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Universal Test Design: Making Classroom Tests Fair for All Students Bruce Frey Psychology and Research in Education

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Title: Universal Test Design: Making Classroom Tests Fair for All Students Bruce Frey Psychology and Research in Education


1
Universal Test Design Making Classroom Tests
Fair for All StudentsBruce Frey Psychology and
Research in Education Faculty Fellow, Center for
Teaching Excellence
2
Universal design the design of products and
environments to be useable in a meaningful and
similar way by all people
3
Brief history
4
Brief history
1950s Disabled veterans and advocates for
people with disabilities demanded opportunities
in education, employment and housing.
Barrier-free Movement began.
5
Brief history
1950s Disabled veterans and advocates for
people with disabilities demanded opportunities
in education, employment and housing.
Barrier-free Movement began.
1960s American Standards Association (ANSI)
published building accessibility standards. By
the end of the decade, most states had adopted
ANSI standards. Architectural Barriers Act of
1968 required that all federally-funded buildings
be made accessible.
6
Brief history
1950s Disabled veterans and advocates for
people with disabilities demanded opportunities
in education, employment and housing.
Barrier-free Movement began.
1960s American Standards Association (ANSI)
published building accessibility standards. By
the end of the decade, most states had adopted
ANSI standards. Architectural Barriers Act of
1968 required that all federally-funded buildings
be made accessible.
1970s and 1980s Architect Ron Mace
popularized universal design concept. Section
504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, outlaws
discrimination on the basis of disability.
Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975
(IDEA) guarantees free and appropriate
education for all children with disabilities.
Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 required that
most housing be accessible to those with
disabilities. Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA 1990) banned discrimination in employment
and required full access to, and use of,
virtually all places and services.
7
Brief history
1950s Disabled veterans and advocates for
people with disabilities demanded opportunities
in education, employment and housing.
Barrier-free Movement began.
1960s American Standards Association (ANSI)
published building accessibility standards. By
the end of the decade, most states had adopted
ANSI standards. Architectural Barriers Act of
1968 required that all federally-funded buildings
be made accessible.
1970s and 1980s Architect Ron Mace
popularized universal design concept. Section
504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973, outlaws
discrimination on the basis of disability.
Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975
(IDEA) guarantees free and appropriate
education for all children with disabilities.
Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988 required that
most housing be accessible to those with
disabilities. Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA 1990) banned discrimination in employment
and required full access to, and use of,
virtually all places and services.
1990s and 2000s Center for Universal Design
suggested seven Universal Design Principles.
8
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
9
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
10
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
11
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
On this stove, which handle controls which burner?
12
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
13
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
14
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
15
Universal Design Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities.
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided.
16
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
17
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
18
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
19
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
20
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
21
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
22
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
23
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
24
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
25
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
26
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
27
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
28
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
29
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
30
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
31
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
DIRECTIONS Solve each problem and write the
correct answer in the blank. You are allowed to
use a calculator on this test.
32
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population
Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities.
Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc.
Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages.
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low.
Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity.
Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space.
33
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
34
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
35
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
36
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
37
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
38
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
39
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
40
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
41
Universal Design Principles Universal Design of Assessment Principles What it Looks Like in Practice
Equitable UseAccess and use is the same for people with diverse characteristics. Inclusive assessment populationOpportunity for participation for all members of the target population Same test for allSame test form and format is used for every student without any modification.
Flexibility in UseAccommodates a wide range of preferences and abilities. Precisely defined constructsAssesses what it is supposed to assess regardless of student preferences and abilities. Scoring is tied to construct only Points awarded for knowledge, skill or ability, not construct irrelevant tasks. Is correct spelling and grammar relevant?
Simple and Intuitive UseEasy to understand regardless of experience, language skills, etc. Accessible, non-biased itemsStudents are not advantaged or disadvantaged due to experience, language skills, etc. Use words, phrases and concepts common across cultures. Avoid pop culture references, stereotypes and, of course, offensive terms.
Perceptible InformationCommunicates necessary information effectively regardless of users characteristics. Amenable to accommodationsFormat can be easily adapted to remove unintended disadvantages. Horizontal text. Avoid irrelevant graphics. Keys and legends should be at top or right of items. Avoid time limits.
Tolerance for Error Minimizes negative consequences of unintended actions. Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and proceduresDirections are simple to follow. Chance of random error is low. Provide consistent instructions (e.g. Circle the correct answer.). Provide sample or practice items. Number items.
Low Physical Effort Can be used efficiently and comfortably without fatigue. Maximum readability and comprehensibility Items and instructions have plain language with minimal verbal complexity. Simple, clear words. Clearly define technical terms. Use short sentences. Sequence instructions. Place supporting graphics near text.
Size and Space for Approach and UseAppropriate size and space is provided. Maximum legibilityTests have high contrast, large fonts and much white space. Off-white paper black type. Avoid grey scale shading. Font should be at least 10 point 12 point for graphics. Sans serif fonts may be best. Use upper case letters as answer options. Unjustify text.
42
Universal Design of Assessment Principles
Inclusive assessment population
Precisely defined constructs
Accessible, non-biased items
Amenable to accommodations
Simple, clear, and intuitive instructions and procedures
Maximum readability and comprehensibility
Maximum legibility
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