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Principles of Immunology by

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Principles of Immunology by S.S.Eghbali ,MD 5/10/1380 IMMUNE SYSTEM Non specific IMMUNITY Specific Immunity Specific Immunity Humoral Immunitiy Cellular Immunity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Immunology by


1
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2
Principles of Immunology by
  • S.S.Eghbali ,MD
  • 5/10/1380

3
IMMUNE SYSTEM
  • Non specific IMMUNITY
  • Specific Immunity

4
Specific Immunity
  • Humoral Immunitiy
  • Cellular Immunity

5
Humoral Immunity
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8
Cellular Immunity
  • T CD4/TCD8 ratio
  • Cytokines IL-2, G-IFN, IL-4,IL-5
  • CTL
  • NK-Cells

9
CELL IMMUNITY IS AFFECTED BY
  • AGE
  • Malnutrition
  • Cancers
  • Chronic diseases

10
Immuno assays
  • Precipitation Immunoassay
  • Particle Immunoassay
  • Radio Immunoassay
  • Enzyme Immunoassay
  • Chemiluminescent Immunoassay

11
Precipitation Immunoassay
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Precipitation Immunoassay
  • A)Qualitative
  • Single Immunodiffusion
  • Double Immuno diffusion
  • Immuno electro phoresis
  • Electro Immuno Fixation
  • B)Semi-Quantitative
  • Single radial immunodiffusion
  • Single dimension electro immunodiffusion
  • (Rocket electrophoresis)

14
Cont
D
Ag
Ab
Con
(SRID)
(FAHHEY)
15
Ag
Ab
Double Imm.Diff.
16
C
C
P
P
C
C
P
P
C
C
P
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20
Particle Immunoassay
  • Hemaglutination e.g Treponema pal.
  • Gelatin particle agglutination HBV,HCV,HIV
  • Latex agglutination HCG

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Radio Immuno assay
  • Competitive RIA
  • Non competitive RIA
  • (Sandwich or IRMA)

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25
Enzyme Immunoassay
  • Colorimetric EIA
  • Fluorescent EIA
  • Chemiluminscent EIA

26
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27
PRESENTATION OF POSSIBLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY
  • Frequent bacterial infection
  • Unusually severe systemic reaction to a virus
  • Development of infection with an unusual
    organism such as fungus or protozoan
  • Systemic reaction following live virus
    vaccination
  • Family history of recurrent infections
  • Exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus.

28
BASIC SCANNING IMMUNOLOGY STUDIES
  • Complete blood count / differential
  • Lymphocyte subpopulation analysis (numbers and
    percentages of T and B cells) by flow cytometry
  • Lymphocyte activation in vitro to mitogens and
    microbial activators

continued.....
29
Serum immunoglobulins, including immunoglobulin
subclasses if evidence of clinical infections
with encapsulated bacteria. In some cases,
immunoglobulin levels are normal but
heterogeneous nonbinding antibodies are produced
thus, additional studies are needed.
30
CONFIRMING AND FIRST-STAGE ANALYTICAL STUDIES
  • Radiograph for thymic shadow
  • Skin test
  • Natural Killer cell activity ( if child is 6
    months or older)
  • Cytokine production in response to activation
    T-helper 1, T-helper 2 (IL-2, interferon-y,
    IL-4, and so on)
  • Mixed lymphocyte culture reaction with patient
    as stimulator and patient as responder
  • Response to immunization

continued.....
31
Test for presence of age-appropriate specific
antibodies Naturally occurring antibody
Response to isohemagglutinins (anti- A and B
blood group substances) if patient has A, B, or O
blood type Test for adenosine deaminase and
purine nucleoside phosphorylase enzyme deficiency
32
??ANALYTICAL AND IMMUNOREGULATORY STUDIES
  • Development of activation antigens
    during ersponse to stimulation, such
    as Tac antigen, transferrin receptor,
    up-regulation for MHC class II on T cells,
    soluble receptor, and so on
  • Early activation response (e.g., calcium
    channels)

continued.....
33
Immunoregulation Response to IL-1, IL-2,
interferons Development of effector
functions Immunoglobulin synthesis in
vitro Cytotoxic T-cell activity Suppressor
cell/factor analysis Gene activation, cell cycle
analysis Response to immunization de novo
immunization  
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