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IS312 Information Systems for Business

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IS312 Information Systems for Business Lecture 4 Infrastructure of Information Systems [ Ch. 5 & Appendix A ] * * * Clicking on the logos above will take you to the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: IS312 Information Systems for Business


1
IS312 Information Systems for Business
  • Lecture 4
  • Infrastructure of Information Systems
  • Ch. 5 Appendix A

2
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • IS infrastructure and its benefits to business
  • Building sustainable IS infrastructures
  • Elements of computer hardware
  • Elements of computer software

3
INFORMATION SYSTEMS INFRASTRUCTURE
  • IS infrastructure includes the plans for how a
    firm will build, deploy, use, and share its data,
    processes, and IS assets
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Network
  • Client
  • Server

4
BUSINESS BENEFITS OF AN EFFECTIVE IS
INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Supporting operations
  • Information IS infrastructure
  • Supporting change
  • Agile IS Infrastructure
  • Supporting the environment
  • Sustainable IS infrastructure

5
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6
SUPPORTING OPERATIONS
  • Backup and recovery plan
  • Disaster recovery plan
  • Business continuity plan

7
Backup Recovery Plan
  • Backup An exact copy of a systems information
  • Recovery The ability to get a system up and
    running in the event of a system crash or failure
  • Fault tolerance back up and take over
  • Failover immediately redirect to backup server
  • Failback immediately return to restored server

8
Backup Recovery Plan . . .
  • Disaster recovery plan - A detailed process for
    recovering information or an IT system in the
    event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire
    or flood
  • Hot site - A separate and fully equipped facility
    where the company can move immediately after a
    disaster and resume business
  • Cold site - A separate facility that does not
    have any computer equipment, but is a place where
    employees can move in after a disaster
  • Warm site A separate facility with computer
    equipment that requires installation and
    configuration

9
Business Continuity Plan
  • Business continuity planning (BCP) - A plan for
    how an organization will recover and restore
    partially or completely interrupted critical
    function(s) within a predetermined time after a
    disaster or extended disruption
  • Emergency notification services

10
SUPPORTING CHANGE AGILE IS INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Characteristics of an agile IS infrastructure
  • Accessibility
  • Availability
  • Maintainability
  • Portability
  • Reliability
  • Scalability
  • Usability

11
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12
Accessibility
  • Accessibility - Refers to the varying levels that
    define what a user can access, view, or perform
    when operating a system
  • Administrator access Unrestricted access to the
    entire system

13
Availability
  • Availability Time frames when the system is
    operational
  • Unavailable Time frames when a system is not
    operating and cannot be used
  • High availability System is continuously
    operational at all times

14
Maintainability
  • Maintainability How quickly a system can
    transform to support environmental changes
  • Organizations must watch todays business, as
    well as tomorrows, when designing and building
    systems
  • Systems must be flexible enough to meet all types
    of business changes

15
Portability
  • Portability The ability of an application to
    operate on different devices or software
    platforms

16
Reliability
  • Reliability - Ensures a system is functioning
    correctly and providing accurate information
  • Reliability is another term for accuracy when
    discussing the correctness of systems within the
    context of efficiency IT metrics

17
Scalability
  • Scalability - How well a system can scale up, or
    adapt to the increased demands of growth
  • Performance - Measures how quickly a system
    performs a process or transaction
  • Capacity planning - Determines future
    environmental infrastructure requirements to
    ensure high-quality system performance

18
Usability
  • Usability The degree to which a system is easy
    to learn and efficient and satisfying to use

19
IINFORMATION SYSTEMSAND THE ENVIRONMENT
  • Moores Law - Refers to the computer chip
    performance per dollar doubles every 18 months
  • Sustainable, or green, IS - Describes the
    production, management, use, and disposal of
    technology in a way that minimizes damage to the
    environment
  • Corporate social responsibility - Companies
    acknowledged responsibility to society

20
IS AND THE ENVIRONMENT . . .
  • Three Primary Side Effects Of Businesses
    Expanded Use Of Technology

21
Increased Electronic Waste
  • E-waste discarded, obsolete or broken
    electronic devices
  • Sustainable IS disposal safe disposal of IS
    assets at the end of their life cycle

22
Increased Energy Consumption
  • Huge increases in technology use have greatly
    amplified energy consumption
  • The energy consumed by a computer is estimated to
    produce as much as 10 percent of the amount of
    carbon dioxide produced by an automobile

23
Increased Carbon Emissions
  • The major human-generated greenhouse gases, such
    as carbon emissions from energy use, are very
    likely responsible for the increases in climatic
    temperature over the past half a century
  • When left on continuously, a single desktop
    computer and monitor can consume at least 100
    watts of power per hour

24
SUPPORTING THE ENVIRONMENT SUSTAINABLE I.S.
INFRASTRUCTURE
  • The components of a sustainable IS infrastructure
    include
  • Grid computing
  • Cloud computing
  • Virtualized computing

25
Grid Computing
  • A collection of computers, often geographically
    dispersed, that are coordinated to solve a common
    problem

26
Cloud Computing
  • The use of resources and applications hosted
    remotely on the Internet

27
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28
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29
Cloud Computing Services
30
Virtualized Computing
  • Create multiple virtual machines on a single
    computing device

31
Virtualized Computing . . .
  • Data center A facility used to house management
    information systems and associated components,
    such as telecommunications and storage systems

32
INFOMATON TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW
  • Information technology (IT) - Any computer-based
    tool that people use to work with information and
    support the information and information-processing
    needs of an organization
  • Hardware - Consists of the physical devices
    associated with a computer system input, output,
    storage, and communication devices
  • Software - The set of instructions that the
    hardware executes to carry out specific tasks
    Operating system software, Utility software,
    Application software

33
HARDWARE BASICS
34
HARDWARE BASICS
35
Internal Workings of Personal Computer
Hard disk drive
CPU board with fan
Floppy disk drive
RAM
36
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT
  • Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor)
    - The actual hardware that interprets and
    executes the program (software) instructions and
    coordinates how all the other hardware devices
    work together
  • Control unit - Interprets software instructions
    and literally tells the other hardware devices
    what to do, based on the software instructions
  • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - Performs all
    arithmetic operations (for example, addition and
    subtraction) and all logic operations (such as
    sorting and comparing numbers)
  • Registers Primary storages in CPU

37
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Control unit
  • Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)
  • Registers

38
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
39
Speed of A CPU
  • The number of CPU cycles per second determines
    the speed of a CPU
  • Megahertz (MHz) - The number of millions of CPU
    cycles per second
  • Gigahertz (GHz) - The number of billions of CPU
    cycles per second

40
CPU Speed Factors
41
How the CPU Works
  • Binary form
  • Machine instruction cycle
  • Clock speed
  • Word length
  • Bus width
  • Line width

42
Of Bits and Bytes
43
Processing . . .
  • Binary digit (bit) - The smallest unit of
    information that a computer can process
  • Byte - A group of 8 bits representing one natural
    language character
  • Binary Codes
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange) 8 bits
  • EBCDIC (Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchange
    Code ) 16 bits
  • Unicode 32 bits and more

44
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45
Ports
Serial Port
Parallel Port
46
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47
Map of Motherboard
CLOCK
ROM
RAM
PORT
PORT
PORT
PORT
I/O CONTROLLER
DMA CONTROLLER
CPU
CONTROL BUS
DMA Direct Memory Access
ADDRESS BUS
DATA BUS
48
Advances in CPU Design
  • Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip -
    Type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or
    more instructions, enough to carry out most
    computations directly
  • Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip -
    Limit the number of instructions the CPU can
    execute to increase processing speed
  • Virtualization - A protected memory space created
    by the CPU allowing the computer to create
    virtual machines

49
PRIMARY STORAGE
  • Primary storage - The computers main memory,
    which consists of the random access memory (RAM),
    cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that
    is directly accessible to the CPU

50
Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Random access memory (RAM) - The computers
    primary working memory, in which program
    instructions and data are stored so that they can
    be accessed directly by the CPU via the
    processors high-speed external data bus
  • Volatility
  • Cache memory

51
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
  • Read-only memory (ROM) - The portion of a
    computers primary storage that does not lose its
    contents when one switches off the power
  • Flash memory
  • Memory card
  • Memory stick

52
Primary Storage
RAM
Register
Cache
53
SECONDARY STORAGE
  • Secondary storage - Consists of equipment
    designed to store large volumes of data for
    long-term storage
  • Magnetic Media Hard disks, jump-stick/ flash /
    USB drives
  • Optical Media CD, DVD

54
Hard Drive
55
Secondary Storage Capacity
56
Access Speed
57
Magnetic Medium
  • Magnetic medium - A secondary storage medium that
    uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve
    data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically
    sensitive materials
  • Magnetic tape - An older secondary storage medium
    that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a
    magnetically sensitive recording medium
  • Hard drive - A secondary storage medium that uses
    several rigid disks coated with a magnetically
    sensitive material and housed together with the
    recording heads in a hermetically sealed
    mechanism

58
Optical Medium
  • Optical medium types include
  • Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM)
  • Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive
  • Digital video disk (DVD)
  • DVD-ROM drive
  • Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW)

59
INPUT DEVICES
  • Input device - Equipment used to capture
    information and commands
  • Manual input devices
  • - Joystick
  • - Keyboard
  • - Microphone
  • Automated input devices
  • - Bar code scanner
  • - Digital camera
  • - Magnetic ink character reader

60
OUTPUT DEVICES
  • Output device - Equipment used to see, hear, or
    otherwise accept the results of information
    processing requests
  • Cathode-ray tube (CRT)
  • Liquid crystal display (LCD)
  • Laser printer
  • Ink-jet printer
  • Plotter

61
COMMUNICATION DEVICES
  • Communication device - Equipment used to send
    information and receive it from one location to
    another
  • Dial-up access
  • Cable
  • Digital subscriber line
  • Wireless
  • Satellite

62
Strategic Hardware Issues
  • How do organizations keep up with the rapid price
    and performance advancements in hardware?
  • How often should an organization upgrade its
    computers and storage systems?
  • Will upgrades increase personal and
    organizational productivity?
  • How can organizations measure such increase?
  • How do organizations manage telecommuting?

63
Types of Computers . . .
64
Types of Computers . . .
65
SOFTWARE BASICS
  • System software controls how the various
    technology tools work together along with the
    application software
  • Operating system software
  • Utility software
  • Application software

66
Significance of Software
67
Functions of the Operating System
  • Multitasking/multiprogramming (one CPU)
  • Multithreading (many tasks in one program)
  • Multiprocessing (multiple CPUs)
  • Virtual Memory (extend primary to secondary
    storage)
  • Graphical user interface (GUI)

68
System Support Programs
  • System support programs
  • System utilities
  • System performance monitors
  • System security monitors

69
Systems Software / OS . . .
70
Common Operating Systems
71
Common OS Functions
72
UTILITY SOFTWARE
  • Types of utility software
  • Crash-proof
  • Disk image
  • Disk optimization
  • Encrypt data
  • File and data recovery
  • Text protect
  • Preventative security
  • Spyware
  • Uninstaller

73
APPLICATION SOFTWARE
  • Types of application software
  • Bowser
  • Communication
  • Data management
  • Desktop publishing
  • Email
  • Groupware
  • Presentation graphics
  • Programming
  • Spreadsheet
  • Word processing

74
Application Software
  • Proprietary application software
  • Contract / licensed software
  • Off-the-shelf application software
  • Package personal productivity tools

75
Customized Application Software
  • Software developed in-house
  • Advantages
  • Customizability
  • Problem specificity

76
Off-the-shelf Application Software
77
Open Source Software
  • A special class of software that includes
    operating systems, application software, and
    programming languages in which the source code
    (the actual program code) is freely available to
    the general public for use and/or modification
  • Popular Open Source Applications
  • Operating systems Linux
  • Web browsers Mozilla
  • Web servers Apache
  • E-mail processing Sendmail
  • Internet domain naming service BIND
  • Secure connection standard - OpenSSL

78
Programming Languages
  • First-generation language Machine Language
  • Second-generation language Assembly language
  • Third-generation language Procedural language
  • Fourth-generation language Non-procedural
    language
  • Visual programming languages

79
Programming Languages - Generations
Generations of Programming Languages
mid 1950s
1940s
1950s
1970s
1990s
1st Machine Binary
2nd Symbolic Use of symbols
3rd High-Level Use English like words for
procedures
4th Outcome Oriented Use outcome focused words
5th Artificial Intelligence Natural
language (spoken English)
80
Programming Languages . . .
81
Programming Languages . . .
82
Programming Languages . . .
  • Compilers and Interpreters
  • Procedural Programming Languages
  • Fortran, COBOL, BASIC, C
  • Object-oriented Programming Languages
  • C, C
  • Visual Languages
  • (with Toolbox, drag and drop objects)
  • Web Development Languages

83
Hypertext Markup Language and Extensible Markup
Language
  • Hypertext
  • Hyperlinks
  • Hypertext document
  • Hypertext markup language (HTML)
  • Extensible markup language (XML)

84
Interfaces Command vs. GUI
  • Command-based interface
  • Menu interface (list of options)
  • Graphical user interface (GUI)

85
Compiler
86
Interpreter
87
Strategic Software Issues
  • Software defects
  • Software evaluation and selection
  • Software licensing
  • Open systems
  • Open source software

88
Open Source Software Examples
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