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Chapter 3 Database Management

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Chapter 3 Database Management Information Systems Today Leonard Jessup and Joseph Valacich Chapter 3 Objectives Understand why databases are important to modern ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3 Database Management


1
Chapter 3 Database Management
  • Information Systems Today
  • Leonard Jessup and Joseph Valacich

2
Chapter 3 Objectives
  • Understand why databases are important to modern
    organizations
  • Understand how databases work
  • Understand how organizations can maximize their
    strategic potential with databases

3
Database Management for Strategic Advantage
  • Database a collection of related data organized
    in a way to facilitate data searches
  • Use databases to
  • Create a book
  • Track book sales
  • Set salaries and wages
  • Pay employees

4
Database Management for Strategic Advantage
  • The Database Approach Foundational Concepts
  • DBMS Database Management Systems
  • Use a DBMS software to create, store, organize,
    and retrieve data from a single database or
    several databases
  • Example Microsoft Access

5
Database Management for Strategic Advantage
  • Advantages of the Database Approach
  • Program-data independence
  • Minimal data redundancy
  • Improved data consistency
  • Improved data sharing
  • Increased productivity of application development
  • Enforcement of standards
  • Improved data quality
  • Improved data accessibility
  • Reduced program maintenance

6
Database Management for Strategic Advantage
  • Effective Management of Databases
  • The database administrator (DBA)
  • Works with programmers and analysts to design and
    implement the database
  • Works with users and managers to establish
    database policies
  • Implements security features and establishes
    database permissions

7
Key Database Activities
  • Entering and Querying Data
  • Form
  • Structured Query Language (SQL)
  • Query by example (QBE)

8
Key Database Activities
  • Creating Database Reports
  • Report a compilation of data that is organized
    and produced in printed format
  • Report Generators

9
Key Database Activities
  • Database Design
  • Must be organized
  • Few or no redundancies
  • Data model a map of entity relationships
  • Keys
  • Primary key
  • Combination primary key
  • Secondary key

10
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11
Key Database Activities
  • Database Associations
  • One-to-one (teams to stadiums)
  • One-to-many (player to team)
  • Many-to-many (players to games)

12
Key Database Activities
  • Entity-Relationship Diagramming (ERD)
  • Commonly used when designing databases
  • One draws entities (tables) as boxes and lines
    between entities to show relationships

13
Key Database Activities
  • The Relational Model of Databases
  • Entities linked by a common key field
  • Records rows
  • Fields columns
  • Other models exist
  • Hierarchical
  • Network
  • Object-oriented model

14
Key Database Activities
  • Normalization
  • A technique for making complex databases more
    efficient and more easily handled by the DBMS
  • Eliminates data redundancy

15
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16
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17
Key Database Activities
  • Data Dictionary
  • A document that explains each piece of
    information in the database
  • Field name
  • Data type
  • Numeric, text, date/time
  • Useful for sorting and allocating storage
  • Is this field a key field?
  • Business rules
  • Update authority
  • Valid data values

18
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Linking Web Sites to Databases
  • Example Amazon
  • 2.5 million titles
  • Managing online data effectively

19
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Mining
  • A method for better understanding data
  • Information on customers, products, markets, etc.
  • Drill down from summary to more detailed data
  • Sort and extract information
  • Trends, correlations, forecasting, statistics

20
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Mining
  • Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)
  • Immediate automated responses to user requests
  • Multiple concurrent transactions
  • A big part of interactive Internet e-commerce

21
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Mining
  • Online Analytical Processing (OLAP)
  • Graphical software tools that provide complex
    analysis of data stored in a database
  • Drills down to deeper levels of consolidation
  • Time series and trend analysis
  • What if and why questions

22
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Mining
  • Merging Transaction and Analytical Processing
  • Real-time OLAP diminishes performance because the
    database must be locked during execution time
  • Solution replicate transactions on a 2nd
    database server

23
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Mining
  • Merging Transaction and Analytical Processing
  • Operational Systems
  • Interact with customers and run a business in
    real time
  • Examples Order processing, reservation systems
  • Informational Systems
  • Support decision making based on stable
    point-in-time or historical data

24
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Warehousing
  • Integrating multiple large databases into a
    single repository
  • Queries, analysis, and processing
  • Purpose put key business information into the
    hands of decision makers
  • Cost millions

25
How Organizations Get the Most from Their Data
  • Data Marts
  • Instead of one large data warehouse, many
    organizations create multiple data marts
  • Each contains a subset of the data
  • Example finance, inventory, personnel
  • Each data mart is customized for particular DSS
    applications
  • Cost typically less than 1 million
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