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GE Infrastructure

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GE Infrastructure Energy Wind Energy 101 Introduction to wind turbine technology Cy Harbourt GE Energy March 24, 2011 Virginia Mountain Section IEEE – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GE Infrastructure


1
GE Infrastructure Energy Wind Energy
101 Introduction to wind turbine technology Cy
Harbourt GE Energy March 24, 2011 Virginia
Mountain Section IEEE
1
2
  • This presentation was originally authored by
    Aaron Barr from GE Energy in Greenville, SC and
    was presented at the December meeting of the ASME
    in Greenville.
  • Thanks to Aaron for making it available to us

3
Agenda
  • Introduction GE and Wind energy
  • Wind Energy first principles
  • Wind energy market
  • Wind Turbines component view
  • GE Wind Energy opportunities
  • Q A session

3
4
Introduction
05 November 2010 Rev 2
4
16 December 2010 Rev 3 Aaron Barr
5
Early wind energy engineer
  • Of all the forces of nature, I should think the
    wind contains the largest amount of motive power.
  • All the power exerted by all the men, beasts,
    running-water, and steam, shall not equal the one
    hundredth part of what is exerted by the blowing
    of the wind.
  • Quite possibly one of the greatest discoveries,
    will be the taming and harnessing of it.

Abraham Lincoln - 1860
March 17, 2011 Rev 4 CD Harbourt
6
  • I'd put my money on the sun and solar energy.
  • What a source of power!
  • I hope we don't have to wait
  • til oil and coal run out
  • before we tackle that. Thomas Edison -
    1931


6
March 17, 2011 Rev 4 CD Harbourt
7
Powerful Heritage Innovative Solutions
Europe Renewables Headquarters Salzbergen, Germany
Energy Engineering Greenville, SC
JF Welch Technology Center Bangalore, India
GE Wind Manufacturing Greenville, SC Pensacola,
FL Tehachapi, CA
Power Conversion Center of Excellence Salem, VA
Global team with diverse expertise
7
8
GE Energy.The largest renewables business on
Earth
Wind
Solar
  • Leading N. American wind turbine supplier
  • 6x unit growth since 02
  • 16,000 1.5MW installed globally
  • Residential, commercial and utility applications
  • Largest commercial solar project in Asia
  • PrimeStar Solar thin film technology investment

Biogas
  • Power range 0.25 MW-4 MW
  • Fuel flexibility Natural gas or a variety of
    renewable or alternative gases
  • 10 manufacturing/assembly sites
  • 4,000 global employees
  • Installed base 24GW
  • Projects in 40 countries
  • 10,000 sub-supplier jobs created

8
March 17, 2011 Rev 4 CD Harbourt
9
Wind Turbine Components
GE 1.5 MW 1200-1700 Households
Worsham Field
Rotor 35 metric tons 77 meters diameter
Nacelle 52 metric tons
Tower 120 metric tons 60 to 100 meters
Car (for scale)
9
10
Small vs. Big wind energy
  • Utility-Scale Wind Power - 850 - 6000 kW
  • Owned by utilities, multi-million companies
  • Installed on wind farms, 10 600 MW
  • Professional maintenance crews
  • gt13 mph (6 m/s) avg wind speed
  • Small Wind Power - 300 W - 250 kW
  • Individual homes, farms, businesses, etc.
  • On the customer side of the meter
  • Oroff the grid entirely
  • High reliability, low maintenance
  • gt9 mph (4 m/s) avg wind speed

1500kw
10kw
You
  • Two Related technologies
  • Different applications and economics

Source NREL
10
11
Wind Turbine Growth Size, Power and Cost
CoE
From 60 cents/kWh down to 5-6 cents/kWh for the
period
1981
1985
1990
1996
1999
2001
2005
2010
Rotor Dia. (m)
10
17
27
40
50
71
88
125
KW
25
100
225
550
750
1,500
2,500
7,500
Increased size, improved performance and
technology innovation Wind energy now cost
competitive with conventional fuels
12
Wind Energy First Principles
05 November 2010 Rev 2
12
13
Wind Turbine Principles
Converting one form of energy to another
Kinetic Energy
Mechanical Energy
Electrical Energy
Component Rotor Gearbox Generator Converter
Efficiency 45-52 95-97 97-98 96-99
Overall 42 50 Efficient Today Theoretical
Maximum is 59.3 (no losses)
13
14
Wind Turbine Energy Capture
Rotor power Ideal (Betz limit) (wind
velocity slows by 2/3)
V2
V1
Cp vs. PU Exit Velocity
Source Wind turbines Fundamentals,
Technologies, Application and Economics, Erich
Hau, ISBN 3540570640 (April 30, 2000)
14
15
Wind Variation
  • Unsteady dynamics
  • Turbulence
  • Shear
  • Density changes
  • Design challenges
  • Across diameter
  • 15 average difference
  • 30 Instant difference
  • Loads analysis critical to maintaining 20-year
    life

Source Wind turbines Fundamentals,
Technologies, Application and Economics, Erich
Hau, ISBN 3540570640 (April 30, 2000)
15
16
Wind energy technologies
  • Wind is.
  • Really solar power!
  • Uneven heating of earth
  • Coreolis - earth rotation
  • Moving mass
  • Kinetic Energy!!!

DRAG
LIFT
Source NREL
  • 3-blade horizontal axis turbines are optimal

16
16
17
Wind Turbine Design Concepts
Horizontal axis Horizontal axis
Vertical axis 3-bladed 2-bladed
( HAWT ) ( VAWT )
17
18
Why 3 Blades?
  • 4 blades cost more than 3 provide marginal
    performance benefit
  • 2 blades provides loads balancing issue -
    requires teetered hub/downwind rotor
  • 3 blades (tripod) provides solution to loads
    resolution

Actual Cp is constrained by Betz limit Also
noise (tip speed), loads, blade geometry
18
19
Aerodynamic Lift
  • U Windspeed, m/s
  • R Blade radial position, m
  • - Rotational Velocity, rad/s
  • Varies with windspeed
  • ? - Local twist angle, deg
  • Varies with radius
  • ? - Blade pitch angle, deg
  • Varies with windspeed
  • ? - Angle of attack, deg
  • Varies with radius and wind speed

Rotor Plane
0-Pitch Line
Chord Line
Flow Direction
?
Drag
U
Thrust
Wind
Torque
Lift
?R
?
?
Trade-off Cost Thrust loads Material,
weight Benefit Torque Loads Power ThrustTorque
101
?
19
20
Power Curve Terminology
56 MPH!
  • Power output vs. wind speed
  • at hub height 10min average wind speeds
  • Example official power curve for 1.5s

20
21
Wind turbines Component view
21
22
Nacelle Hub components
GE 1.5 wind turbine 52 metric ton nacelle 35
metric ton rotor
Top box low voltage, control
Wind Sensors
High-speed coupling
Mechanical brake
Gearbox
Generator
Pitch drive
Pitch bearing
Bed Frame
Hub
Yaw drives
Yaw bearing
Rotor main shaft
Main bearing
22
23
Wind turbine assembly
23
24
Wind turbine installation
24
25
Blades Product Differentiators

Blade Cross-section
Shell
Shear Webs
  • Blades critical to performance
  • Energy capture revenue
  • Aerodynamic loads cost
  • Design optimization
  • Materials
  • Airfoil geometry
  • Loads
  • Noise
  • Efficiency
  • Cost
  • Logistics

Trailing Edge
Leading Edge
Spar Cap
Blade Fatigue testing
Source National Renewable Energy Lab
25
26
Hub Pitch system
Hub Assembly
Source GE energy 2007 Sandia reliability
conference
Pitch system critical to safety Pitch blades
out of the wind Maintain rated power Shut turbine
down
Source GE energy 2007 Sandia reliability
conference
26
27
Gearbox and mechanical drivetrain
Root cause analysis process
MW-scale Gearbox
Planetary stage
Parallel stages
Torque arms
Source GE energy 2007 Sandia reliability
conference
  • Drivetrain critical to reliability
  • Design optimizations
  • Reliability 20 year life
  • Torque capability
  • Maintainability
  • Size, weight, Cost
  • Global source-ability

Output 1600RPM
Input - 15RPM
Source GE transportation
27
28
Wind Turbine generator types
2) Doubly-Fed High speed Generator
1) Fixed Speed System no converter
Pros Low cost, simplicity Cons Poor
performance Poor grid integration
Pros Excellent compromise of cost grid
3) High speed synchronous generator
C) Direct-drive generator no gearbox
Pros Elimination of gearbox reliability Cons
Large generator high cost
Pros Grid integration, controllability Cons
Higher power electronics cost
Generator choice is critical to operational
flexibility grid integration
28
29
Tower and Power Electronics
Source GE energy 2007 Sandia reliability
conference
Power conversion critical to flexibility Grid
integration and compliance Variable speed
capability Designed manufactured at GE in
Salem, VA
Source GE Energy
View of 2.5MW tower base
29
30
Wind Energy Market
30
31
2009
31
32
2030
Power Required Doubles !
32
33
Environmental Challenges
Pasterze Glacier, Austria
1875
2004
  • Increasing atmospheric CO2 is warming the planet
  • Power generation is leading cause of CO2 emissions

Carbon constraints increase demand for renewable
energy
33
34
US Power Generation Mix
Source Energy Information Administration
Non Renewable
Renewable
  • Half the US power is coal-fired
  • 2009 new installs 39 wind, 9 coal

34
35
Wind Resource U.S.A.
Wind Speed (m/s _at_ 50m)
gt 8 7- 8 6-7 4-6 lt 4
(10 m/s 22.4 mph)
US percent of electricity consumption from wind
1
Midwestern United States is Saudi Arabia of
Wind
35
36
Wind Resource - Europe
Wind Speed (m/s _at_ 50m)
(10 m/s 22.4 mph)
36
37
Top Wind Power countries
MW world
35,195 22
25,853 16
25,813 16
18,784 12
10,827 7
4,845 3
4,775 3
4,340 3
3,474 2
3,408 2
22,770 14
Source BTM Consult 3
  • US and China with more than 1/3 of the Worlds MW
  • China expected to take 1 position by 2015

37
38
Top Windpower US States
Top 10 producers
Capacity
Source AWEA
Production
Source AWEA
  • Texas, Iowa and California generate ½ of total
  • Dakotas could power the entire US

Source AWEA
http//www.awea.org/
38
39
Wind Industry Growth - USA
2009 Installs
Source AWEA
2005 5 turbine manufacturer active in US 2009
10.Competition is growing, GE remains in good
position
39
40
Wind Energy Grid Challenges
05 November 2010 Rev 2
40
41
Utility Scale Wind Generation 5-10 Penetration
Easily Managed
  • Utility Windfarms
  • 100-500 MW Farms Being Developed
  • Grid Codes Rapidly Evolving

150 MW Trent Mesa, TX
  • Jutland - Western Denmark
  • 3000 MW Wind Capacity Out of 6800 MW Total
  • 20 of Average Demand Supplied by Wind
  • Max 1 Hr Penetration Is 80, max 20 change per
    hour
  • HVDC Link to Norway, Hydro As Virtual Storage

Danish Transmission Grid w/ Interconnects
Offshore Sites
  • Managing a Variable Resource
  • 1 to 48 Hour Wind Forecasting
  • Coordinated Economic Dispatch of Hydro, GT, .

Wind Site Forecasting
42
Grid Requirements Evolution
Performance Requirements Basic
Advanced
Application
Characteristics Single WTGs Large
Farms Multiple Farms Low Penetration
High
Penetration

43
Grid Integration Critical for Large Scale Wind
  • Rapidly Evolving Grid Codes
  • Success of wind is driving sweeping changes
  • New electrical control features evolving
  • Ride-Thru, Real/Reactive Power control
  • Wind needs to be as Grid-Friendly as Traditional
    Generation for 50 GW Global market

Voltage
Power
LVRT Full Power Tests
Global Transient Voltage Requirements
44
Ancillary Services Wind Variability
Operational/Cost Regime
Technology Advancements
multiday forecasting participation in SMD
Spinning Reserve (Day Ahead Scheduling)
Load Following (5 Minute Dispatch)
Short-term forecasting and wind farm active power
management
lt- Faster Time Scale
Slower -gt
Frequency Tie-line Regulation (Seconds)
WTG level active and reactive power controls
45
Clean volts on host utility grid
Windfarm Electrics Real Reactive Power Control
Taiban Mesa 204 MW
Taiban Plateau 204 MW
46
Wind Turbine Transient Response
  • GE Wind farms are more stable that conventional
    synchronous generators.

Voltage recovery of the wind farm is better
Synchronous Generator swings dramatically???
Time (seconds)
47
Wind Forecasting
  • Eltra, Denmark - 2000 Study
  • 1.9GW onshore farms, 16 consumption
  • 3.4TWh produced, 1.3TWh miscalculated (38)
  • Climatology-based forecast, inaccuracies up to
    800MW
  • 12M imbalance payments (0.3c/kWh)

AWSTruewind forecast using a combination of local
statistical models, and 3D meso-scale climatology
  • Current State-of-the-Art
  • Local statistical model 3D climatology model -
    10-15 mean abs error for day-ahead and 5-10
    error for 6 hr ahead forecasts
  • 2005 regulations in Spain provide
  • - Penalties for gt20 error on 24hr production
    forecast
  • - Incentives for lt10 error over rolling 4hr
    forecast
  • 2003 Cal ISO regulations unbiased hourly,
    daily forecasts settlement monthly for net
    deviations at average rate
  • Utilities need short (lt6h), med (24-36h) and
    long term (gt72h) forecasts

48
Wind Energy Offshore
05 November 2010 Rev 2
48
49
Offshore Wind GW Scale Renewable
  • US East Coast, Great Lakes, BC, UK, Germany,
  • Proximity to Population Load Centers
  • 10-20 Km Offshore, Water Depths to 10-40 M
  • Challenges
  • Hurricane Exposure, Waves, Sea Bed Stability
  • Deep Water Foundations gt 40 m Can Open Vast
    Resource
  • Tough Service Environment, Need Autonomous
    Operation

Offshore Construction, 7.2 GW RFPs in UK
GE 7x 3.6 MW Arklow Banks, Irish Sea
20 GW Potential off NE Coast, Capacity Factors to
50
50
Offshore Wind Potential
  • Significant Offshore Growth Potential . . .
    Drivers Are
  • Renewable Obligations ( UK, US)
  • Kyoto compliance (Germany, Ireland)
  • Over 30GW Of Specific Sites In Various Stages
    Have Been Announced

23 GW
9.6 GW
UK
Sweden
8600
2700
600
200
Denmark
Canada
400
150
Ireland
700
Germany
900
8600
750
USA
8300
Belgium
600
300
300
Active Develop
Netherlands
Concept / Early Stage
Source Emerging Energy Research / GE Wind
51
Offshore Multi-Generational Plan
Phase II
Now
Fatigue Effect
?
Depth dependence on weight can be reduced
substantially with a floating foundation system
Jacket weight increases with depth even at
constant MW rating
Phase I
52
Floating Wind Challenges
Oil Gas Opportunity (Wide)
Compliant Floating System
Current Wind Opportunity (Narrow)
53
DOE LWST 2 Offshore Program 5MW
  • Offshore Turbine System Design
  • 5-7 MW turbine rating
  • Design for Availability, Reliability
  • Access service strategies
  • 5-6 c/kWh target in 20 m depth
  • RD Focus
  • Foundation technology
  • Turbine configuration 2 vs. 3 blade
  • Drivetrain development
  • Rotor development to 140 m
  • RMD, CBM

Medium Deep Water Foundations
2 Blade vs 3 Blade Tradeoff
Service Technology, RMD
54
Wind Turbines
  • GE 1.5 MW
  • 77 M Rotor Diameter
  • 50-100 M Tower
  • 98 Availability
  • Speed 10-20 RPM
  • Variable Pitch

55
Wind Energy Opportunities
05 November 2010 Rev 2
55
56
Advanced technology development
Wind Sensing
Blade Construction
Compact Drivetrains
Aerodynamic optimization
Advanced Generators
Wind Farm Management
Advanced Load Control
Advanced Tower Design
Power Electronics
Advanced Material Development
  • Possibilities are endless
  • Engineers Needed!

VT Grad GE Electrical Engineer
56
57
Additional Reading
GE Wind Energy external http//www.gepower.com/bu
sinesses/ge_wind_energy/en/index.htm Organizations
European Wind Energy Association
www.ewea.org American Wind Energy Association
www.awea.org Danish Wind Industry Association
www.windpower.org Windpower Monthly
www.wpm.co.nz AGORES www.agores.org A
Global Overview of Renewable Sources Competition
Overall list http//energy.sourceguides.com/bus
inesses/byP/wRP/lwindturbine/byN/byName.shtml
Vestas, Denmark www.vestas.com Enercon
www.enercon.de REpower, Germany
www.repower.de/index.php?id347L1 Suzlon
ww.suzlon.com Siemens, Danmark
http//www.powergeneration.siemens.com/products-so
lutions-services/power-plant-soln/windpower/windtu
rbines.htm Nordex www.nordex.dk Gamesa,
Spain http//www.gamesa.es/index.php/en Against
windpower lobby www.windkraftgegner.de in
German with links to English sites
57
58
GE Energy
Thank you Questions? Cy Harbourt cdharbourt_at_ie
ee.org
58
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