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The Italian Renaissance

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The Italian Renaissance Petrarch and History Medieval concept of antiquity Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374) Realization that the classical world was gone Posited a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Italian Renaissance


1
The Italian Renaissance
2
Petrarch and History
  • Medieval concept of antiquity
  • Francesco Petrarca (1304-1374)
  • Realization that the classical world was gone
  • Posited a Dark Age
  • Jacob Burckhardt et al

3
Italian Society/Economy
  • Urban character of Italy
  • Modified forms of feudalism and manorialism
  • Commercial economy in Middle Ages
  • Position along trade routes
  • Merchant fleets
  • Domestic industry (Florence wool Venice
    glass)

4
Revival of Antiquity
  • Discovery of manuscripts (14th c.)
  • Interest in Greek
  • New way of viewing classics
  • Textual criticism
  • Valla and the Donation of Constantine
  • Erasmus and the N.T.

Lorenzo Vallas translation of Thucydides
5
The Studia Humanitatis
  • Reaction to the Scholastics curriculum
  • Trivium
  • Quadrivium
  • Emphasis on theology, metaphysics
  • Idea of the liberal arts
  • Focus on citizenship, public service
  • Intended for elites
  • Considered more practical

6
The Studia Humanitatis
  • Subjects
  • Grammar
  • Rhetoric
  • Poetry
  • Moral philosophy
  • History
  • Intense rivalry between scholastics and humanists

7
Revival of Plato
  • Medieval philosophers generally relied on
    Aristotle
  • Many humanists championed Plato
  • Marsilio Ficino
  • Pico della Mirandola
  • The Dignity of Man
  • Attempted synthesis

8
Varieties of Humanism
  • Civic humanism
  • Literary talents serve the State
  • Tried to revive greatness of republican Rome
  • Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406)
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)

9
Varieties of Humanism
  • Court humanism
  • Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529)
  • The Courtier (1528)
  • Notion of sprezzatura
  • Christian humanism (northern Europe)

10
City-State Politics
  • Formation of communes in the Middle Ages
  • Trend in 14th-15th c. republic ? despotism
  • Innovations in diplomacy
  • Jockeying for position
  • Advent of permanent ambassadors
  • New model for the state illegitimate authority
  • Machiavelli and The Prince

11
(No Transcript)
12
The Five Major States
  • Naples traditional feudal monarchy
  • Papal States ruled directly by the pope
  • Florence
  • Banking and wool
  • Republic (Medici)
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent

13
The Five Major States
  • Milan
  • Early despotism
  • Strongest land power
  • Wars with HRE
  • Venice
  • Maritime empire
  • Extensive trade networks with the East
  • Remained a republic until 1806

14
End of the Renaissance
  • Regular small-scale warfare in 15th c.
  • Peace of Lodi (1454) ushered in forty years of
    relative peace
  • 1494 Milan brings in the French
  • 1527 Sack of Rome by Charles V
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