Nonmedical - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Nonmedical PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4b79b8-YTA0N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Nonmedical

Description:

Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications Study Results: None of the 175 people interviewed sought out information from health professionals, medical or ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:88
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 44
Provided by: TeresaM153
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Nonmedical


1
Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications

Adderall
Is it Worth the Risk?
2
  • For the purposes of this presentation the term
    Adderall will refer to stimulant ADHD (Attention
    Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder) drugs such as
    Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine and Adderall) and
    Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Metadate, Methylin
    Concerta).
  • Adderall (1996) is amphetamine based. Ritalin
    (1944) is methylphenidate hydrochloride based.
    Both affect the CNS in similar ways and both are
    classified as stimulants.

http//www.iflr.msu.edu/BookStudentPapers_files/Ge
ist_Focusing-on-Adderall.pdf http//www.cesar.umd.
edu/cesar/drugs/ritalin.asp http//www.mayoclinic.
com/health/adhd/DS00275/DSECTIONtreatments-and-dr
ugs
3
  • Adderall XR (time released) is the most commonly
    prescribed brand-name prescription stimulant in
    the United States . It is the most frequent
    abused stimulant drug on college campuses.
  • Adderall is often taken illegally as a study
    agent. It has been said to increase a person's
    productivity. This works for people with ADD or
    ADHD. However, use of the drug without these
    disorders is not recommended.

http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC179422
3
4
Adderall
  • Medical Aspects
  • Legal Implications
  • Surveys, Studies and Reports

5
Adderall
http//www.healthsquare.com/newrx/add1008_2.htm
Ritalin and other drugs http//www.wcdtf.org/educ
ation/drugs/stim.htm
6
  • Stimulant Street Names
  • Addy, skippy, the smart drug, vitamin r, bennies,
    black beauties, roses, hearts, speed, or uppers.

7
Medical Aspects
8
  • Indented use/prescribed for
  • Short-term treatment of obesity
  • Narcolepsy (sleep disorder)
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • According to Mayo Clinic, Adderall is successful
    in preventing hyperactivity and increasing
    concentration. It also helps those with ADHD by
    decreasing restlessness and stabilizing emotions
    in those who have emotional instability.

http//www.drugfree.org/Intervention/drug_guide/Pr
escription_Stimulants
http//www.rxlist.com/adderall-drug.htm
9
  • How is works
  • Adderall is a central nervous system stimulant
    that increases the amount of dopamine and
    norepinephrine in the brain.
  • Dopamine affects brain processes that control
    movement, emotional response, and ability to
    experience pleasure and pain.
  • The drug is similar chemically to speed and
    cocaine. It keeps people awake, and it can make a
    person more productive, but it also can cause the
    jitters and make them overanxious.

Occasional Use of Adderall eHow.com
http//www.ehow.com/about_5463307_occasional-use-a
dderall.htmlixzz0vVXGlvz4
http//teens.drugabuse.gov/peerx/the-facts/stimula
ntsfaq http//www.utexas.edu/research/asrec/dopa
mine.html
10
  • Common Side Effects -Short-term/low dosage
  • Appetite suppression, weight loss
  • Wakefulness, Heightened alertness
  • Euphoria
  • Impairment of voluntary movement
  • Headache
  • Irregular or rapid heartbeat
  • Nausea and vomiting, stomach pain
  • Skin rash
  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Some people may experience drowsiness
  • Nervousness, restlessness

http//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH000016
6
http//www.cesar.umd.edu/cesar/drugs/ritalin.asp
11
  • Common Side Effects- High Dosage
  • Exhilaration and excitation
  • Agitation and Muscle twitching
  • Dilation of pupils
  • Confusion, Hallucinations and paranoia
  • Flushing
  • Increased blood pressure and pulse rate
  • Dry mouth and Vomiting
  • Fever and sweating
  • Seizures
  • Anxiety and restlessness
  • Excessive repetition of movements and meaningless
    tasks
  • Formication- the sensation of bugs or worms
    crawling under the skin

12
  • Long-term Side Effects
  • Can be addictive in that individuals begin to use
    them compulsively.
  • Taking high doses of some stimulants repeatedly
    over a short time can lead to feelings of
    hostility or paranoia.
  • For some people, taking high doses of certain
    stimulants, or repeatedly abusing them, can cause
    an irregular heartbeat, dangerously high body
    temperatures, and the potential for heart failure
    or seizures.

http//teens.drugabuse.gov/peerx/the-facts/stimula
ntsfaq
13
  • Symptoms of Overdose
  • Neurological effects
  • Irritability, agitation, euphoria, dizziness,
    restlessness, hallucinations, lethargy, seizures,
    tremors (uncontrollable shaking), delusions.
  • Cardiovascular manifestations
  • Chest pain, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat),
    hypertension (high blood pressure),
  • Upset stomach, vomiting, diarrhea, fever

Abuse and toxicity of methyphenidate. see
references
14
  • Withdrawal Symptoms
  • People show varying degrees of withdrawal
    symptoms after chronic stimulant abuse.
  • Those who do have symptoms report an inability to
    experience pleasure (anhedonia) and sometimes
    suicidal thinking anxiety and irritability
    fatigue, lack of energy, and changes in sleep
    patterns, depression and intense drug cravings.

http//teens.drugabuse.gov/peerx/the-facts/stimula
ntsfaq
15
  • Abuse Potential
  • When used intranasally
  • The effects are usually similar to intranasal use
    of amphetamines and crack cocaine.
  • A rapid release of synaptic dopamine occurs,
    producing subjective effects of an instant high
    and intensely gratifying euphoria quite similar
    to cocaine.

http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v02n05/v02n
0502.pdf
16
  • Mixing Medications
  • It is risky and potentially fatal to take
    medications simultaneously without a doctors
    authorization .
  • Stimulants should not be mixed with
    antidepressants (because they may enhance the
    effects of a stimulant) or over-the-counter cold
    medicines that contain decongestants. This
    mixture can lead to dangerously high blood
    pressure or irregular heart rhythms.

http//teens.drugabuse.gov/peerx/the-facts/stimula
ntsfaq
17
  • Mixing Adderall and Alcohol
  • When combining alcohol with Adderall, people find
    that the depressive effects of alcohol are
    lessened.
  • It is important to note that using stimulants
    like Adderall to prolong drinking can result in a
    person consuming unhealthy, and potentially
    dangerous, amounts of alcohol.
  • Using Adderall to fight off the depressant
    effects of alcohol does not eliminate those
    effects, only masks them. Your blood alcohol will
    still rise at the same rate and to the same
    levels whether you're "pre-medicated" or not, and
    very importantly, any and all toxic effects of
    the alcohol will still occur at the same rate.

http//orient.bowdoin.edu/orient/article.php?date
2005-10-14section3id2 http//www.goaskalice.co
lumbia.edu/3440.html
18
Abuse and toxicity of Methyphenidate.
  • Intravenous administration causes a euphoric
    sensation similar to that of as intravenous
    cocaine.
  • Binding sites in the human brain are almost
    identical for ADHD medication and cocaine- both
    drugs bind to dopamine transporter.

http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v02n05/v02n
0502.pdf
19
Legal Consequences of Nonmedical use of Adderall
20
  • Adderall and most ADHD medications are Schedule
    II controlled substance
  • (high potential for abuse addiction).
  • Using medicine without a prescription is a
    felony.
  • Selling medicine is a higher degree felony.

DEA drug scheduling DEA Definitions
Florida Statute 775.082 Florida Statue 893.03
21
What are your career plans?
22
  • With todays economy getting a job or acceptance
    into college is more competitive than previous
    years.
  • Do you really want to limit your choices?

23
Being convicted of a felony may limit your job
opportunities, career choices, college options
and even where you live.
24
  • Many government (state federal) positions limit
    job opportunities for felons.
  • Jobs that require security clearances may not
    employee felons.
  • Some options may be gone forever doctor, lawyer,
    police officers, firemen, military, teachers and
    coaches

25
  • Some apartment complexes will not accept people
    convicted of a felony or with a DUI on their
    record.
  • Many volunteer positions such as scouting,
    Little League and other community organizations
    will not accept felons.
  • The potential for addiction may lead to increase
    in drug usewhich may lead to burglary, violence
    or other crimes in pursuit of drugs.

26
  • Being convicted of a felony may limit your job
    opportunities, career choices, college options
    and even where you live. (con,t.)
  • In many States if you are driving while impaired
    you could be charged with a DUI even if it is
    your prescription.
  • Some apartment complexes will not accept people
    convicted of a felony or with a DUI on their
    record.
  • Many volunteer positions such as scouting,
    Little League and other community organizations
    will not accept felons.

REJECTED
27
Surveys, Studies and Reports
28
National Survey on Drug Use and Health, April
2007 Nonmedical Use of Adderall among Full-Time
College Students
  • Students who use Adderall for nonmedical use are
    more likely to abuse other drugs.

http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k9/adderall/adderall.ht
m
29
Of concern, 89.5 of the college students who
used Adderall non-medically also reported
past-month binge drinking, more than half were
heavy alcohol users.
30
Full-time college students aged 18 to 22 were
twice as likely as their counterparts who were
not full-time college students to have used
Adderall non-medically in the past year (6.4 vs.
3.0 )
31
Full-time college students who used Adderall
non-medically in the past year were more than
twice as likely to use Marijuana (79.9 vs. 27.2)
almost FIVE times more likely to use OxyContin
non-medically (44.9 vs. 8.6 ).
32
Rates of Emergency Department visits, by drug,
type of use and age- ADHD Medicine
2008 DATA
College - Aged
33
Illicit use of Prescription ADHD Medications on
a college Campus A Multimethodological
Approach, Journal of American College Health,
2008.
  • First time users have little information about
    stimulants before trying them and they did not
    seek out or try to discover information before
    using.

Illicit use of prescriptionssee references
34
  • Study Results
  • None of the 175 people interviewed sought out
    information from health professionals, medical or
    pharmaceutical reference guides.)
  • Students use was not to increase productivity but
    to increase intelligent and heightened cognitive
    aptitude.

35
  • Study Results
  • 36- felt smarter- able to memorize and retain
    information
  • 12- make academic work more interesting
  • 7 Nonacademic motives- taking them for fun-
    made them more social and talkative during their
    marathon party sessions.
  • Illicit use of ADHD prescription medications was
    significantly more common in men, white students,
    upperclassmen and Greek members (vs. non-Greeks).

36
  • Study Results
  • Most viewed its use as not only physically and
    psychologically harmless, but also morally
    acceptable, because it was used for academic
    purposes and not for social entertainment.
  • Many were surprised it was a crime to use
    medication without a prescription.

37
Students Comments It was just normal, you
know, common. Everyone is talking about it, so
it was no big deal. I can grasp everything so
much easierI feel like a genius on it. I
dont use it all the time though sometimes you
dont have a choice. Cheap coke.
38
A Student Cautions Others One college senior
recalls using Adderall frequently during her
freshman and sophomore years. I started to
notice my own addictive behaviors, she says,
adding that she began using the drug more and
more. The more you use it, the more you want to
use more of it. She knew she was becoming
addicted and that she wouldn't be able to afford
her habit. So she decided to stop using Adderall.
It takes away your own coping skills and your
own ability to evolve your own study skills and
work ethic. So it's kind of an easy way out. And
she says it made her feel like a lesser person,
relying on the drug to do well. During her last
two years of college, she says, she's stayed away
from Adderall and gotten good grades.
http//www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?story
Id100254163
39
While students feel smarter and more intelligent,
the use of stimulants doesn't make them "smarter"
or "better", it just makes their body's organs
worker harder and can actually lead to the
inability to concentrate or think clearly for any
length of time.
40
The CHOICES You MakeToday
41
Will Affect Your FUTURE Forever.
42
For more detailed information about Rx drugs, the
disease of addiction, the recovery process,
literature, helpful links, legal aspect of
misusing Knowing the facts may save a friends
life. tmiller_at_StopRxDrugAbuse.org
43
Other Resources
  • Website links are on each page.
  • DeSantis, Webb, Noar, Illicit use of
    Prescription ADHD Medications on a college
    Campus a Multimethodological Approach, journal
    of American College Health, 2008.
  • Klein-Schwartz, Wendy, PharmD, MPH Abuse and
    toxicity of methyphenidate. Current Opinion in
    Pediatrics, 2002.
  • Methyphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side
    Effects. http//www.psychiatrist.com/pcc/pccpdf/v
    02n05/v02n0502.pdf
About PowerShow.com