The Flexibility of Case Methods Margaret Waterman Southeast Missouri State University 11th Annual Conference on Case Study Teaching in Science September 24-25, 2010 The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science University at Buffalo - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Flexibility of Case Methods Margaret Waterman Southeast Missouri State University 11th Annual Conference on Case Study Teaching in Science September 24-25, 2010 The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science University at Buffalo

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Title: The Flexibility of Case Methods Margaret Waterman Southeast Missouri State University 11th Annual Conference on Case Study Teaching in Science September 24-25, 2010 The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science University at Buffalo


1
The Flexibility of Case Methods Margaret
Waterman Southeast Missouri State
University 11th Annual Conference on Case
Study Teaching in Science September 24-25,
2010The National Center for Case Study
Teaching in ScienceUniversity at Buffalo
2
Using Cases Flexibly Goodbye Honeybuckets!
Lana McNeil Northwest Campus College of
Rural Alaska
More than 20,000 rural Native residents in Alaska
live in communities without running water and
where homes, local government offices, commercial
buildings, and even medical clinics use plastic
buckets for toilets -euphemistically called
"honey buckets." ... spillages have led to the
outbreak of epidemic diseases such as Hepatitis
A. (An Alaskan Challenge Native Village
Sanitation, US Congress, 1994)
John Kepaaq is a member of the Tribal Council of
his Alaskan village. John wants to be sure that
the sewage system proposed for the village is
appropriate for the cold temperatures and safe
for the tundra environment.
3
Case Analysis
  • What is this case about?
  • What do you already know about these topics?
  • What do you need or want to know about to
    understand this situation?
  • What are some ways we could use this case?

4
Challenges to Science Education
  • Emerging areas of science, e.g., computational
    biology
  • Pressure from exams, such as MCAT, for students
    to be able to apply knowledge
  • New NRC report calling for problem centered
    education, e.g., food, energy
  • Changing learners web 2.0 savvy
  • Cyberlearning as a new way of teaching

5
Case Study Approaches Can Address These
Challenges
  • They are one tool among many
  • As we look at the kind of learning goals cases
    can address, consider these challenges to science
    education

6
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

7
Objective Pre Assessment
  • PBL can be used as a starting place for
    assessing what the learner already knows.
  • Example Dr. McNeils Case let her find
    out what students already knew about sanitation
    in their locale.

8
Objective Assessment
The following take home exam was based on a mini
case in which a 14 week-old puppy that chews on
everything was found ill in the back yard.
  • Resources for each student
  • prepared slide of suspect plant material
  • list of back yard plants by gardener

9
Objective Assessment
  • Submit a memo reporting your findings as a
    forensics specialist
  • Provide an identification of the plant material
    with evidence to support choices
  • root, stem, or leaf
  • dicot or monocot
  • herbaceous or woody

10
Objective Assessment
  • Write a short letter to the pet owner advising
    the family to remove the poisonous plant from
    their back yard
  • Provide a description of the plant as it would
    look during flowering and be sure to include
  • common and scientific name
  • habitat preference
  • danger to humans

11
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

12
Objective Multidisciplinary Connections
Kujira Teruko sat with her friend Sean at lunch
and enthusiastically described her brothers
wedding and reception in Japan. The family hired
special chefs who prepared some amazing dishes.
My favorite was the kujira.Whats kujira?
Sean asked.Its whale meat, Teruko replied.
When Sean made a face, she continued, Its
delicious really. Better than this pepperoni
pizza.
13
Isnt whale meat illegal? I read theres a huge
black market and people pay 400 a pound for what
they think is whale meat, Sean said.
  • Now it was Teruko who made a face. How do they
    know its not whale meat? she asked.Some
    biotech test, Sean replied with a shrug.

14
Objective Multidisciplinary Connections
  • Propose new law on harvesting whales or labeling
    whale meat
  • Design a pamphlet for whale meat consumer
  • Analyze of dimensions of whale bodies, perhaps of
    different ages (mathematics, surface to volume
    ratios)
  • Analyze of force required to harpoon a whale with
    and without modern propellants
  • Decide and debate on the pros and cons of
    deciding who should be allowed to harvest whales
  • Panel of "experts" predicting populations of
    whales with limited harvest.

15
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

16
Objective Multicultural Perspectives
andInitiating Investigations
  • In the 1840s, Late Blight devastated the potato
    crop which resulted in mass starvation and forced
    migration of the human population.

17
Objective Simulating Late Blight
18
Simulation Results IRELAND 1840s Cool, wet
conditions, no pest management
Sporangia from cull pile Infections from
volunteers Crop defoliated and entirely lost
well before harvest
blight
infections
sporangia
19
Modern Management Blight Cast Using 1840
conditions. Result of spraying every 5 days
278 profit, no tuber loss, 3 foliage loss.
sporangia
sprays
20
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

21
Objective Investigations and Technologies and
Resources
New York 99   Ben called his old friend Lynn
after hearing the latest count of people sick
with West Nile Virus. "Hey Lynn, you work in
environmental health, . What can you tell me
about this West Nile Virus? We have a real
epidemic going on here in Texas and everyone is
saying it came from your state." Lynn groaned
"I am so sick of New York being blamed! West
Nile Virus has been around a lot longer, and it
is called West Nile for a reason, she huffed.
It is true that the first U.S. virus was
detected in 1999 in a dead flamingo and a sick
horse in New York City. But now it's all over
the US. ""It sure is - but, wait - a bird and a
horse? I don't get it.  
22
Approximate global distribution of West Nile virus
Solomon, T., Brit. Med. J. 326, 865-869 (2003)
23
Its called West Nile for a reason. . .
24
The Biology WorkBench is a web-based resource for
analyzing and visualizing molecular data
developed at NCSA (the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications). Database searching
is integrated with access to a wide variety of
analysis and modeling tools
 
25
Aligned Sequences of WNV E Gene
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28
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

29
Objective Introduce Lab Technologyhttp//ublib.
buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/lucre1.html
  • FILTHY LUCREA Case Study Involving the
    Chemical Detection of Cocaine-Contaminated
    Currency
  • Ed AchesonDepartment of ChemistryMillikin
    University, Decatur, IL

30
Lab Technology
  • Tom Brown was daydreaming while standing in
    the security line at the airport. He was in a
    particularly good mood because Grandma Brown had
    given him 200 in 1 dollar bills as a Christmas
    present ... Tom had tucked the cash into his
    carry-on.
  • "Sir? repeated a loud voice. We have detected
    evidence of illegal drugs and will need to search
    your carry-on.

31
Lab Technology
Toms cash (200 in ones) will be treated with
methanol to extract any cocaine present in the
money. The extract will then be injected into the
gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer (GC/MS),
which will determine if any cocaine is present.
32
Lab Technology
  • Roll the bill and place it into a clean vial.
  • Add 2 mL of methanol to the vial.
  • Cap the vial and shake for 1 minute.
  • Using a glass Pasteur pipette, transfer enough
    methanol to an autosampler vial to fill the vial
    about three-quarters full.
  • Remove the bill from the vial when you are
    finished using a forceps.

33
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34
Objective Introduce remote sensinghttp//mddnr.
chesapeakebay.net/eyesonthebay/index.cfm
35
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39
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

40
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41
Objective Quantitative Skills
http//www.demog.berkeley.edu/andrew/1918/
42
Year Male Female
1911 50.9 54.4
1912 51.5 55.9
1913 50.3 55
1914 52 56.8
1915 52.5 56.8
1916 49.6 54.3
1917 48.4 54
1918 36.6 42.2
1919 53.5 56
Average Age at Death from 1911 until 1919 in the
United States (Noymer 2007)
43
Which age was the most affected by the 1918 flu?
Age 1917 1918
lt1 2944.5 4540.9
1--4 422.7 1436.2
5--14 47.9 352.7
15-24 78 1175.7
25-34 117.7 1998
35-44 193.2 1097.6
45-54 292.3 686.8
US Deaths per 100,000 Attributed to Influenza and
Pneumonia in 1917 and 1918 (Noymer 2007)
44
Objective Quantitative Skills and a Simulation
Predict generally what changes youd expect to
see in the SIR model results with respect to S,
I, and R individuals if you were to simulate the
use of masks. (Hint Assume a 10 decrease in
transmission.)
45
Simulation Results for Scenario 2 of Avian
Influenza with 250 people (200 susceptible) and
the use of masks with a 10 reduction in
transmission. Masks are used starting on day
30, when the epidemic has already nearly run its
course.
46
Simulation Results for Scenario 3 of Avian
Influenza with 250 people (200 susceptible) and
the use of masks with a 10 reduction in
transmission. Masks are used starting on day 10,
when the epidemic is still in its growth phase.
47
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To see value of interdisciplinarity

48
Footprints
  • Im glad I dont live on a 200 acre farm like
    you, Sam! teased Sue as the two friends hurried
    into their Biology class.
  • Why? asked Sam, Werent you just complaining
    about living in your parents downtown condo?
  • Well, thats true, Sue admitted, But I was
    thinking about todays class assignment on
    sustainability. I bet you have the biggest
    footprint in the whole class.
  • Much to Sues surprise, Sam didnt look all
    that concerned. He held out his hand and replied
    confidently, Ill take that bet!

49
Objective Introduce an Online Tool a global
resource used locally
  • http//www.myfootprint.org/en/visitor_information/
  • http//www.myfootprint.org/en/visitor_information/

50
Questions from Footprint Quiz
  • Food amount of meat, how much food
    is local
  • Goods how much waste is produced
  • Shelter size of home, number of people,
    availability of water and electricity
  • Mobility kinds of transportation, car
    pooling, air time, fuel efficiency

51
The Results
Sue Sam
52
Interactive Data Source
http//www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/carbontracker/
53
Visual Data
http//www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/carbontracker/we
ather_movie.html NOAA Carbon Tracker
54
Objective Tools for Data Visualization and
Interdisciplinarity Worldmapper www.Worldmapper.o
rg Gapminder A Data Centered View of the
World www. Gapminder.org
55
Objective Tools for Visualizing Data
56
Total Carbon emissions by country
57
Objective Visualizing Data, Interdisciplinarity
58
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59
Cases can be used to meet many objectives
  • To assess knowledge and skills all cases
  • To develop global and multicultural perspectives
  • To initiate investigations
  • To introduce new technologies
  • To emphasize quantitative skills
  • To introduce tools
  • To show the value of interdisciplinarity

60
Cases are a powerful tool to address these
challenges to science teaching and learning
  • Emerging areas of biology
  • Pressure from exams, such as MCAT, for students
    to be able to apply knowledge
  • New NRC report calling for problem centered
    education, e.g., food, energy
  • Changing learners web 2.0 savvy
  • Cyberlearning as a new way of teaching

61
Collaboration and Funding
  • Dr. Ethel Stanley, BioQUEST Curriculum
    Consortium
  • Southeast Missouri State University
  • BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium
  • National Science Foundation
  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
  • Engaging People In Cyberinfrastructure

62
THANK YOU!Questions?
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