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Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals Tribal Solid Waste Education and Assistance Program (TSWEAP)


* Waste Stream Characterization: Future Generation Develop projections for future solid waste generation by all identified sources If necessary, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals Tribal Solid Waste Education and Assistance Program (TSWEAP)

Institute for Tribal Environmental
ProfessionalsTribal Solid Waste Education and
Assistance Program (TSWEAP)
Tribal Transfer Stations
  • Session 1
  • Transfer Stations and
  • Your Waste Stream

Todd Barnell, ITEP
Subjects Covered
  • Waste stream characterization What size transfer
    station is right for you?
  • Designing an appropriate transfer station
  • Working with your community
  • Managing the construction phase
  • Operations and maintenance
  • Safety considerations
  • Economics of operations
  • Expanding operations
  • Field trip

What is a Transfer Station?
  • A transfer station is simply a facility where
    solid waste is brought for safe storage, prior to
    being taken to its final resting place.
  • Transfer stations can come in many shapes and
    sizes the right transfer station for YOU
    depends on a variety of factors, which we will
    discuss throughout this course.
  • One of the biggest factors is How much and what
    kinds of waste do YOU need to get a handle on????

Waste Stream Characterization What Is It?
  • Every man, woman and child in your community is
    generating waste and recent trends show we are
    all generating more waste every year
  • Your waste stream includes all of this waste, as
    well as waste from offices, businesses,
    industries, etc.
  • You need to know
  • How much waste is being generated?
  • What types of waste are present in your community
  • Where is it coming from?
  • Are there certain types that are increasing? Are
    any decreasing?

Approaching A Waste Stream Characterization
  • Records Examination
  • Reviewing purchasing records, waste hauling
    contracts, and invoices can give you a snapshot
    of a specific facilitys waste stream.
  • Walk Through
  • Visiting waste generators (businesses, tribal
    offices, etc) to see what types of waste they
    generate and how often.
  • Allows you to interview staff to learn about any
    waste reduction activities or potential increases
    over time.
  • Waste Sort
  • Collecting, sorting, and measuring (volume or
    weight) waste that you need to handle.

Waste Stream Characterization Benefits
  • Once you understand your total waste stream, that
    knowledge can help
  • Determine your transfer station needs
  • Guide your transfer station operations (e.g. How
    many staff are necessary? What types of waste
    will be accepted?)
  • Influence your long term goals for the transfer
  • This study is the foundation on which many of
    your future decisions will be made
  • The amount of detail you go in to should be based
    on what you plan to do more detail up front is
    always better than having to go back and do it
    all again!

Waste Stream Characterization Sorting Elements
  • The following elements need to be determined
  • Generators
  • Residential
  • Nonresidential
  • Weight/Volume
  • Composition/Categories
  • Future trends in generation

Waste Stream Characterization Generators
  • Needs to be representative
  • What are your primary population centers?
  • Is your housing mostly clustered or
  • Do you need different samples from different
  • What is your time frame?
  • Samples from routes, drop-off areas, bins,
  • Communities off reservation?
  • What effect might these populations have on your
    waste stream?

Waste Stream Characterization Generators
  • Needs to be representative
  • Some possible generators may include
  • Government offices (Tribal? Nontribal?)
  • Healthcare and educational facilities
  • Commercial sources (e.g. stores, casinos)
  • Construction/demolition activities
  • Industrial (possible source of special wastes)
  • Could there be sources off your tribal land?
  • Prioritize sample activities and time frames

Waste Stream Characterization Getting Ready for
the Category Sort
  • First you need to decide on when and how the
    samples are going to be taken
  • Ranges from simple sorts of paper being thrown
    away at a school each week to very involved sorts
    over long periods of time
  • Keep in mind elements that might affect waste
    generation, such as seasonal variations, climate
    issues, etc.
  • Recent studies show the accuracy of sorting is
    more important than the quantity of waste sorted
  • The more people you have to do the sorting the
    more accurate your sorting will be (usually)

Waste Stream Characterization Three Step Sorting
  • Primary Establish broad categories and sort the
    waste into separate piles
  • Secondary Each category from the primary sort is
    broken up into multiple, specific sub-categories
  • Weighing Each category of waste is weighed in
    tared containers or you may do a volume analysis

Waste Stream Characterization Primary Sort
  • Paper
  • Plastic
  • Glass
  • Metal
  • Organic Material
  • Durables/White Goods
  • Construction and Demolition Debris
  • Hazardous Waste
  • Special Waste
  • Other

Waste Stream Characterization Secondary Sort
(Paper Example)
  • Newspaper
  • Cardboard
  • Glossy
  • Telephone Books
  • High Grade Office
  • Mail/Paperboard
  • Non-recyclable Paper

Sorting containers
Sorting area
Waste Stream CharacterizationSample
  • Safety first in all sampling activities
  • Staffing How many are sorting what types?
  • Will seasonal issues affect samples?
  • Tourism
  • Climate
  • Construction
  • Documentation of the samples
  • Where did it come from? How does it fit into your
    overall understanding of your waste streams?

Waste Stream CharacterizationFuture Generation
  • Develop projections for future solid waste
    generation by all identified sources
  • If necessary, include estimates of future
    generation by neighboring communities
  • Linking waste stream characterizations to other
    studies or activities undertaken by other
    programs can save time and effort
  • Population and economic projections done as part
    of other studies can be combined with
    weight/volume data to make per capita projections
    of future waste generation

Waste Stream Characterization Sampling Resources
  • Sampling activities can take many forms and may
    be quite involved pick the approach that works
    best for you.
  • Tohono Oodham waste stream analysis report
    located in your manual after this presentation.
  • The Garbage Project, University of Arizona The
    Archeology of Us article is located in your
    manual after this presentation.
  • USEPA Region 9 Costing Tool is also in your
  • USEPA Transfer Station Guide will also be on the
    course website.

What do you mean you dont have the time or
Make It Work For You
  • Determine what kind of an analysis makes sense
    given your needs and resources
  • Visiting other transfer stations to get a feel
    for the amount and categories of the waste being
  • Visiting representative businesses or household
    drop-off areas may allow you to make adequate
    estimates of amounts and categories of waste
  • Remember the more accurate your waste stream
    characterization, the better informed your
    decisions on the type and size of your transfer
    station will be in the end