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Definition Energieeffizienz

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Energieeffizienz in China Von Yonglei Luo Li Liu Energiewirtschaft und -systeme 2006 TU Berlin Herausforderung in China Energieintensit ten Der steigenden ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Definition Energieeffizienz


1

Energieeffizienz in China
Von Yonglei Luo Li Liu
Energiewirtschaft und -systeme 2006 TU Berlin
2
Herausforderung in China
3
Energieintensitäten
Quelle IEA 2004
4
Der steigenden Energiebedarf
  • Die Ursachen sind
  • Höhe Investition in Anlagevermögen
  • Die Änderung von Industriestruktur
  • steigender Wohlstand
  • stetig wachsende Bevölkerung

5
Höhe Investition in Anlagevermögen
2002 2003 2004
Steigerungsrate von Investition 16,9 28,1 25,8
Stahl Zement Buntmetalle Aluminium (Oxyd) Glas
20022004 durchschnittliche Steigerungsrate () 22,8 13,6 17,4 13,8 12,8
Quelle www.cfren.com
Que
6
Die Änderung von Industriestruktur
2001 2004 Die Änderung
Sekundärer Sektor Anteil 50,1 53 2,9
Industrie 43,5 46 2,5
Schwerindustrie 61,5 67,6 6,1
Tertiärer Sektor Anteil 34,1 31,8 -2,3
Quelle www.cfren.com
7
Steigender Wohlstand
Automobil (Auto) Elektrogeräte Kommunikati-onsausstattung (Handy, PC)
20012004 durchschnittlicheSteigerungsrate p.a. 54,1 16 60,7
  • Gas und Erdgas werden zunehmend in Haushalten
    angewendet.

Quelle www.cfren.com
8
Energiereservenanteil in der Welt
Kohle Erdöl Erdgas
Reservenanteil in der Welt 11 2,4 1,2
  • China hat 1,3 Mrd. Bevölkerung, 21 der gesamten
    Bevölkerung in der Welt.
  • Energieressourcen pro Kopf betragen weniger als
    50 Prozent des Weltdurchschnitts.

9
Energiesituation in China
  • Seit 2003 ist China der zweitgrößte
    Energie-Konsument der Welt, ca.11 der
  • globalen Energiekonsummenge (Weltbevölkerungsantei
    l 21 )
  • Energiekonsum in China (in 2004)

Quelle China Statistical Yearbook 2004
10
Energieförderung und -verbrauch in den Jahren
2003 (in Mt)
Quelle China Statistical Yearbook 2004
11
Energiesituation (Öl)
  • In 2003 war China der zweitgrößte Erdöl-Konsument
    in der Welt .
  • Seit 1993 ist China zum Erdöl-Importstaat
    geworden.
  • Weltweite Ölnachfrage (Mio. Barrels/day)

  Demand Annual Change   Annual Change()  
2004 2003 2004 2003 2004
North America 25,14 0,47 0,57 1,9 2,3
Europe 16,47 0,20 0,26 1,2 1,6
China 6,37 0,55 0,85 11 15,4
Other Asia 8,54 0,22 0,44 2,8 5,4
Africa 2,81 0,04 0,07 1,7 2,4
World 82,45 1,85 2,66 2,4 3,3
Quelle Oil Market Report , Dezember 2004 IEA
12
Ölnachfrage in China bis 2030
13
Energie Sicherheit
  • Je stärker die Abhängigkeit vom Import ist,
    desto größer ist das Versorgungsrisiko.
  • 1.
    diversifizierter Rohöleinkauf


  • 2. Etablieren
    einer strategischen
  • Ölreserve
  • Maßnahmen
  • 3. Erwerb
    von überseeischen

  • Ölvermögen (Lagerstätten)
  • 4.
    Energiesparen

14
Diversifizierter Einkauf
  • Im Jahr 1993 wurde fast alles Rohöl aus
    Indonesien, Oman and Jemen importiert
  • Im Jahr 2004 war Saudi Arabia der größte Öl-
    Versorger Chinas und deckte 14 von Import
  • 60 des Importes stammte aus Oman, Angola, Iran,
    Russland, Vietnam und Jemen
  • Der Rest waren Ölversorger aus mehreren Ländern

15
Weitere Maßnahmen
  • 2. Strategische Ölreserve
  • Bis 2008 werden Chinas Ölvorräte 100 Mio. Barrels
    erreichen. Das ist gleich 35 Tags-Importe.
  • Chinesische Regierung plant, dass Ölvorräte bis
    2020 gleich 90 Tags-Importe sind.
  • 3. Kaufen von überseeischem Ölvermögen
  • Chinesische staatseigene Ölunternehmen kaufen
    ausländische
  • Ölquellen.
  • CNPC hat gerade Petro
    Kazakhstan angekauft
  • 4. Energiesparen

16
CO2 Emission in 2001
Quelle 2001 Energy-related Carbon Emissions
17
CO2 Emission
18
Schwefeldioxid-Belastung Quelle IEA 2002
19
Lösung des Energieproblems
  • Angesichts steigender Erdölpreis,
    schwindender
  • Reserven und globaler Anstrengungen
    zum
  • Klimaschutz sind alternativen zu
    fossile Energie
  • gefragt.
  • Erneuerbaren Energien wie Solar, Wind-
    und
  • Wasserkraft, Biomaße oder
    Geothermie
  • gehört die Zukunft.
  • Erneuerbare Energie ist unerschöpflich und
  • umweltverträglich.

20
Erneuerbare Energie in China
  • China plant, bis zum Jahr 2020 seinen Anteil
    erneuerbarer Quellen am Gesamtenergieverbrauch
    auf 15 Prozent zu steigern.
  • Allein die Windkraftkapazität soll bis 2020 auf
    30 Gigawatt (GW) ausgebaut werden. Das wäre fast
    das Doppelte der derzeit in Deutschland
    installierten Kapazität.
  • Hinzukommen sollen weitere 20 GW
    Kraftwerkskapazität aus Bioenergie und 4 GW
    Kraftwerkskapazität aus Solarenergie kommen.
  • Zusammen mit großen Wasserkraftanlagen will China
    bis 2020 insgesamt mehr 30 seines
    Stromverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Quellen
    erzeugen.

Quelle China- Botschaft
21
Vorliegende Probleme
  • Technische Probleme
  • China bemüht sich, die bislang
    importierten
  • Anlagen zukünftig selber
    zu entwickeln, um die
  • Kosten der
    Windkrafterzeugung zu reduzieren.
  • China versucht noch die
    Stromerzeugung aus
  • Solarenergie technisch
    zu verbessern. Teuere
  • importierende
    Anlagen behindern die
  • Verbreitung von
    Solarenergie.
  • Umsiedlung bei großer Wasserkraft
  • z.B. bei Drei-Schluchten-Staudamm
    am Yangtze
  • müssen knapp zwei
    Millionen Menschen
  • umgesiedelt werden.

22
Definition Energieeffizienz
  • Die Wirkungsvolle Erzeugung und
  • Nutzung von Energie und
  • Einsparmöglichkeiten.

Quelle Power on Energieeffizienz
23
Definition Energieeffizienz
  • Es gibt verschiedene Ansätze zur quantitativen
    Erfassung der
  • Energieeffizienz.
  • als Maßzahl der thermodynamische Wirkungsgrad
  • Anstelle des Outputs in Energieeinheiten werden
    oft auch andere Output-Größen verwendet.

24
Vorteile und Chancen
  • Der Energienutzer spart Kosten bei der Nutzung
    der Effizienz-Investition, muss aber diese
    zunächst finanzieren.
  • Die Schadstoffemissionen gehen zurück.
  • Der Staat spart eigene oder importierte
    Energieressourcen.
  • Energie kann in allen Sektoren eingespart werden.
  • Sparen die Verbraucher vermehrt Strom, dann
    werden weniger zusätzliche Kraftwerkskapazitäten
    benötigt

Quelle GTZ-Energieeffizienz
25
Demonstration bei zehn Käseherstellern in
Argentinien
  • Maßnahmen zur Energieeffizienz durch
  • Die Verbesserung des Dampferzeugers
  • Eine bessere Isolierung
  • Eine Kondensatrückführung
  • Einführung einer temperaturabhängigen Lagerung
    im
  • Gefrierkammer
  • Energiekosteneinsparung
  • Qualität der Produkte
  • Verminderung der co2 Ausstoß

34
1.8T/J
Quelle GTZ-Energieeffizienz
26
Maßnahme
  • Energy efficiency refers to the ratio between
    energy output (services such as light, heat and
    mobility) and input (primary energy). Improving
    energy efficiency both by reducing quantities of
    energy consumed and by changing processes, offers
    a powerful tool for achieving sustainable
    development
  • 1. by reducing the need for
    investment in energy
  • infrastructure,
  • 2. by cutting fuel costs,
  • 3. by increasing competitiveness for
    businesses
  • and welfare for consumers.

Quelle IEA
27
Schlüsselrole der Regierung
  • to improve overall energy efficiency and move to
    a more-sustainable energy supply mix, the
    government can play three key roles
  • Finance of socially and environmentally
    preferable energy options through investment
    incentives and low-cost loans
  • Advocacy of sustainable energy development
    through education and by example, e.g., through
    government procurement programs
  • Regulation of the boundaries of market
    activities,for example setting incentives through
    price signals,laws, and enforced financial
    penalties.

28
Die Staatliche Energiestrategie
  • Supply Side
  • 1. Improve energy security
  • Expand energy diplomacy.
  • Create petroleum strategic reserve and warning
    system.
  • Decrease energy imports through more renewables
    and increased efficiency.
  • 2. Expand supply
  • Accelerate natural gas market development.
  • Accelerate construction of hydro and nuclear
    power plants.
  • Promote renewables through national legislation.
  • Improve domestic oil production and yields.

29
Die Staatliche Energiestrategie
  • Supply Side
  • 3. Rationalize pricing
  • Institute property rights reform, but
  • ...relax property rights for new enterprises to
    use new technology.
  • End local partition of energy markets.
  • End price controls move towards public
  • bidding and auction.
  • 4. Promote investment
  • Set up Environmentally Friendly Fund to
    encourage renewables and cleaner coal.
  • - Increase state and private funding for oil and
    natural gas exploration and development

30
Die Staatliche Energiestrategie
  • Demand Side
  • 1.Change the energy supply mix
  • - Decrease demand for coal and other fossil
    fuels.
  • - Supply low-cost loans and grants to encourage
  • deployment of clean coal technology.
  • .
  • 2. Improve technology to decrease reliance on
    fossil fuels
  • 3. Increase support for RD, including domestic
    And international partnerships.

31
Die Staatliche Energiestrategie
  • Demand Side
  • 4. Promote energy efficiency
  • Elevate energy conservation to a fundamental
    state policy.
  • Establish a resource savings office.
  • Raise public awareness.
  • Establish economic incentives to save energy,
    including peak power pricing.
  • Implement stricter energy efficiency ordinances
    for equipment in industry and buildings.
  • Establish standards and labels, as well as a best
    practice system for energy auditing.
  • Introduce fuel taxes and fuel efficiency
    standards in the transportation sector.

32
Energieeffizienz in Sektoren
?E Gesamter Energieverbrauch Chinas in 1998
33
Energiepolitik in Sektoren
  • Energieversorgung
  • Further promotion of electric power system reform
  • Elimination of coal generating units under 100 MW
    capacity by the State Power Corporation
  • Installation of desulfurization devices in all
    new coal-fired power plants
  • Increased efforts to develop low- and zero-carbon
    power generation technologies, including
    hydropower
  • Support for increased imports of advanced
    renewable energy technologies, including solar
    photovoltaics and fuel cells

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
34
Energiepolitik in Sektoren
  • Industrie
  • Demonstration and further dissemination of
    voluntary agreements for energy conservation
  • Modification of industrial design standards to
    promote energy conservation
  • Energy consumption benchmarking system for
    industrial processes
  • Regulatory system established to assist in
    enforcement of the Energy Conservation Law and
    implementation of pilot projects

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
35
Energiepolitik in Sektoren
  • Verkehr
  • Fuel tax for vehicles
  • Development of public transportation and
    institution of Intelligent Transportation Systems
    (ITS) in big and medium cities
  • Clean fuel program for automobiles
  • Incentive program for international automobile
    manufacturers to introduce energy-efficient and
    environmentally friendly vehicles to Chinese
    market
  • Fuel efficiency standards for vehicles

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
36
Energiepolitik in Sektoren
  • Haushalten Öffentlichen Einrichtung
  • Energy efficiency standards and reform of heat
    pricing
  • Minimum efficiency standards for household
    electrical appliances
  • Use of energy-efficient wall insulation expanded

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
37
THREE SCENARIOS
  • Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort
  • Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability
  • Scenario 3 Green Growth
  • The chinese goverments goal is Green Growth.
  • China Regierung wird Green Growth nehmen.
  • Warum und Wie?

38
THREE SCENARIOS
  • Three scenarios were created to examine possible
    ways in which key input variables could influence
    Chinas future energy consumption and carbon
    emissions.
  • The major differences in the three scenarios are
    the extent to which sustainable development
    policies are implemented, and the extent to which
    government estimated economic growth targets are
    achieved.

39
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Population in 2020 1.485 billion 1.47 billion 1.445 billion
Urbanization Rate in 2020 52.86 55.78 58.29
Gross Domestic Product Before 2010, GDP grows at 7.3 per year, and after 2010 at 6.7 per year. Same as Ordinary Effort. Same as Ordinary Effort.
Integration into Global Economy Difficult Low impact on Chinas economy Positive impact on Chinas economy
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
40
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Industrial Sectors Low economic efficiency and international Competitiveness Somewhat improved economic efficiency and international competitiveness High economic efficiency and international competitiveness
Trans-portation Public transportation development is poor. Use of private vehicles grows quickly. Fuel efficiency of vehicles rises slowly. Public transportation development is strong. Motorcycle use rises. International vehicle emissions standards are adopted. Public transport is developed extensively private vehicle use grows more slowly than in other scenarios. International vehicle emissions standards are adopted, as in Promoting Sustainability. Advanced clean-fuel technologies are used for public transport and automobiles.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
41
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Power Generation Increased use of sulfur control technology on power plants Coal-fired power plants generate most electricity Gradual development of hydropower, nuclear power, IGCC and wind power Very high growth rate in sulfur-control technology on coal-fired power plants, reaching all plants by 2020. Clean-coal power generation technologies are introduced beginning in 2010. Development of hydropower, nuclear power, IGCC and wind power is faster than in Ordinary Introduction of sulfur-control technology is same as in Promoting Sustainability. Clean technologies introduced sooner than in other scenarios, including supercritical generation and IGCC. Hydropower, nuclear, IGCC, and wind power increases more rapidly than other scenarios.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
42
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Energy Sector Reform Reform progress lags behind other sectors and monopoly continues to exist in some areas. Energy enterprises will be restructured and monopoly is broken. Reform proceeds rapidly and international competitiveness of Chinas energy enterprises is improved.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
43
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Energy Conservation Policies Implementing measures to the Energy Conservation Law are adopted but many measures are not successfully achieved. Implementing measures to the Energy Conservation Law are successfully adopted and improved upon. Complete implementation of financial incentives and an energy pricing system to promote energy conservation. Implementing measures to the Energy Conservation Law are successfully adopted and improved upon.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
44
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Energy Efficiency Level Technological development is hindered and the operating efficiency of equipment does not reach advanced international levels. Energy efficiency of technology in all sectors and industries on track to reach current advanced international levels by 2030. Same as Promoting Sustainability.
Energy Security China primarily relies on domestic energy resources. China establishes a diversified energy import system to utilize high quality foreign energy resources. China establishes a diversified energy import system to utilize high quality foreign energy resources.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
45
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Energy Resources Access to international oil resources over next 20 to 30 years is unrestricted. Difference between domestic oil supply and demand is met through oil imports. Consumers find natural gas prices too high, limiting exploration, development and network construction. Imports of LNG and pipeline gas are restricted. Domestic output of natural gas reaches 80 bcm and imported gas 40 bcm in 2020. As in other scenarios, access to international oil resources over next 20 to 30 years is unrestricted. As in other scenarios, difference between domestic oil supply and demand is met through oil imports. Domestic development and infrastructure construction of natural gas is successful and creates a strong market for natural gas. Domestic output of natural gas reaches 120 bcm and imported gas 50 bcm in 2020. As in other scenarios, access to international oil resources over next 20 to 30 years is unrestricted. As in other scenarios, difference between domestic oil supply and demand is met through oil imports. Natural gas pricing system is improved and demand for gas grows quickly. Gas imports rise. Domestic output of natural gas reaches 120 bcm and imported gas 80 bcm in 2020.
bcm billion cubic meters
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
46
THREE SCENARIOS
Scenario 1 Ordinary Effort Scenario 2 Promoting Sustainability Scenario 3 Green Growth
Environmental Protection Policies Existing environmental standards persist. Air pollution controls in Acid Rain Control Regions and key cities are implemented by 2005, with SO2 emission standards achieved by 2010. Existing environmental standards persist Air pollution controls in Acid Rain Control Regions and key cities are implemented by 2005 SO2 emission standards are met by 2010 all standards are met by 2020. PM10 and PM2.5 are key focus of control policies. Air quality of big cities is improved by increasing supply of gas fuels. Emissions standards in large cities are tightened. Stricter NOx emission standards are enforced. Coal substitution proceeds in large and some medium cities. More stringent legal system is put in place to enforce environmental regulations. Stricter SO2 emission standards for power plants encourage adoption of desulfurization technology.
Public Awareness of Energy and Environmental Moderate Moderate Good
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
47
RESULTS OF THE SCENARIOS
  • Die Energieträgerstruktur unterscheidet sich vor
    allem hinsichtlich des Anteils von Kohle und
    Erdgas.

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
48
RESULTS OF THE SCENARIOS
  • Einkommenselastizitäten der Energienachfrage
    liegen grob im Bereich der Werte der 1980er und
    1990er Jahre. Im Szenarium ordinary Effort sid
    die Elastizität gegenüber den historischen Werten
    höher, im Green Growth Szenarium niedriger.

Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
49
RESULTS OF THE SCENARIOS
Die Energieintensität in MJ / yuan1998 ist
heute sehr hoch, aber sie sinkt in allen drei
Szenarien und sind im Jahr 2020 zwischen 38 und
15 des 1998er Werts.
Quelle Energy Research Institute (ERI)
50
erfolgreiche Beispiele
  • 1. passive Wohnhöhle in Yanan.
  • 2. Ökohaus in Land in Yongle,Yuanlan
  • 3. Bio-Methanol und Erdgas werden als Ersatz von
    Benzin in den meisten chinesischen Städten
    eingesetzt.
  • 4. Ab 1.3.2005 trat China Energy Label in Kraft.

51
Literatur
  • Evaluation of Chinas Energy strategy Options
  • Chinas Sustainable energy Future
  • Trends in Energy Efficiency investments in China
    and the US
  • Energy efficiency in China
  • Einpaar Chinesische Energiezeitschriften
  • http//de.wikipedia.org/wiki/China
  • http//www.lib.whu.edu.cn/slgc/
  • http//www.china-botschaft.de
  • http//www.umweltjournal.de
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