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Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!

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Title: Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement for All AHAA!


1
Welcome to OCHO COHORT Arizona High Achievement
for AllAHAA!
Diana Browning Wright dianawright_at_earthlink.net w
ww.dianabrowningwright.com
2
But first, a word from our sponsors
3
Who am I?
4
Positive Environments, Network of Trainers PENT
www.pent.ca.gov
5
(No Transcript)
6
And who are you?
7
Purpose of AHAA
  1. Disseminating strategies for how to teach so
    children learn and behave
  2. Reducing problem behavior, default behavior
    interventions
  3. Using accommodations and differentiation for
    diversity
  4. Preventing restrictive settings when LRE is less
    restrictive

8
Pre-agenda !
  • The RTI context
  • Before we begina few reflections

9
No Child Left Behind!
10
Leadership in 2010-2011
11
What NOT to do The Educational Train Approach
  • Everyone on board? Now mandate-the-page to
    progress monitor
  • That is NOT progress monitoring!

12
Not the acceleration we had in mind!
13
And now, NCLB marries IDEA
?
Frankenstein
Bride of Frankenstein
History How did we get here anyway? http//www.ed
ucationnext.org/20034/pdf/62.pdf
14
So, Whats the Big Deal?
15
Evaluate Describe-that-Student!Intervene
Placement gt Services gt Goals
Within Student Eligibilitythe big 13 Other
condition? 504 ? 252 ?
A thirty year trial
  • 34 years of assumptions
  • If lack of success-
  • student is the problem
  • Any student not
  • succeeding
  • must be deficit

Identify and Place Problematic if you
do. Problematic if you dont.
The black hole
The placement
The goals and objectives
Clockwise vs. counter-clockwise
16
Evaluate Influences on LearningIntervene Alter
Instruction to Empower
Accelerate
Student
Characteristics, likes dislikes affinities
  • New Assumptions
  • If lack of success-
  • the match is wrong
  • Any student not
  • succeeding must
  • need a better match
  • The match must
  • be research-based

A new view !
Match ! Success for student and for teacher
Instructional Strategies
Curriculum/Task
17
Reform Means Think Outside the Box!
18
Ponder this What are the implications?
  • Student Study Team
  • Student Success Team
  • Teacher Assistance Team
  • Problem Solving Team
  • Instructional Support Team

This is not new wine in old bottles!
19
Why Change?
  • USA is falling behind internationally
  • See http//nces.ed.gov/surveys/international/
  • Drop out rates are high
  • Evidence of many students lacking preparation
    for post secondary education
  • Evidence of lack of preparation for the workplace
  • We know more now than 30 years ago!

20
Reform means Using Evidence-Based in all we
doincluding teaching strategies
See www.learner.org and www.ku.crl.edu
21
Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success
1-5
1-5
5-10
5-10
80-90
80-90
22
All students80-90 likely to be enough
  • Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based
    decision making using evidence based materials
  • Principal supervises fidelity and data collection
  • Teachers implement with fidelity and report
    ongoing data
  • District office supports adoption, training, data
    aggregation

80-90 likely to respond
23
Some Students- 5-???
  • Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based
    decision making using evidence-based materials
  • Principal supervises fidelity and data review
  • Site Team ongoing problem solving---(expanded as
    needed) can be IEP/504 team
  • Selected implementers provide intervention with
    fidelity
  • District office supports adoption, training, data
    aggregation, and disaggregation

5-10 or ?? Likely to need
24
Intensive 1-5 or ??
1-5 or ??? Likely to need
  • Continuous progress monitoring, with data-based
    decision making using evidence -based materials
  • Principal supervises fidelity and data review
  • Site Team ongoing problem solving (expanded as
    needed) can be IEP/504 team
  • Selected implementers provide intervention with
    fidelity
  • District office supports adoption, training, data
    aggregation and disaggregation

25
Our AgendaEffective Differentiated
Instruction What we know about instruction for
all studentsa 30 year summaryReview Terms
Concepts Accommodations Modifications Different
iated Instruction
26
Agenda (continued)Practice Types of
Accommodations Case Study ReviewDiscuss
Nuances of Application and Implementation Barriers
27
Group Norms
  • Dianas rule
  • None of us is as skilled as all of us!
  • Your groups rules?
  • Safe, respectful, responsible
  • Cover respect and responsible criteria

28
Self Study Materials
  • The Learning Strengths Project How to
    engage students in their accommodation plans
  • Input/Output Adaptations and Differentiated
    Instruction A review of what we NOW know about
    struggling learners
  • Write accommodation plans integrating what we
    know about teaching and learning

29
To be able to differentiate instruction and
plan accommodations or modifications, we first
need to know what constitutes effective
instruction!
30
Introduction Reviewing Advances in Research on
Instruction
From a Pivotal Paper by Barak RosenshineUniversi
ty of Illinois at Urbana
31
The Most Important Instructional Advancements of
the Last 30 Years
I. Research on cognitive processing II.
Research on teacher effects, that is, studies of
teachers whose classes made the highest
achievement gain compared to other classes III.
Intervention studies in which students were
taught cognitive strategies they could apply to
their learning
From three bodies of research discussed in J.W.
Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997)
Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities.
32
1. Findings from Research on Cognitive
Processing
The Importance of Well-Connected Knowledge
Structures
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
33
  • Knowledge Structures
  • Information in our long-term memory is stored
    in interconnected networks
  • A Well-Connected Network is important for
    processing information and solving problems
  • The size of these structures
  • The number of connections
  • between pieces of knowledge
  • The strength of the connections
  • The organization and richness
  • of the relationships

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
34
Well-Connected Network means
  • Any one piece of information can serve to help
    retrieve the entire pattern.
  • Strong connections and a richness of
    relationships
  • enables one to retrieve more pieces
  • of the pattern
  • When information is "meaningful"
  • more points in their knowledge
  • structures to attach new information

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
35
What is Education?
A process of developing, enlarging, expanding,
and refining our students' knowledge structures.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
36
Importance of Well-Connected and Elaborate
Knowledge Structures
  • Allow for easier retrieval of old material
  • Permit more information to be carried in a single
    chunk
  • Facilitate the understanding and integration of
    new information.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
37
Three Important Instructional Implications
  • Need to help students develop background
    knowledge
  • Importance of student processing
  • Importance of organizers

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
38
Enhancing Background Knowledge
  • Background Knowledge helps students
  • develop well-connected bodies of knowledge
  • Provide extensive reading, review, practice, and
    discussion
  • Helps students increase the number of pieces of
    information in long-term memory
  • Organizes those pieces
  • Increases the strength and
  • number of interconnections

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
39
What do you need to know?
40
Information Processing
41
I. Cognitive Processing Research Findings
  • All Teachers Must Support
  • All Students By
  • Providing for extensive reading of a variety of
    materials
  • Frequent review and testing
  • Discussion and application activities.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
42
Opportunity to Process Information
  • Key for Achieving High Outcomes
  • New material is stored in the long-term memory
    when one processes it

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
43
Opportunity to Process Information
  • Key for Achieving High Outcomes
  • Quality of storage can depend on the "level of
    processing" Examples
  • Highest summarize or compare the material in the
    passage rather than simply reading it.
  • Middle read the passage and focus on its
    meaning
  • Lowest read a passage and count the number of
    times the word "the" appeared

44
How We Teach Makes A Difference!
45
How We Teach Makes A Difference!
46
Processing of New Material
  • Takes place through a variety of activities
  • Reviewing
  • Comparing
  • Contrasting
  • Drawing connections

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
47
Processing Helps Strengthen Knowledge Structures
  • Processing asks students to
  • organize information
  • summarize information or
  • compare new material with prior material

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
48
Examples of Processing Activities
  • Extensive reading of a variety of materials
  • Explain the new material to someone else
  • Write questions/answer questions
  • Write daily summaries

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
49
Processing Activities (continued)
  • Apply the ideas to a new situation
  • Give a new example
  • Compare and contrast the new material to other
    material. 
  • Study for an exam

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
50
Understanding Is Especially Strengthened When
The student explains, elaborates, or defend
his/her position to others The burden of
explanation is often the push needed to make
him/her evaluate, integrate, and elaborate
knowledge in new ways.
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
51
Help Students Organize Their Knowledge
  • Without direction, students might develop a
    fragmented, incomplete, or erroneous knowledge
    structure
  • Teachers must help students organize the new
    material
  • Graphic organizers" are
  • organizing structures for
  • expository material

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
52
I. Cognitive Processing Summary
  • Processing results in development of
    well-connected knowledge structures
  • Develop these by extensive reading, practice,
    processing new information, and organizing new
    knowledge

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
53
II. Research on Teacher Effects
  • 20 to 30 procedures studied, including
  • Use of praise
  • Use of criticism
  • The number and type of
  • questions that were asked
  • Quality of the student answers
  • Responses of a teacher to a student's answers

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
54
Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers
  • The most-effective teachers in
  • studies
  • Begin a lesson with a short review of previous
    learning
  • Begin a lesson with a short statement of goals
  • Present new material in small steps providing for
    student practice after each step
  • Give clear and detailed instructions and
    explanations

Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in J.W. Lloyd,
E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues
in Educating Students with Disabilities.
55
Procedures by Teachers of High Achievers
(continued)
  • Provide a high level of active
  • practice for all students
  • Ask a large number of questions, check for
    student understanding, and obtain responses from
    all students
  • Guide students during initial practice
  • Provide systematic feedback and corrections
  • Provide explicit instruction and practice for
    seatwork exercises and, where necessary, monitor
    students during seatwork

Rosenshine and Stevens (1986) in J.W. Lloyd,
E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues
in Educating Students with Disabilities.
56
II. Three Findings on Teacher Effectiveness
  • The importance of teaching in small steps
  • The importance of guiding student practice
  • The importance of extensive practice is shared
    with the research on cognitive processing

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
57
Present New Material in Small Steps
  • Most-effective teachers -- taught new material in
    small steps presented small parts of new
    material at a single time, and after presenting
    the material, guided students in practicing the
    material that was taught.
  • Least-effective teachers -- present an entire
    lesson, then pass out worksheets and tell
    students to work the problems.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
58
Guided Student Practice
  • It is not sufficient to present a lesson and then
    ask students to practice on their own.
  • Least-effective teachers with lowest student
    achievement
  • present an entire lesson
  • pass out worksheets
  • tell the students to work the problems
  • Many students are confused and make
  • errors on the worksheets.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
59
Guided Student Practice
  • The most-effective teachers -- teachers whose
    classes made the greatest gains -- teach
    differently.
  • Present only some of the material at a time,
    i.e., small steps
  • Then use guided student practice as a model, e.g.
  • teacher works a few problems at the board
  • discusses the steps out loud
  • asks students to come to the board, work
    problems, then discuss their procedures
  • others students see the modeling of problem
    solving

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
60
Teachers Guide Practice by
  • CHECKING the answers of the
  • entire class in order to see whether
  • some students need additional
  • instruction.
  • ASKING students to work together,
  • in pairs or in groups, to quiz and explain the
    material to each other.
  • Timing May occur when a teacher questions and
    helps a class with their work before assigning
    independent practice.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
61
Getting the Gist
The Goal of Instruction and Cognitive Processing
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
62
Gist Construction Errors
  • Are attempts to be logical with weak background
    knowledge
  • Without a knowledgeable guide-- danger of
    student misconceptions!
  • Solution Limit development of misconceptions
  • by guiding practice
  • after teaching small amounts of new material
  • with frequent checking for student understanding

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
63
Gist Construction Errors
Who Make Gist Construction Errors Most Frequently?
Billy Dolores Bruce
64
Learning Strengths Project
  • Humiliation Protection Affects Coping Skills 
  • The number one step in effective support of
    students with learning differences/disorders
  • The student must feel entirely safe from
    humiliation and its lethal effects
  • excessive negative comments
  • conspicuous negative comments
  • policies that openly expose or stigmatize

65
Learning Strengths Project
  • Humiliation Protection Affects Coping Skills 
  • Negative practices result in serious
    complications
  • behavioral
  • motivational
  • affective
  • AND THEY DONT WORK!


66
Guided Practice Instructional Strategy Matches
Cognitive Processing Findings
During cognitive processing activities designed
by the teacher, the student organizes, reviews,
rehearses, summarizes, compares, contrasts
Most-effective teachersuse activities to
check the understanding of all - provide
opportunity for processing for all Least-effectiv
e teachers ask a question, call on one student
to answer, assume everyone learned the point
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
67
Summary Most-Effective Teachers
  • Present smaller amounts
  • of material at any time
  • Guide student practice as students work problems
  • Provide for student processing of the new
    material
  • Check the understanding of all students
  • Attempt to prevent students from developing
    misconceptions

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
68
Most-Effective TeachersProvide Extensive
Practice
  • Cognitive processing researchs conclusion -
    students need extensive practice in order to
    develop well- connected networks
  • Assure practice takes
  • place only after
  • sufficient guided practice -
  • students then dont practice
  • errors and misconceptions

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
69
III. Intervention Studies on Teaching Cognitive
Strategies
Students were taught cognitive strategies to
apply to their learning
  • Cognitive strategies defined
  • Guiding procedures to help students complete
    less-structured tasks, e.g., reading
    comprehension and writing

70
Well-Structured Academic Tasks
Tasks can be broken down into a fixed sequence of
subtasks with steps that consistently lead to the
same goal.
  • Steps are concrete and visible.
  • A specific, predictable algorithm can be
    followed.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
71
Well-Structured Academic Tasks (continued)
  • Enables students to obtain the same result
    each time they perform the algorithmic
    operations.
  • Taught by teaching each step of the algorithm
    to students.
  • Research on teacher effects helps us learn how
    to teach students algorithms they can use to
    complete well-structured tasks.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
72
Contrasting Less-Structured Tasks
  • Termed higher-level tasks
  • Examples reading comprehension, writing, and
  • study skills cannot be broken down into a fixed
    sequence of subtasks and steps that consistently
    and unfailingly lead to the goal.
  • No fixed sequence as in well- structured
    tasks.
  • Cant develop algorithms students use to
    complete these tasks.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
73

Devastating Conclusion of Research
  • Little evidence of instruction of any kind was
    observed in the classes.
  • What was/is happening?
  • Teachers spend most of their time--- assigning
    activities
  • Monitoring to be sure the pupils are on task
  • Directing recitation sessions to assess how
    well children are doing
  • Providing corrective feedback in response to
    pupil errors

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
74
What Wasnt Observed or Was Seldom Observed?
  • Teaching in which a teacher
  • presents a skill, a strategy,
  • or a process to students
  • Shows students how to do it
  • Provides assistance as they initiate attempts
    to perform the task
  • Assures students they can be successful

How will this affect adequate yearly progress?
J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
75
No Child Left Behind!
76
What a cognitive strategy is NOT
  • A direct procedure
  • An algorithm to be precisely followed

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
77
What a cognitive strategy IS
  • A guide that serves to support or facilitate the
    learner as s/he develops internal procedures
    that enable them to perform the higher level
    operations.
  • Ex. Teaching students to generate questions about
    their reading
  • But, generating questions does not directly lead,
    in a step-by-step
  • manner, to comprehension

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
78
How the Cognitive Strategy of Generating
Questions Works
  • In the process of generating questions, students
    must
  • search the text
  • combine information
  • These processes serve to help students comprehend
    what they read.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
79
Comprehensive Summary of Interventions
  • See Pressley et al. (1995) for
  • Intervention studies in - reading, writing,
    mathematics, and science
  • combined with
  • description of the cognitive strategies and
    instructional procedures

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
80
Surprise!
Teaching is a ScienceAND Teaching is an
Art Scope and Sequence Counts!
81
Cognitive Apprenticeship
  • The instructional process by which teachers
    provide and support students with scaffolds as
    the students develop cognitive strategies
  • Students need apprenticeships of different
    durations.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
82
Cognitive Strategies Provide a Scaffold
  • A scaffold is a temporary support used to assist
    a learner during initial learning.
  • A scaffold is provided by the teacher to help
    students bridge the gap between current abilities
    and the goal.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
83
Common Cognitive Strategies Providing A Scaffold
  • Simplified problems
  • Modeling of the procedures
  • by the teacher
  • Thinking aloud by the teacher
  • as s/he solves the problem, prompts, provides
    suggestions and guidance as students work
    problems
  • A model of the completed task against which
    students can compare their work

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
84
Fast Facts On Scaffolds
  • The metaphor of a scaffold
  • captures the idea an adjustable and temporary
    support that can be removed when no longer
    necessary
  • Assists the learner in learning a cognitive
    process gradually withdrawn or faded as learners
    become more independent
  • Some students may continue to rely on scaffolds
    when they encounter particularly difficult
    problems

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
85
Scaffolds to Teach Cognitive Strategies
  • Can be applied to the teaching
  • of all skills
  • Use especially for higher-level cognitive
    strategies
  • Thirteen major instructional elements have been
    identified for teachers
  • to use to teach cognitive strategies

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
86
13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive
Strategies
  • 1. Provide procedural prompts specific to the
  • strategy being taught.
  • When and how should the strategy be used?
  • 2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small
    steps.
  • 3. Provide models of appropriate responses.
  • 4. Think aloud as choices are being made
  • 5. Anticipate potential difficulties.
  • 6. Regulate the difficulty of the material.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
87
13 Instructional Elements in Teaching Cognitive
Strategies
  • 7. Provide a cue card.
  • 8. Guide student practice.
  • 9. Provide feedback and corrections.
  • 10. Provide and teach a checklist.
  • 11. Provide independent practice.
  • 12. Increase student responsibilities.
  • 13. Assess student mastery.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
88
1. Provide Procedural Prompts or Facilitators
  • These procedural prompts supply the students with
    specific procedures or suggestions that
    facilitate the completion of the task.
  • The words "who," "what," "why," "where," "when,"
    and "how" are procedural prompts that help
    students learn the cognitive strategy of asking
    questions about the material they have read.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
89
Question Stems
  • Are scaffolds used to aid the learners
    acquisition of information?
  • Provide a procedural map for what to do with lots
    of details.

90
Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning
  • How are _____ and _____ alike?
  • What is the main idea of __________? 
  • What do you think would happen if __________? 
  • What are the strengths and weakness of __________
  • In what way is _____ related to ______ ? 
  • How does _____ affect _____? 
  • Compare _____ and _____ with regard to ________.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
91
Sentence Stems to Scaffold Learning
  • What do you think causes __________?
  • How does _____ tie in with what we have learned
    before? 
  • Which one is the best _____ and why? 
  • What are some possible solutions for the problem
    of _____? 
  • Do you agree or disagree with this statement
    __________? Support your answer. 
  • What do I (you) still not understand about . . .?

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
92
2. Teach the cognitive strategy using small
steps.
  • Teaching too much of
  • the cognitive strategy at once would swamp the
    working memory.

93
3. Provide Models of the Appropriate Responses
  • We cannot specify all the steps
  • Models provide an important
  • scaffold for the learner in three phases
  • during initial instruction, before students
    practice
  • during practice
  • after practice

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
94
Models During Initial Instruction - Before
Practice
  • In some studies
  • Teachers began by modeling responses based on the
    procedural prompts
  • Students used questions based on elements of the
    story grammar
  • (e.g., What action does the leading character
    initiate?
  • What do you learn about the character from this
    action?)
  • Then they began by modeling questions based on
    this story grammar

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
95
Models During Initial Instruction
  • In other studies
  • Students received models of questions based on
    the main idea
  • Then they practiced generating questions on their
    own (Andre Anderson, 1978-79 Dreher
    Gambrell, 1985 MacGregor, 1988)

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
96
Models Given During Practice
  • Reciprocal Teaching
  • Teacher first models asking
  • a question and the students
  • answer
  • Then, the teacher guides students as they develop
    their own questions, to be answered by one of
    their classmates
  • Teacher provides additional models when the
    students have difficulty

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
97
Models Given After Practice
  • In studies on question-generation
  • Teachers provide models of questions for the
    students to view after they have written
    questions relevant to a paragraph or passage
  • The intent of this model is to
  • enable the students to compare
  • their efforts with that of an expert

(Andre Anderson, 1978-79 Dreher Gambrell,
1985 MacGregor, 1988). In J.W. Lloyd, E.J.
Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.) (1997) Issues in
Educating Students with Disabilities.
98
4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
  • Vocalize internal thought processes one goes
    through when using the cognitive strategy.
  • Example when teaching students to generate
    questions, teacher describes the thought
    processes that occur as a question word is
    selected and integrated with text information to
    form a question. When... When did she get the
    horse?

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
99
4. Teacher Thinks Out Loud
  • Think aloud while summarizing a paragraph
  • Example illustrate the thought processes that
    occur as the topic of the passage is determined
    then used to generate a summary sentence. Fishing
    in Oregon Many factors related to ecology, and
    laws have resulted in a decline in the fishing in
    Oregon.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
100
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
Differentiated Instruction
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based
Instruction
  • 1. Carefully analyze the task(s) to be
    completed.
  • 2. Identify the strategies that will promote
    success. 
  • 3. Teach the strategy through explicit, direct
    instruction.
  • The teacher models and "talks through" the
    strategy.
  • The student observes all of the processes several
    times.

101
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
Differentiated Instruction
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based
Instruction
  • 4. The teacher explicitly states
  • the goal of the strategy to be
  • employed
  • the task for which the strategy
  • is appropriate
  • the range of the applicability
  • the learning gains anticipated from its
    consistent use
  • 5. Verbal rehearsal of the steps of the strategy
    to 100 criterion. Visual reminders (chart,
    checklist, schedule) are provided.

102
Skillful Strategy-Based Instruction is
Differentiated Instruction
7 Steps Toward Successful Strategy-Based
Instruction
6. If the strategy fails to work,
opportunities to review the process and to
repair the breakdown are provided. Feedback is
positive and corrective.   7. PRACTICE!
PRACTICE! PRACTICE!
103
5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties
  • Examples
  • Teacher anticipates common
  • errors and discusses these errors before the
    students make them.
  • Some students in my old school thought 9 21
    28. What mistake is this?
  • (Student reveals subtracting 1 from 9,
  • not regrouping to take the 9 from the 11)

104
5. Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties
  • Examples
  • Teacher anticipates the inappropriate questions
    that students might generate.
  • Students read a paragraph followed by discussing
    whether each question was too narrow, too broad,
    or appropriate.

105
Anticipate and Discuss Potential Difficulties
(continued)
  • Students were taught specific rules to
    discriminate
  • A question from a non-question
  • A good question from a poor one
  • A good question starts with a question word. 
  • A good question can be answered by the story. 
  • A good question asks about an important detail of
    the story.

106
6. Regulate the Difficulty of the Material
  • Begin with simpler material then gradually move
    to more complex materials.
  • Example Teaching students to generate questions
  • Teacher first models how to generate
    questions-single sentence. Class then practices.
  • Next, teacher models and provides practice on
    asking questions after reading a paragraph.
  • Finally, teacher models, class practices
    generating questions after reading an entire
    passage.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
107
7. Provide a Cue Card
  • A cue card
  • Contains the procedural prompt
  • Reminds what to do and when
  • Supports a student during initial learning by
    reducing the strain upon the working memory

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
108
8. Guide Student Practice
  • First teach a part of a strategy
  • Then guide student practice in
  • identifying and then applying the strategy
  • Remember Reciprocal Teaching
  • The teacher first models the
  • cognitive process being taught
  • Then provides cognitive support and coaching
    (scaffolding) for the students as they attempt
    the task
  • As the students become more proficient, the
    teacher fades the support and students provide
    support for each other

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
109
8. Guide Student Practice (continued)
  • Use small group meetings
  • two to six, without the teacher
  • practice asking, revising, and
  • correcting questions and
  • provided support and feedback to each other.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
110
9. Provide Feedback and Corrections
  • Three sources of feedback and corrections to
    consider the teacher, other students, and a
    computer.
  • Teacher feedback and corrections
  • Can be hints, questions, suggestions

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
111
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112
9. Provide Feedback and Corrections
  • Group Feedback
  • after students have written their questions
  • they meet in groups, pose questions to each
    other
  • compare questions within each group
  • Computer-based Feedback
  • students ask the computer to provide a model
    (e.g., of an appropriate question) if error is
    suspected.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
113
10. Provide and Teach a Checklist
  • Example
  • How well did I identify important information?
  • How well did I link information together?
  •  
  • How well could I answer my questions?
  •  
  • Did my "think questions" use different language
    from the text?
  • Did I use good signal words?

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
114
11. Provide Independent Practice with New
Examples
  • Student practices in applying the cognitive
    strategy
  • Use examples
  • Offer diminishing help from the teacher and other
    students

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
115
12. Increase Student Responsibilities
  • Decrease scaffolds as skills increase as students
    become more competent
  • Diminish the use of models and prompts and other
    scaffolds
  • Diminish the support offered by other students

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
116
12. Increase Student Responsibilities
  • Gradually, increase the
  • complexity and difficulty of
  • the material
  • In reading, begin with well-organized,
    reader-friendly material
  • Increase the difficulty and use less structured
    materials as mastery occurs

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
117
13. Assess Student Mastery
  • Assess students achievement of a mastery level
  • Provide for additional instruction when necessary
  • Beware!
  • Lack of review
  • Lack of periodic monitoring of mastery

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
118
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119
Summary Of What We Know
  • 1. Present new material in small steps so the
    working memory does not become overloaded.
  • 2. Help students develop an organization for the
    new material.
  • 3. Guide student practice by (a) supporting
    students during initial practice and (b)
    providing for extensive student processing.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
120
Summary Of What We Know
  • 4. When teaching higher-level tasks, support
    students by providing them with cognitive
    strategies.
  • 5. Help students learn to use the cognitive
    strategies by providing them with procedural
    prompts and modeling the use of these procedural
    prompts.
  • 6. Provide for extensive student practice.

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
121
What This All Means
The Most-Effective Teacher Teaches
Well-Structured Tasks
  • Adequate Yearly Progress Occurs When
  • There is focus on improving, monitoring, and
    providing corrective feedback on instruction
  • Build It and They Will Come
  • Achievement will follow

122

What Does The Well-Structured Lesson Look Like?
  • Review First
  • Review homework and any relevant previous
    learning
  • Review prerequisite skills and knowledge for the
    lesson

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
123
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
  • Beginning The Presentation
  • State lesson goals or provide outline
  • Present new material in small steps
  • Model procedures
  • Provide examples and non-examples
  • Use clear language
  • Avoid digressions
  • Check for student understanding

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
124
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
  • Middle Focus on Guided Practice 
  • Spend more time on guided practice
  • High frequency of questions
  • All students respond (to you, to each other,)
    and receive feedback
  • High success rate
  • Continue practice until students are fluent

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
125
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
  • Middle Corrections and Feedback
  • Provide process feedback when answers are correct
    but hesitant
  • Provide sustaining feedback, clues, or reteaching
    when answers are incorrect
  • Reteach material when necessary

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
126
Teaching Well-Structured Tasks
  • End Independent Practice
  • Students receive overview and/or help during
    initial steps
  • Practice continues until students are automatic
    (where relevant)
  • Teacher provides active supervision (where
    possible)
  • Routines are used to provide help for slower
    students
  • Daily, weekly, and monthly reviews

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
127
What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
I DO IT
Struggling learners need US to
  • gain attention clearly model
  • cue students to notice critical aspects of the
    model
  • model thinking,too - mental modeling/direct
    explanation


128
What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
WE DO IT
  • Provided Thinking Time
  • Structured/prompted engagement
  • ? choral responses if answer/response is
    short and you want the same answers
  • ? partner responses if answer/response is
    long and can be differently worded
  • ? correction/feedback - remodeling, more
    examples, etc.

Struggling learners need

129
What Does Explicit Engaging Instruction Look Like?
YOU DO IT
Struggling learners need
? individual responses oral, written,
point/touch/demo ? coaching students to apply
the strategy previously taught

130
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131

Throughout Instruction Monitor and Assess
  • Most-Effective Teachers
  • Know Each Learners Need
  • for Differentiated Instruction
  • Who Knows the Material ?
  • Who Needs More Input ?
  • Who Needs More Background ?
  • Who Needs Elaborated Scaffolds ?

J.W. Lloyd, E.J. Kameanui, and D. Chard (Eds.)
(1997) Issues in Educating Students with
Disabilities.
132

Assessment is Not Instruction
  • Least-Effective Teachers
  • Test mastery after initial instruction---
  • in lieu of guided practice
  • Test learning outcomes--- in lieu of independent
    practice
  • Allow practice of errors through these practices

133
Evaluation vs. Grading
  • Comparison to grade level standards (norm-
    referenced criterion-referenced)
  • Comparison to students personal needs,
  • (often criterion-referenced or standards from
    other grade levels)
  • Comparison to teacher expectations for this
    child, rating attitude, progress, work
    completion, motivation, etc.

134
Which Learner Characteristics Affect Instruction?
  • Attention Focus Problems
  • Fear of Failure
  • Background Deficits
  • AND..think of your own experiences
  • Activity 1 Continue the list in your group
  • Activity 2 Discuss how Most-Effective Teaching
    addresses problems in all lesson phases when
    instructing these students.

135
Ponder This
  • When instruction is delivered by
  • Most-Effective Teachers
  • How many students will still need further
    Accommodations or Differentiated Instruction?

136
Ponder This
  • Who is entitled to Differentiated Instruction
    or Accommodations?
  • What might they look like for Dolores and Billy?

137
Ponder This
  • What is educational reform really all about?
  • Improving Outcomes for All Students
  • If a student fails to meet a standard, is it due
    to
  • Lack of differentiated instruction or
    accommodations?
  • Thus, lack of instruction by a
  • Most- Effective Teacher?

138
Ponder This
  • Or, is it student characteristics?
  • Lazy
  • AD/HD
  • LD
  • ED
  • Low Motivation
  • Cognitive Skill Deficits
  • Is the problem IN the student, or IN the
    instruction?

139
Differentiated Instruction
  • Differentiated Instruction is an instructional
    concept that maximizes learning for ALL
    studentsregardless of skill level or background.
    It's based on the fact that in a typical
    classroom, students vary in their academic
    abilities, learning styles, personalities,
    interests, background knowledge and experiences,
    and levels of motivation for learning. When a
    teacher differentiates instruction, he or she
    uses the best teaching practices and strategies
    to create different pathways that respond to the
    needs of diverse learners. www.differentiatedi
    nstruction.com

140
 Accommodations/Modifications
Review Terms Concepts Accommodations Modificat
ions Compare to Differentiated
Instruction/Effective Instruction
141
Legal Justification
Accommodate, Modify, and Support
I.D.E.A. 1997 Reauthorization specifies
(300.342(b)(3)) that the public agency shall
ensure... each teacher and provider is informed
of his or her specific responsibilities related
to implementing the childs IEP and the specific
accommodations, modifications, and supports that
must be provided for the child in accordance with
the IEP.
142
Adaptations
143
What is accommodated? The Characteristics of
the Learner  
  • Goal To remove barriers to learning the material
    and to demonstrating mastery
  • ? Standards are substantially the same for all
    outcomes will vary.

1-3
144
Learning Differences
  • Speed of information processing
  • Memory Encoding, Storage, Retrieval
  • Automatization of Rote Facts
  • Organization
  • Listening Skills
  • Attention
  • Forethought and Planning
  • Etc.

145
Emotional/Temperament Characteristics
  • Rigidity/Flexibility
  • Irritability
  • Placidity
  • Social Awareness
  • Desire for Novel vs. Familiar
  • Anxiety
  • Etc.

146
Reading/Writing/Math Skill Deficits
  • Reading Decoding vs. Understanding
  • Math Fact Recall vs. Math Concepts
  • Writing Mechanics vs. Written Content
  • Etc.

147
Cognitive/Conceptual Skill Differences
  • Processing speed
  • Conceptualization
  • Understanding of Elapsed Time
  • Inferential Thinking
  • Conservation, Multiple Variable reasoning
  • Etc.

148
Sensory Input Challenges
  • Vision
  • Hearing
  • Movement

149
What is the difference?
  • Differentiated Instruction
  • Terminology from general education
  • Accommodations
  • Terminology from special education
  • Are all students entitled to accommodations?
  • Ponder this

150
What is modified with modifications? The Goal of
the Activity
  • Goal To allow educational progress in mastering
    curriculum, physical and social access to a full
    array of IEP team determined appropriate
    classrooms and peers.
  • Individualized goals are developed, skills taught
    and measured through either standard assessments
    with modifications (mild disabilities) or through
    alternate assessments (moderate to severe
    disabilities).

151
Implications of Modifications
  • High school diploma may or may not be earned,
    depending on the students meeting of district
    graduation. When do we tell families that?
  • With modifications, what is taught and assessed
    is highly individualized. Achievement is not
    compared to peers.

152
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153
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Quantity Adapt the number of items that the
learner is expected to learn or number of
activities student will complete prior to
assessment for mastery. For example Reduce the
number of social studies terms a learner must
learn at any one time. Add more practice
activities or worksheets prior to assessment of
skill mastery.
154
Ponder This
  • Does altering amount of seatwork completed
    prior to assessment of content mastery constitute
    a modification or an accommodation?
  • If I reduce practice, and now
  • student cant demonstrate
  • mastery
  • If I reduce practice and
  • student can still demonstrate
  • mastery


155
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Time Adapt the time allotted and allowed for
learning, task completion, or testing. For
example Individualize a timeline for completing
a task - pace learning differently (increase or
decrease) for some learners.
156
Ponder This
  • Does giving more time to complete an assignment
    or take a test result in the lowering of a
    standard?
  • How should this be graded or evaluated?
  • Is this practice a modification or an
    accommodation?
  • Discuss at your table.


157
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Level of Support Increase the amount of
personal assistance to keep the student on task
or to reinforce or prompt use of specific skills.
Enhance adult-student relationship. Use physical
space and environmental structure. For
example Assign peer buddies, teaching
assistants, peer tutors, or cross-age tutors.
Specify how to interact with the student or how
to structure the environment.
158
Ponder This
  • Is this a common practice?
  • Do students without disabilities often have this
    support?
  • Do we use this too frequently or
  • too little?
  • Is this an accommodation?
  • If so, for what?
  • Are we using one on one paraeducators
    effectively?


159
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Input Adapt the way instruction is delivered
to the learner. For example Use different
visual aids, enlarge text, plan more concrete
examples, provide hands-on activities, place
students in cooperative groups, pre-teach key
concepts or terms before the lesson.
160
Ponder This
  • Discuss at your table.
  • Is Input an accommodation or
  • modification?
  • What is more effective pre-teaching
  • or re-teaching?


161
Input Enhancement
  • Use strategies and scaffolds
  • To accommodate diverse learners
  • Accommodation during INPUT
  • A service or support to help fully access the
    subject matter and instruction


162
Input Enhancement
  • Using graphic organizers when teaching content
  • Organization of ideas is self-evident to
    students
  • Reduces information processing demands needed
    to understand new information

163
INPUT Visual Displays
  • Portray relationships among information presented
    in instruction
  • Includes diagrams, concrete
  • models, concept maps, videos
  • situating learning in a meaningful context,
  • or digital material presented during
    instruction.
  • Intended to help students organize information in
    long-term memory

164
Visual Displays
  • Activate prior knowledge during instruction.
  • Function as an accommodation when they scaffold
    the creation of linkages among information in the
    learners long-term memory.

165
INPUT Pre-teaching with Advance Organizers
  • Defined Pre-instructional materials to aid
    linkage of new information with prior knowledge
    stored in long-term memory.
  • May be verbal, written, or be presented in a
    question format. Examples
  • Questions presented prior to a discussion or
    reading assignment
  • Vocabulary words presented on the board or a
    handout
  • Verbal statements by the teacher designed to
    activate knowledge prior to instruction

166
Peer-Mediated Instruction
  • Definedstudents as instructional
  • agents, including
  • Peer and cross-age tutoring
  • Class-wide tutoring
  • Cooperative learning
  • Primary purposeincrease opportunities for
    distributed practice with feedback.
  • Usually has well-scripted or structured
    interactions designed and mediated by the teacher.

Nolet (2000)
167
Study Guides
  • Worksheets prior to a reading or study
    assignment.
  • Includes a set of statements or questions to
    focus the students attention and cognitive
    resources on key information to be learned.
    Examples
  • Completed or partially completed outlines
  • Questions focusing on the textual, literal, and
    inferential aspects of a study assignment
  • Other tasks designed to prompt the active
    processing of the material to be studied

168
Mnemonic Devices-For Content Domains
  • Defined Techniques to aid storage
  • recall of declarative knowledge
  • May be verbal or pictorial
  • May be provided by the teacher
  • or developed collaboratively by
  • teacher and the student
  • Can be key words, pictures, or symbols
  • e.g., Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.

169
Input Accommodations
  • Are Foundational Interventions -
  • The key to differentiated instruction
  • Use guided practice, strategies, and scaffolds.
  • They accommodates diverse learners.


170
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Difficulty Adapt the skill level, problem
type, or the rules on how the learner may
approach the work. For example Allow the use of
a calculator to figure math problems simplify
task directions change rules to accommodate
learner needs.
171
Ponder This
  • Discuss
  • Is altering the difficulty of an assignment a
    good practice?
  • When is it an accommodation or
  • a modification?


172
Nine Types of Curriculum Adaptations
Output Adapt how the student can respond to
instruction. For example Instead of answering
questions in writing, allow a verbal response,
use a communication book for some students, allow
students to show knowledge with hands on
materials.
173
Output Accommodations
  • Altered methods of demonstrating mastery of the
    instruction
  • Measures what the student learned, not the
    students disability or characteristics
  • Removes barriers


174
Output Goal
  • Accommodation during OUTPUT
  • A service
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