ESH Challenges and Opportunities in Large Area High Tech Manufacturing: Displays, Thin Film Photovoltaics, Solid State Lighting, and Flexible Electronics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ESH Challenges and Opportunities in Large Area High Tech Manufacturing: Displays, Thin Film Photovoltaics, Solid State Lighting, and Flexible Electronics

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Title: ESH Challenges and Opportunities in Large Area High Tech Manufacturing: Displays, Thin Film Photovoltaics, Solid State Lighting, and Flexible Electronics


1
ESH Challenges and Opportunities in Large Area
High Tech ManufacturingDisplays, Thin Film
Photovoltaics, Solid State Lighting, and Flexible
Electronics
  • Greg Raupp
  • Chemical Engineering Program
  • Arizona State University
  • 1-480-727-8752
  • raupp_at_asu.edu

2
Principal Takeaways
  • ESH manufacturing challenges in the maturing flat
    panel display industry and the emerging thin film
    photovoltaic, solid state lighting and flexible
    electronics industries are strikingly similar to
    those encountered in microelectronics
    manufacturing
  • Philosophies, approaches and techniques
    successfully under development or adopted in the
    semiconductor industry can be leveraged to
    achieve success
  • Large area manufacturing industries produce
    products where 30-50 of the manufacturing cost
    is in the materials ? substantial opportunity for
    green benefit for fab processes with higher
    materials utilization efficiency and/or reduction
    of steps

3
Representative FPD Industry Thinking(Source
www.cmo.tw)
  • CMO's Green Operations plan for 2011 has been
    specifically conceived to meet the following
    goals
  • Implementation of 9 major initiatives in greening
    operations Energy conservation, material
    conservation, recyclability, low toxicity,
    health-oriented, systems, water conservation,
    carbon emissions reduction, resource recycling
  • 90 reduction in PFC greenhouse gases and NF3
    emissions
  • Increase in the waste resource recycling rate to
    93
  • Reduction in water and electricity use per unit
    area to 90 of current levels (2008)

4
Display Glass Manufacturing Generations
Gen 10 2850 x 3050 mm (2010)
(March 2006) Corning announced the commercial
launch of Eagle XG, the first LCD glass substrate
free of all heavy metals, including arsenic is
also free of antimony, barium, and halides that
can produce potentially harmful manufacturing
by-products.
5
Display Technology Types
  • Light Emitting Displays
  • Light Transmitting Displays (light valves)
  • Light Reflecting Displays

Emissive (OLED)
Reflective (EPD)
Transmissive with Backlight (LCD)
6
Active Matrix Displays
SVGA Super Video Graphics Array Array of 800 x
600 pixels
Dimensions Pixels tens of microns Thin Film
Transistors several microns
7
a-SiH TFT Fabrication
PECVD a-SiNxH IMDs
Sputtered metallization
Sputtered ITO
Substrate
Sputtered metal gate
  • Patterning by conventional photolithography
  • 3-5 masks for a-SiH TFT arrays
  • 6-7 masks for poly-Si TFT arrays
  • Color Filter Arrays (CFAs) are also fabricated
    through conventional photolith processes

8
Large Area a-SiH Production Systems
  • Applied SunFabTM Thin Film PV Production Line
  • mc-Si / a-Si PECVD
  • 5.7 m2 glass substrates
  • Planned turnkey plants will represent dramatic
    increase in worldwide areal capacity
  • AKT PECVD Cluster Tool
  • a-Si / a-SiNx / n a-Si
  • GEN II 370 x 470 mm to GEN 8 2.2 x 2.5 m glass
    substrates
  • Total worldwide areal capacity increased 250
    over last 3 years to 25 MSF

9
NF3 Emissions a Growing Concern
This rise rate corresponds to about 620 metric
tons of current NF3 emissions globally per year,
or about 16 of the poorly-constrained global NF3
production estimate of 4,000 metric tons per year
a significantly higher percentage than has been
estimated by industry (FPD, PV,
Microelectronics), and thus strengthens the case
for inventorying NF3 production and for
regulating its emissions.
Measured and modeled atmospheric NF3
concentrations and trends from 1978 to 2008.
Northern Hemisphere NF3 measurements are shown as
filled circles, together with the spline curve
Northern Hemisphere trend (solid line) fitted to
these measurements. The modeled Southern
Hemisphere trend and modeled global mean trend
(dotted line) are shown as dashed and dotted
lines, respectively. Southern Hemisphere
measurements are plotted as filled squares. Click
to enlarge. Source Weiss et al., Geophys. Res
Lett. (2008)
10
Emerging Technology Flexible Displays
Reflective Electrophoretic Displays
Emissive Organic Light Emitting Displays
  • Low power
  • Vibrant full color
  • Full motion video
  • Ultra-low power
  • Sunlight readable
  • Near-video rates

Click here to play EPD video clip
Click here to play OLED video clip
Source Flexible Display Center at Arizona State
University
11
Beyond Flexible Displays
Macrotechnology ? does not compete / replace
Si-based devices instead complements in
applications where Si CMOS is not well-suited
(new markets)
  • Macrotechnology Unique Attributes
  • Less is not Moore! ? not driven by transistor
    down-scaling (performance), instead driven by
    unique integrated functionality and form factors
  • Bigger is Better! ? large area (as well as
    small) applications
  • Be Flexible! ? compact, ultra-thin, rugged,
    lightweight, implantable, wearable, conformable,
    and (potentially) transparent

Sensors (ASU)
Inflatable spacecraft and extra-terrestrial
habitats
Flexible Solar Cell
Wearable Devices
Flexible Digital Radiography
Phased-array Antenna
Building-integrated PV and SSL
12
Flexible Microelectronics and Display
Manufacturing Pathways
  • Adapt existing plate-to-plate toolset
    infrastructure
  • Free-standing flexible substrates
  • Substrate fixturing / framing
  • Backside thinning chemical etch or grind-polish
  • Substrate temporary bonding debonding
  • Substrate coat - release
  • Layer transfer
  • Adopt Roll-to-Roll manufacturing infrastructure
  • Toolsets immature with significant issues
    handling, layer alignment,
    resolution, reliability
  • Metrology strategy undefined
  • Take step-wise R2R-compatible approach
    focusing on critical issues

13
Options with Existing Manufacturing Infrastructure
Bond - DebondFDC SEC LG-D ITRI PV
Substrate bonded withTemporary Adhesiveto
Carrier
14
Capability/Limitation Comparison
Capability/Limitation Temp Bonding EPLaR SUFTLA
Flexible Substrate High surface quality polymer or metal foil Solution-castable polymers (PI, BCB) Any
TFT Process Temperature Limit Substrate-dependent (180 ?C for HS-PEN) Polymer-dependent (280 ?C for PI) Typical glass-based TFT limits
Flexible Substrate Distortion Can be significant but can be controlled to negligible level ! Negligible Not applicable
Release Process Rapid automated dry Laser interfacial melting Laser ablation
Scale-ability ? ? ?
15
Temporary Bonding Debonding Manufacturing
Challenges
  • Temporary bonding with semiconductor-grade
    adhesive
  • Compatible with Si-based TFTs
  • Low total thickness variation (TTV)
  • Defect (particle/bubble) free
  • TFT and EO process flow and toolset compatible
  • Automated de-bonding
  • Triggered release (thermal, radiation, chemical,
    mechanical)
  • Residue-free
  • TFT array and substrate (and carrier) damage-free

Complexity of component interactions requires
system-level substrate/barrier/adhesive/carrier/to
olset solution
16
Temporary Bonding Pitfalls
HS-PEN on Si
Blisters form at defect (bubble, particles)
sitesExacerbated by adhesive out-gassing at
temperature and in vacuum
17
Effect of Bow on TFT Array QualitySS Substrates
TFT Drive Current Array Maps
Original Materials and Process
New Materials and Process
18
Evolutionary Approach toRoll-to-Roll
Manufacturing
19
Towards Roll-to-Roll Manufacturing
  • (Some) Critical Issues
  • R2R incompatible processes (e.g., spin-on
    processes)
  • Layer registration in photolithography
  • Low defectivity handling including in-and-out-of
    vacuum
  • Example Approaches
  • Mist coating
  • Imprint lithography with dry etch
  • All printing process (fully additive, no vacuum)

20
Large Area Mist Coater
High (gt 90) materials utilization
efficiency High uniformity (lt 3 non-uniformity
across panel) Versatile up to 4 materials 0.5
to 15 mm films High uptime and throughput
FDC Gen II System Scaled by EVG to Gen 3.5 for
Plastic Logic
21
HP Self-Aligned Imprint Lithography
(SAIL)Circumvents Alignment-Distortion Issue
Imprint Lithography Photomask-free Process
SAIL TFT Etching Process
4 levels in 0.5 µm steps ? Multiple mask
levels Imprinted as single 3D structure
O. Kwon, et al., IMID 2007, Daegu,
ROK Compliments of Carl Taussig
22
Fully Additive ProcessingInkjet Printing
Litrex 142 GEN II Printer
  • Advantages
  • Low Temperature
  • Non-vacuum
  • Fewer process steps
  • High materials utilization
  • Challenges
  • Alignment ( 15 mm )
  • Resolution (min. linewidth 30 mm)
  • Manufacturability (yield, throughput)

23
Materials Requirements for Fully Additive
Printing Fabrication
  • High performance functional materials
  • Semiconductors
  • Dielectrics
  • Conductors
  • In form of solutions, dispersions, melts
  • Low temperature cureable
  • Adherent
  • Accurate linewidth and feature control

A. Arias, et al., Flexible Displays and
Microelectronics Conference 2007, Phoenix, AZ
24
Small Molecule OLED Vapor DepositionFull Color
RBG with Shadow-masking
Source A. Chang, et al., Information Display
22(6), 20-22 (2006).
Sequential deposition RGBW adds 4th step No
pixelation for white SSL but more complicated
stack
Source S. Krishnamurthy, OLEDs Asia (2006).
Poor materials utilization efficiency Low
throughput High COO
25
Alternative OLED Approaches to Enhance Materials
Utilization
Other Approaches White smOLED with CF Vapor
jetting Solution processing of polymer OLEDs
several printing approaches for pixelation
Source S. Krishnamurthy, OLEDs Asia (2006).
High materials utilization efficiency On demand
vaporization rapid response and high throughput
26
Conclusions
  • ESH manufacturing challenges in the maturing flat
    panel display industry and the emerging thin film
    photovoltaic, solid state lighting and flexible
    electronics industries are strikingly similar to
    those encountered in microelectronics
    manufacturing
  • Philosophies, approaches and techniques
    successfully under development or adopted in the
    semiconductor industry can be leveraged to
    achieve success
  • Large area manufacturing industries produce
    products where 30-50 of the manufacturing cost
    is in the materials ? substantial opportunity for
    green benefit for fab processes with higher
    materials utilization efficiency and/or reduction
    of steps
  • Emergence of flexible electronics technology and
    migration to R2R manufacturing provides
    unparalleled opportunity to design green /
    sustainable solutions

27
Acknowledgements
  • ASU gratefully acknowledges the substantial
    financial support of the U.S. Army through
    Cooperative Agreement W911NF-04-2-0005
  • We also gratefully acknowledge the FDCs Members
    for their technical and financial contributions
    to the Center

28
FDC Team
29
Thank You !
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