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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT An Overview July 23, 2012

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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT An Overview July 23, 2012 Prema Gaikwad Three Types of Designs Subject Centered Design Student Centered Design Society/Problem Centered Design ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT An Overview July 23, 2012


1
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTAn OverviewJuly 23, 2012
  • Prema Gaikwad

2
BASIC QUESTIONS IN EDUCATION
QUESTION AREA DIMENSIONS
WHY? Philosophy reality, truth, values
WHO? Foundations history, sociology, psychology
WHAT? Curriculum scope, sequence, pacing
HOW? Instruction climate, methods, means
WHEN? WHERE? Administration personnel, facilities, finances
3
The Curriculum Cycle
4
Components of the Presentation
  • Curriculum as a Process and Product
  • Curriculum Participants
  • Curriculum Development Models
  • Curriculum Designs

5
  • A. Curriculum as a Process and Product

6
Curriculum processes and products
  • May be found at two stages
  • Like a blue print and a building

7
Processes
Writing/Creating Curriculum Documents
Similar to creating a Blue print
Similar to constructing a building
Instruction
8
Products
Curriculum Document
Similar to a blue print
Similar to a building
Learning Outcomes
9
Types of Curriculum Activities
  • Transform theory and knowledge into practice
  • Looking at the past, chart directions for future
    curriculum practices
  • Conduct research on curriculum issues
  • Write curriculum documents
  • Provide leadership to teachers
  • Teach
  • Evaluate curriculum

10
Types of Curriculum Documents Some Examples
  • Philosophy statements
  • Content standards documents
  • Curriculum frameworks
  • Teachers guide
  • Scope and sequence documents
  • Curriculum guides
  • Text books
  • Grade-level or course plans
  • Instructional units
  • Lesson plans

11
  • B. Curriculum Participants

12
Stakeholders
  • Who are they?
  • Why are they important?
  • How do you identify them?
  • How do you involve them?
  • What should be their roles/responsibilities?
  • What are the consequences for non-involvement?

13
StakeholdersWho should you involve?
  • Those with formal power to make a decision
  • Those with power to block a decision
  • Those affected by the decision
  • Those with relevant information or expertise

14
A List of Typical Stakeholders
  • Curriculum Specialists
  • Other Specialists
  • Administrators
  • Teachers
  • Parents
  • Students
  • Community Members
  • Faceless Members

15
  • C. Curriculum Development Models

16
TYLERS CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT MODEL
  • Based on his book, Basic Principles of Curriculum
    and Instruction)

17
The Tyler Model
  • The nature structure of knowledge
  • The needs of the society
  • The needs of the learner

18
Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum
  • 1.What educational purposes should the school
    seek to attain?

19
Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum
  • 2.What educational experiences can be provided
    that are likely to attain these purposes?

20
Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum
  • 3.How can these educational experiences be
    effectively organized?

21
Fundamental Questions in Developing Curriculum
  • 4.How can we determine whether and to what extent
    these purposes are being attained?

22
Curriculum Development Process
Philosophy of Education Goals Aims General
Instructional Objectives Specific Instructional
Objectives Outcomes Task Analysis Content
Selection Learning Activities
23
Glatthorns Model
School Board
Citizens Curriculum Advisory Council
Superintendent
Curriculum Planning Council
Principals
Task Forces
School Curriculum Council
Curriculum Writers
Instructional Planning Teams
24
Hilda Tabas Model
  • An inductive model with five major steps

25
  • Taba believed that those who teach the curriculum
    should be the ones to develop it.
  • The model uses a grass-
  • roots approach

26
StepsTabas Model
  • Teacher prepares pilot teaching units
  • Diagnosis of needs
  • Formation of objectives
  • Selection of content
  • Organization of content
  • Selection of learning experiences
  • Organization of learning experiences
  • Evaluation

27
  • Trying out of units (teaching)
  • Revising and consolidating
  • Developing curriculum guides
  • Installing and disseminating new unitsin-service
    training

28
D. CURRICULUM DESIGNS
  • Design Arrangement of the parts of the curriculum

29
Four Components of a Design
  • Objectives
  • Content
  • Methods
  • Evaluation

30
Two Organizational Dimensions
  • Horizontal
  • Scopethe what of the content or the breadth of
    the curriculumconcepts included in the
    curriculum
  • Integrationrelationship of topics to each other,
    including topics in other subject areas

31
  • Vertical
  • Sequencethe when of the content, the order in
    which concepts are arranged and taught several
    ways of doing it
  • Simple to complex
  • Familiar to unfamiliar
  • Concrete to abstract
  • Geographically near to far
  • Chronological
  • Part to whole
  • Whole to part

32
  • Vertical
  • Continuityplanned repetitions of the content at
    successive levels Jerome Bruners idea of
    spiral curriculum

33
Other Design Terms
  • Articulationconnecting elements of horizontal
    and vertical aspects
  • BalanceThe weight given to different content
    areas
  • RelevanceFor immediate or remote use

34
Three Types of Designs
  • Subject Centered Design
  • Student Centered Design
  • Society/Problem Centered Design

35
Subject Centered Designs
  • Separate Subject Design
  • Curriculum is organized into various subject
    areas
  • Most popular
  • Convenient to prepare materials and teach
  • Familiar for teachers and parents
  • Assessment is easier
  • Disadvantage is in segmentation or separation of
    subjects

36
  • Broad-fields Design
  • Also called interdisciplinary design
  • Variation of subject-centered to correct
    fragmentation
  • Integrate content that fit logically
  • Social sciencegeography, history, economics,
    etc.
  • General sciencebiology, chemistry, physics
  • Language artsgrammar, literature, spelling,
    composition
  • Becoming more popular
  • Disadvantage of superficial depth

37
  • Correlation Design
  • Midpoint between separate subject design and
    broad-fields designs
  • Combines two or more subjects such as English
    literature and history science and math
  • Identities of both are retained
  • Very few are using today
  • Difficult for scheduling
  • Rare to find experts in both areas at the same
    time

38
  • Fusion Design
  • Combines two subject areas without retaining
    their identities
  • More recent trend
  • Examplesbiophysics, genetic engineering

39
Student-centered Designs
  • Child-centered
  • Mostly found in elementary levels
  • Integration through units of lessonsthematic
    instruction

40
  • Humanistic Designs
  • Building blocks of curriculumlist of
    characteristics
  • Accepting self, others, nature
  • Possess spontaneity, simplicity
  • Openness to different experiences
  • Possession of empathy
  • Developing decision making

41
  • Humanistic Designs
  • Examples of schools Waldorf, Sudbury
  • Adventist schools are also designed primarily for
    character development

42
  • Core Curriculum Designs
  • Required of all students
  • Emphasis on social social needs
  • Mainly used in middle school and high school
    levels

43
Society/Problem Centered Design
  • Activities or experience curriculum
  • Emphasizes social skills
  • Involves students directly in solving problems in
    society
  • Needs of Society Curriculum
  • Emphasizes vocational and career training
  • Instruction in the school caters for adult world
    of work

44
An Example of a School Curriculum Framework
45
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