2. Types of questions
  3. How to improve questioning
  4. Science Fairs and how they started
  5. Science lab rubric
  6. Science activities

3
What is inquiry?
  • To be human is to inquire. Inquiry is the engine
    for independent, curiosity- and interest-driven,
    life-long learning. It is the ability to link
    experiences in order for learning to occur.
    However, inquiry is a process which of itself
    demands a very large succession of skills to
    proceed in growth from asking and answering
    questions of daily life to problem solving, to
    doing projects and investigations requiring
    substantial time commitments, to scholarly
    research in a specific domain.
  • Shore, B. M., Aulls, M. W., Delcourt, M. A. B.
    (Eds.). (2007). Inquiry in education Overcoming
    Barriers to Successful Implementation. Mahwah,
    NJ Erlbaum.

4
Types of questions
  • Observations- asked as questions
  • Philosophical questions
  • Requests from simple facts
  • Complex thinking
  • Investigable questions

5
Types of questions
  • Observations questions that can be rephrased
    from observations, turning comments into
    questions
  • Student Look at that fish that has too much
    mercury.
  • Teacher Can you describe how the fish behaves?

6
Types of questions
  • Philosophical questions these have no correct
    answers, can be debated, allow students and
    teachers to gather evidence for discussions
  • Examples
  • What will be future applications of genetics
    research?
  • How can the CDC control the spread of
    communicable diseases?

7
Types of questions
  • Requests for simple facts these are knowledge
    and comprehension questions that should be
    answered directly
  • Examples
  • What are toxins?
  • What is a communicable disease?

8
Types of questions
  • Requests requiring complex thinking these
    require higher order thinking skills, applying
    earlier knowledge, analyzing information, putting
    new ideas together, assessing based on criteria
  • Examples
  • Why does the Earth have only 1 moon?
  • Why are some lobsters blue?

9
Types of questions
  • Investigable questions these have identifiable
    variables or constructs a research question is
    feasible, clear, significant, and ethical
  • Example
  • Is there a significant difference in the growth
    of fish between using food A or food B? (Grade 5
    student, Norwalk)

10
Levels of thinking
  • Blooms taxonomy knowledge, comprehension,
    application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
  • Cognitive levels of questions data recall, data
    processing, data generation
  • Types of knowledge declarative, procedural,
    conditional

11
Cognitive levels of questions
  • Data recall questions that ask students to
    respond with a descriptive statement
  • Recall, recite, enumerate, list

12
Cognitive levels of questions
  • Data processing questions that ask students to
    use data to show relationships or cause and
    effect
  • Synthesize, classify, analyze, compare,
    contrast, evaluate data

13
Cognitive levels of questions
  • Data generation questions that direct students
    to respond by using divergent thinking
  • Predict, theorize, apply a principle to a new
    situation

14
Types of knowledge
  • Declarative- basic facts answers questions
    beginning with what
  • Procedural- refers to processes answers
    questions beginning with how
  • Conditional- refers to circumstances answers
    questions beginning with under what conditions

15
How to improve questioning
  • Write down higher order thinking skills (HOTS)
    questions in advance of a lesson
  • Ask only HOTS questions
  • Teach students to write and identify types of
    questions
  • Model asking HOTS questions in every lesson

16
How to improve questioning
  • Make all students responsible for answering HOTS
    questions
  • Use prepared materials that have higher order
    questions or verbs already on them in order to
    serve as prompts
  • Do the activity first in order to elicit
    curiosity and inquiry

17
Inquiry Models
  • The Concept Attainment Model
  • The Concept Development Model
  • The Synectics Model
  • The Suchman Inquiry Model
  • The Classroom Discussion Model
  • Gunter, M. A., Estes, T. H., Schwab, J. H.
    (1990). Instruction A models approach. Boston
    Allyn and Bacon.

18
Science fairs and how they started
  • 1829- Science and Technology Exposition sponsored
    by the American Institute of Science and
    Technology (AIST) held in NY showed Morses
    telegraph and Bells telephone evolved into the
    International Science and Engineering Fair that
    is still held today

19
Science Fairs
  • 1929- First Science Fair sponsored by American
    Institute of Science and Technology (AIST) and
    the Museum of Natural History
  • 1942- Westinghouse Science Talent Search (STS)
  • 1998- Westinghouse STS becomes Intel Science
    Talent Search (STS) over 1,250,000 in awards
    and scholarships

20
  • Mary Masterman of Westmoore High School, Oklahoma
    City, OK wins first place.
  • The Intel Science Talent Search (Intel STS)
    recently named its top ten winners at the annual
    Intel STS 2007 awards. Forty finalists were
    selected to travel to Washington, D.C. to
    participate in the rigorous judging process, meet
    with national leaders, interact with leading
    scientists and display their research at the
    National Academy of Sciences. For the first time
    in the history of the program there were an equal
    number of female and male finalists who represent
    38 schools from 20 different states.
  • First Place Winner
  • Mary Masterman, a 17-year-old Westmoore High
    School senior from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, was
    awarded a 100,000 scholarship for describing the
    spectrograph system she built. Mary machined her
    own parts, and aligned her own optics. Using
    lenses from a camera and a microscope as well as
    a laser for her light source, Mary was able to
    separate the individual photons scattered by the
    tested molecules, similar to the effects a prism
    has on light, and record their wavelengths.
  • She found she could attain fairly accurate
    wavelength measurements compared to published
    readings for household solvents and other objects
    despite using an inexpensive laser. The cost for
    building her spectrograph was only 300 quite an
    accomplishment compared to the 20,000 - 100,000
    cost for commercial units.
  • "Even if you think that what you want to do is
    impossible, go ahead and go for it because you
    never know what you can accomplish."
  • Mary Masterman
  • First Place Winner
  • 2007 Intel Science Talent Search

21
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
  • Science Fairs should be voluntary
  • The emphasis should be on the learning experience
  • Science fairs should supplement the educational
    experience not BE the educational experience

22
National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)
  • The emphasis should be on science process
  • It must be the work of the student
  • Mentors must have clear guidelines

23
Formats for Science Fair projects
  • Research report
  • Poster
  • 3-D display
  • Model
  • Research presentation

24
Types of Science Fair projects
  • Observation of the environment
  • Demonstration of a basic scientific principle
  • Collecting and analyzing data
  • Controlled experiment

25
Presentation options
  • Judged presentations
  • Expo- can combine student work with competitions
    and commercial exhibits
  • Share fair- students swap ideas as they display
    their work
  • Class demonstration- student explain their
    projects to classmates

26
Example science lab rubric
  • Categories- purpose, procedures, data and
    observations, results, conclusions, written
    communication
  • Ratings- exceeds expectations, meets
    expectations, approximates expectations, not
    ready yet (For a copy of this
    rubric, contact Dr. Kenneth Martinelli,
    Instructional Specialist, K-12 Science and
    Health, KenM_at_norwalkpublicschools.net.)

27
Science Activities
  • Life As We Know It
  • People tend to be on best behavior when theyre
    being watched. But what if the only eyes staring
    at them are on paper? In a University of
    Newcastle (England) lounge where paying for
    coffee was optional, researchers placed a picture
    of either flowers or a pair of eyes next to the
    suggested price list. Visitors donated almost
    three times more money when the eyes were posted.
    Apparently, even a 2-D witness was enough to
    deter some potential coffee-kitty cheapskates.

28
Life As We Know It
  • What is the dependent variable?
  • What is the independent variable? What are the
    categories or levels?
  • What variable needs to be controlled? This means
    that a variable needs to be constant (the same)
    for each level of the Independent Variable.
  • What is the research question and the hypothesis?
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