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Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Lecture 1a: Course Overview and Introduction

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Lecture 1a: Course Overview and Introduction CE-40417 SAT 1030-1200, WED 900-1030 Hall 308,Computer Engineering Dept. Ramin Halavati Room 308, CE Dept. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Lecture 1a: Course Overview and Introduction


1
Introduction to Artificial IntelligenceLecture
1a Course Overview and Introduction
  • CE-40417
  • SAT 1030-1200, WED 900-1030
  • Hall 308,Computer Engineering Dept.

Ramin Halavati Room 308, CE Dept. halavati_at_ce.shar
if.edu
2
TARGET
  • Getting a Feeling of Artificial Intelligence, its
    fields, open problems, and schools of thought
  • Learning some basic tools of Artificial
    Intelligence
  • Having a little experience with Artificial
    Intelligence

3
TEXT BOOK
  • Chapters 1 - 13
  • Informed Search
  • Logic Reasoning
  • Games
  • Planning
  • Some additional parts, if possible.

4
ASSESSMENTS
  • Mid Term Exam 7 (30-1-1383)
  • Final Exam 8
  • Exercises 2
  • Project 2 (3 if before final exam)
  • Essay 1 (3 if impressive and well presented)
  • Class Work 1 .
  • Total 20-24
  • To join mailing list
  • mail to halavati_at_ce.sharif.edu w/ subject
    ADD2LIST

5
WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE AND WHO IS INTELLIGENT?
6
ABOUT INTELLIGENCE
  • Intelligence is subjective,
  • You need not be great in all domains to be called
    intelligent.
  • Physicists boil watches!
  • Frogs, Wasps, Crickets, etc.
  • Intelligence is a relative measure.
  • A child who talks fluently.
  • A dog which identifies his owners voice
  • I.Q.

7
QUOTES ABOUT INTELLIGENCE
  • The ability to carry out abstract thinking.
    (Terman, 1921)
  • The capacity for knowledge, and knowledge
    possessed. (Henmon, 1921)
  • The capacity to learn or to profit by experience.
    (Dearborn, 1921)
  • Intelligence is what is measured by intelligence
    tests. (Boring, 1923)
  • A global concept that involves an individual's
    ability to act purposefully, think rationally,
    and deal effectively with the environment.
    (Wechsler, 1958)
  • Intelligence is a general factor that runs
    through all types of performance. (Jensen)
  • A person possesses intelligence insofar as he had
    learned, or can learn, to adjust himself to his
    environment. (Colvin 1982)

8
QUOTES ABOUT INTELLIGENCE
  • Intelligence is adaptation to the environment.
    (unknown)
  • Intelligence is that faculty of mind by which
    order is perceived in a situation previously
    considered disordered. (R.W. Young, 1999)
  • Intelligent activity consists of grasping the
    essentials in a given situation and responding
    appropriately to them. (unknown)
  • Intelligence is the ability to use optimally
    limited resources - including time - to achieve
    goals. (Kurzweil, 1999)
  • Intelligence is what you do when you don't know
    what to do. (unknown)
  • Intelligence is a hypothetical idea which we have
    defined as being reflected by certain types of
    behavior. (unknown)

9
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
10
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE? - SAMPLES
  • Thermostats?
  • Phones that recognize names?
  • Spelling auto-correction?
  • Washers that adjust to weight?
  • Lights that go off automatically?
  • Spaceships that cruise automatically for years?
  • Aircrafts Autopilots?
  • Games?

11
WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE?
  • To create machines, smarter than previous ones.
  • To add features to machines which machines dont
    have, but human has.

12
SAMPLES OF HUMAN LEVEL INTELLIGENCE
  • You beat somebody at chess (or checkers or
    backgammon or go or Othello or poker).
  • You prove a mathematical theorem using a set of
    known axioms.
  • You are told some facts about the relationship
    between forests and the weather and you conclude
    that the practices of logging companies should
    change.
  • On a particular day, you need to buy a bunch of
    things, meet three different people, return some
    books to the library, and get a certain amount of
    exercise. You plan the day in such a way that
    everything is achieved in an efficient manner.
  • You are a lawyer who is asked to defend someone.
    You recall three similar cases in which the
    defendant was found guilty, and you turn down the
    potential client.
  • You are trying to come up with an algorithm to
    solve a problem using other algorithms you are
    familiar with. You have meta-knowledge about how
    one should think about algorithms, and you use
    this knowledge to critique your algorithm as you
    create it.
  • A stranger passing you on the street notices your
    watch and asks, "Can you tell me the time?" You
    say, "It's 300," and not simply "Yes."

13
SAMPLES OF HUMAN LEVEL INTELLIGENCE
  • You are told to find a large Phillips screwdriver
    in a cluttered workroom. You enter the room
    (you've never been there before), look around,
    make your way around without falling over things,
    and eventually find the screwdriver.
  • You are shown five letters in an unfamiliar font.
    Later you recognize this font when you see a
    different character from it, and you are also
    able to make good guesses as to what the other
    characters in the font would look like.
  • Asked to prove a geometry theorem, you draw a
    diagram and use it to help you.
  • You're a 6-month-old infant. You can produce
    sounds with your vocal organs, and you can hear
    speech sounds around you, but you don't know how
    to make the sounds you're hearing. In the next
    year you figure out what the sounds of your
    parents' language are and how to make them.
  • Someone taps out a rhythm, and you are able to
    beat along with it and to continue to even after
    it stops.
  • You're some sort of primitive invertebrate. You
    know nothing about how to move about in your
    world, only that you need to find food and keep
    from bumping into walls. After lots of
    reinforcement and punishment (maybe generations
    of it), you get around just fine.

14
ABSTRCTION OF HUMAN LEVEL INTELLIGENCE
  • Learning
  • Reasoning
  • Problem Solving
  • Perception
  • Vision
  • Audio
  • Language

15
FORMAL DEFINITION of ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Human Level Rational
Behavior Systems that behave like humans. Systems that act rationally.
Thinking Systems that think like humans. Systems that think rationally.
16
HOW TO JUDGE A.I.?
  • Systems that think like human.
  • Comparison of thinking process with that of
    human.
  • General Problem Solver, (Newel and Simon, 1961)
  • Comparison with Psychological Theories
  • Gestalt School, Emotions,
  • Inspiration from Biology
  • Neural Nets,
  • X Human thinking has lots of mysteries.

17
HOW TO JUDGE A.I.?
  • Systems that think rationally.
  • To mathematically / logically prove the approach.
  • X How to prove a machine recognizes faces
    correctly?
  • X How to prove whats the best action at such
    moment?

18
HOW TO JUDGE A.I.?
  • Systems that act like human.
  • Turing Test, Alen Turing, 1950
  • Basic test
  • Interrogator in one room, human in another,
    system in a third
  • Interrogator asks questions human and system
    answer
  • Interrogator tries to guess which is which
  • If the system wins, its passed the Turing Test
  • The system doesnt have to tell the truth
    (obviously)

19
THE TURING TEST
http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infolab/
http//aimovie.warnerbros.com
20
THE TURING TEST
http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infolab/
http//aimovie.warnerbros.com
21
THE TURING TEST
http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infolab/
http//aimovie.warnerbros.com
22
THE TURING TEST
http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infolab/
http//aimovie.warnerbros.com
23
THE TURING TEST
FAILED!
http//www.ai.mit.edu/projects/infolab/
http//aimovie.warnerbros.com
24
HOW TO JUDGE A.I.? Turing Test continued
  • Basic Test
  • Natural Language Processing
  • Knowledge Representation
  • Reasoning
  • Learning
  • Additional Subjects
  • Emotions, Characteristics
  • Vision
  • Speech recognition and production
  • Robotics

25
HOW TO JUDGE A.I.?
  • Systems that behave rationally
  • A rationality measure
  • Distance to goal
  • False alarms
  • Bounded rationality

26
Summery
  • Intelligence? Just a general subjective
    relative performance measure.
  • Artificial Intelligence? Similar, but for
    machines.
  • Measures of A.I.
  • Thinking vs. Behavoir
  • Human Level vs. Rational
  • Turing Test
  • Rational Agents

27
Essay Proposals
  • What is intelligence? What are samples of
    intelligence among natural beings?
  • What is artificial intelligence? What are samples
    of artificially intelligent systems in current
    life?
  • What future applications of A.I. do you see?
  • 4. What is the role of A.I. in Games? Bring Some
    Samples.
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