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Title: Unpacking the Expectations for Classroom Assessment and Instruction


1
Unpacking the Expectations for Classroom
Assessment and Instruction
Michigan Council for the Social Studies Annual
State Professional Development Conference
  • Stan Masters
  • Lenawee ISD
  • February 19, 2008

2
POP
  • Purpose
  • Analyzing the new GLCEs and HSCEs for good
    classroom assessment and instruction, leading to
    increased student achievement
  • Objectives
  • Differentiate between the purposes of assessment
  • Unpack expectations into targets
  • Match targets to methods of assessment
  • Develop a set of assessments for your classroom
  • Procedure
  • PowerPoint slides for presenting information
  • Practice with the expectations
  • Use of templates and protocols

3
Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment
  1. Clear Purposes
  2. Clear Targets
  3. Good Design Methods
  4. Sound Communication
  5. Student Involvement

4
Indicators of Sound Classroom Assessment
Practice (p.27)
  • Skill in gathering accurate information
  • Effective use of information and procedures
  • ____________________________________
  • Sound Classroom Assessment Practice

5
Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment
  1. Clear Purposes
  2. Clear Targets
  3. Good Design Methods
  4. Sound Communication
  5. Student Involvement

6
Deepening our ideas about
assessment
  • What is the distinction between
  • assessment for learning
  • assessment of learning?

7
Purposes of Assessments
Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17,
2004)
  • assessment for learning
  • diagnostic (given before instruction to
    gather information on where to start)
  • formative (monitors student progress during
    instruction)
  • assessment of learning
  • summative (the final task at the end
    of a unit, a course, or a semester)

8
Both are needed!
  • Students need to know(p.34)
  • Where they are going
  • Where they are now
  • How to close the gap
  • Teachers need to find balance(p.35-36)
  • to improve student achievement
  • to communicate to various stakeholders

9
Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning (p.42)
  • Where am I going?
  • Clear targets
  • Models of work
  • Where am I now?
  • Descriptive Feedback
  • Student self-assessment/goal setting
  • How can I close the gap?
  • Lessons that focus on one target at a time
  • Teaching self-reflection
  • Student record-keeping

10
So, do your students know what are the targets
for their learning?
11
Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment
  1. Clear Purposes
  2. Clear Targets
  3. Good Design Methods
  4. Sound Communication
  5. Student Involvement

12
Where does curriculum come from?
  • National content organizations documents
  • State standards documents
  • Local curriculum is then created from these
    documents
  • Organized into units
  • Determine essential questions and key concepts
  • Aligned with state accountability assessments

13
Backward Design Addresses All Three Parts of the
Curriculum Triangle
Content
Assessment
Instruction
14
Problems with Our Curriculum
  • It sits on a shelf.
  • We go no further than creating units, activities,
    and/or projects.
  • We rely on a textbook.
  • Teachers disagree on the outcomes.
  • There are too many outcomes.

15
Kinds of Learning Targets Stiggins, Arter,
Chappuis, and Chappuis. (2006). Classroom
Assessment for Student Learning. Portland, OR
ETS.
  • Knowledge The facts and concepts we want
    students to know and understand.
  • Reasoning Students use what they know to reason
    and solve problems
  • Skills Students use their knowledge and
    reasoning to act skillfully
  • Products Students use their knowledge,
    reasoning, and skills to create a concrete
    product.
  • Dispositions Students attitudes about school
    and learning.

(p. 75)
16
Helpful Hints to Targets (p.64)
  • Knowledge targets are identified in the noun/noun
    phrase found in the benchmark
  • Reasoning targets are identified in the verb/verb
    phrases found in the benchmark
  • analytical, compare/contrast, synthesis,
    classification, inference/deduction, evaluative
    (p.70)
  • Skill targets always have knowledge targets
  • Product targets have to be discerned apart from
    the product tasks we ask students to create
  • Disposition targets reflect attitudes or feelings

17
(BUT I WANT THEM TO DEEPLY APPRECIATE THE
USEFULNESSES OF BAR GRAPHS)
Organize
using
concrete objects, pictures, tallies, tables,
charts, diagrams, and graphs
data
KNOWLEDGE/UNDERSTANDING
REASONING
SKILLS
PRODUCTS
DISPOSITIONS
18
Unpacking Examples
  • K - H2.0.1
  • 1 - H2.0.2
  • 2 - H2.0.4
  • 3 - H3.0.2
  • 4 - G4.0.1
  • 5 - U3.2.3
  • 6 - W3.1.3
  • 7 - W3.1.10
  • 8 - U5.3.4
  • WHG - 6.1.4
  • USHG - 6.2.2

19
Practice Unpacking
  • Choose a outcome (benchmark/expectation) that
    your students will learn and you will teach in an
    upcoming unit of instruction.
  • Write the outcome at the top of your
    target/method planning sheet.
  • Complete the left hand side of the chart.
  • Knowledge/understanding, reasoning, skills,
    products, dispositions
  • Check your understanding of the targets with a
    partner
  • As a group
  • Dialogue about your interpretation of the
    identified targets
  • Determine and note if there are any targets that
    need to added, changed, or deleted

20
Unpacking for the Student
  • Targets are clearer for the student when they are
    put into positive I can statements.
  • They may be unpacked to include more concrete
    understandings

I CAN
21
Create I Can Statements
  • Using your previous unpacked learning outcome,
    create I can statements for your students.

22
Keys to Quality Classroom Assessment
  1. Clear Purposes
  2. Clear Targets
  3. Good Design Methods
  4. Sound Communication
  5. Student Involvement

23
Assessment Study Donegal School District,
Donegal, PA http//www2.yk.psu.edu/jlg18/dragon/
index.html
  • Baseline data for 1999-2000
  • collected 661 tests/assessments during targeted
    collection period
  • randomly selected 20 or 142 for a sample

24
Findings
  • Testing of low-level cognition (understanding and
    comprehension levels on Bloom's Taxonomy)
    predominated all types of testing at all levels.
    (75.5)
  • 2. Traditional formats of multiple choice, true
    and false, matching, fill-in the-blank
    predominated all other formats. (80)
  • 3. Short answer writing was never scored using a
    rubric. (0)
  • 4. Essay formats are very rarely used (.05) and
    when used rarely were scored with a rubric
    (.02).

25
Findings
  • 5. Rubrics that were available were often poorly
    crafted with checklist formats sometimes (33)
    being represented as rubrics.
  • 6. Problem-solving at any level above
    comprehension was rarely required (.04), never
    scored with a rubric (0) and problem-solvers
    were rarely called upon to write to justify or
    explain process or appropriateness of answer to
    problem posed (.04).
  • 7. Performance items were most often score sheets
    for projects where students had a tangible
    product to be evaluated. Rubrics rarely existed
    for such performances (.14).
  • 8. Performances never (0) involved a written
    explanation of the process used or anything else.

26
Plan of Action
  • Professional development on assessment
  • Unpacked expectations for assessment
  • Developed a standards template for designing
    assessment tasks
  • Met in teams to analyze assessments

27
Purposes of Assessments
Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17,
2004)
  • assessment for learning
  • diagnostic (given before instruction to
    gather information on where to start)
  • formative (monitors student progress during
    instruction)
  • assessment of learning
  • summative (the final task at the end
    of a unit, a course, or a semester)

Ma and Pa Kettle
Ma and Pa Kettle
28
Talking Points Presentation by Jay McTighe,
November 30, 2007, Macomb ISD
  • Students should be presumed innocent of
    understanding until convicted by evidence.
  • Prior knowledge is like the largest part of the
    iceberg.
  • Think photo album versus snapshot when it comes
    to assessment

29
Formative Assessment Techniques Source Fisher,
D. and Frey, N. (2007). Checking for
Understanding. Alexandria, VA ASCD, pp. 5-12
  • Main points
  • Aligns with enduring understandings
  • Allows for differentiation
  • Focuses on gap analysis
  • Leads to precise teaching

30
Formative Assessment techniques
  • Oral Language
  • Accountable talk, nonverbal cues, value lineups,
    retellings, think-pair-share, whip around
  • Questions
  • Response cards, hand signals, personal response
    systems, Socratic seminars
  • Writing
  • Interactive writing, read-write-pair-share,
    summary writing, RAFT
  • Tests
  • Multiple choice with misconceptions as
    distracters, short answer with word banks,
    true-false items with correction for the false
    items

31
Methods of Assessment
Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis,
Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for
Student Learning. Assessment Training
Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 91-93.
  • Selected response
  • one answer is correct sometimes taken from a
    list
  • Extended written response
  • constructed into sentences criteria given for
    quality
  • Performance assessment
  • observed product of learning criteria given for
    quality
  • Personal communication
  • interaction with student uses checklist or
    criteria

32
Organize
using
concrete objects, pictures, tallies, tables,
charts, diagrams, and graphs
data
KNOWLEDGE/UNDERSTANDING
REASONING
SKILLS
PRODUCTS
DISPOSITIONS
Selected Extended Written
Selected Extended Written Performance
Personal
Performance Personal Communication
Extended Written Performance
33
Activity
  • Individually
  • On your right hand side of the chart of your
    target/method planning sheet, list the methods
    that would be the best matches for the targets
    you have identified.

34
Purposes of Assessments
Adapted from Braveman, S. L. (Ed Week, March 17,
2004)
  • assessment for learning
  • diagnostic (given before instruction to
    gather information on where to start)
  • formative (monitors student progress during
    instruction)
  • assessment of learning
  • summative (the final task at the end
    of a unit, a course, or a semester)

35
Methods of Assessment
  • Selected response
  • Extended written response
  • Performance assessment
  • Personal communication

AUTHENTIC
36
Authentic Academic Achievement
  • Construction of Knowledge producing meaning
    from prior experiences
  • Disciplined Inquiry cognitive work for
    in-depth understanding
  • Value Beyond School meaning apart from
    documenting competence

Newmann, Secada, and Wehlage, A Guide to
Authentic Instruction and Assessment, 1995
37
Seven Standards for Assessment Tasks
  • Organization of Information
  • Consideration of Alternatives
  • Disciplinary Content
  • Disciplinary Process
  • Elaborated Written Communication
  • Problem Connected to the World Beyond School
  • Audience Beyond the School

Newmann, Secada, and Wehlage, A Guide to
Authentic Instruction and Assessment, 1995
38
Examples of Assessment Tasks
  • Students will design a poster showing the history
    of a major city of a U.S. region.
  • Students will conduct a lab experiment on states
    of water, recording observations of freezing and
    thawing points.
  • Students will tell about three different events
    in their week, identifying correctly when each
    occurs.
  • Students will collect data on the number and type
    of forest animals and create an graphic
    representation of the populations.
  • Students will make a PowerPoint presentation to a
    younger audience about a tribe of Michigan Native
    Americans.
  • Students will write a persuasive essay about a
    position on a current monetary or fiscal policy
    that addresses unemployment.

39
Components of an Authentic Assessment Task
  • What new prompt will you use to trigger old
    learning from prior instruction?
  • A prompt is the stimulus material given to
    students at the time of assessment which
    activates prior knowledge relevant to the task.
  • While carrying out the assessment task, the
    student uses the prompt to produce discourse, a
    performance, or a tangible object.
  • A prompt could be presented through various
    media, e.g., print, auditory, or visual.
  • Prompts might also take various forms, e.g.,
    reading, graphic, motion picture, recording, map,
    data set, etc.

40
Example of Prompt
  • Letter from an Immigrant
  • Dear Marta,
  • I hope you received my letter telling you that I
    am now an American
  • citizen. We have an election for mayor in my city
    in one month. I will be
  • able to vote for the first time in my life. I
    have learned as much as I can
  • about the two candidates for mayor. I think that
    Bonnie Kalinowski is
  • clearly my choice.
  • I wanted to learn more about American history to
    I am going to night
  • school. I go two nights a week after work.
  • I must stop for now. I have homework for my
    class! I will write again
  • soon.
  • Sincerely,
  • Jacob

41
Components of an Authentic Assessment Task
  • What directions will you give to the students
    completing the task?
  • The students being assessed are the audience for
    these directions.
  • These directions should be included just as they
    would be given to students at the time they are
    directed to perform the assessment task.
  • They should include a very clear statement of the
    product students are expected to generate as a
    result of performing the assessment task as well
    as the criteria that will be used to gauge the
    quality of student work, i.e., the scoring
    rubric.

42
Example of Directions
  • We have been learning about how important the
    right to vote is. Jacob as a new American citizen
    is certainly excited about gaining this right. He
    needs help, however, finding ways to take a more
    active part in the election. Write Jacob a letter
    explaining why you think it is important for him
    to become involved in the election campaign.
    Then, describe three different ways he could help
    Ms. Kalinowski become mayor. Make sure to explain
    your suggestions clearly.

43
Components of an Authentic Assessment Task
  • What procedures will you use as the teacher
    administering the task?
  • The steps to be followed by the teacher in
    conducting the assessment should be listed, and
    each step should be briefly elaborated.
  • These procedures should be written so that
    another teacher, new to the assessment task,
    could carry them out.

44
Example of Procedures
  • Read aloud the prompt with students. Ask the
    students if there are any questions regarding the
    reading. Then, go over the directions for the
    assessment task and the rubric. Finally, provide
    time for the students to complete the extended
    response individually.

45
Components of an Authentic Assessment Task
  • What scoring rubric will you use to evaluate the
    quality of the students task?
  • The assessment task should provide for individual
    student accountability.
  • The scores are cumulative each higher score
    entails the criteria of the lower scores. Each
    higher score requires that something be added to
    the quality of student work not required for the
    next lower score.
  • The criteria for each score should specify how
    good is good enough for that score to be
    assigned.

46
A rubric is
  • a set of scoring guidelines/criteria that
    describes a range of possible student responses
    for a particular assessment task.

Adapted from Arter and McTighe (2001). Scoring
Rubrics in the Classroom. Nolet And McLaughlin
(2000). Accessing the General Curriculum.
47
A rubric contains
  • a scale that indicates the points that will be
    assigned to a students work (different levels of
    proficiency) and
  • a set of meaningful descriptors for each point on
    that scale. (Descriptors establish the continuum
    of competence along which a learner moves towards
    proficiency.)
  • Rubrics are frequently accompanied by examples
    of products or performances illustrating the
    different score points for proficiency (anchor
    papers).

48
Why use a rubric?
  • Communicate appropriate standards and
    expectations for students (what will count)
  • Provide feedback to students and parents
  • Guide and focus instruction
  • Promote student self-assessment and goal
    setting
  • Improve grading consistency
  • --judgments become more objective, consistent,
    and accurate

Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis,
Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for
Student Learning. Assessment Training
Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 200.
49
Features of High-Quality Rubrics
  • ContentWhat counts?
  • Look fors (essential traits), quality over
    quantity
  • ClarityDoes everyone understand what is meant?
  • PracticalityIs it easy to use by teachers and
    students?
  • Technical quality/fairnessIs it reliable and
    valid?

Stiggins, Richard J, Arter, Judith A., Chappuis,
Jan, Chappius, Stephen. Classroom Assessment for
Student Learning. Assessment Training
Institute, Inc., Portland, Oregon, 2004, p. 201
and 203
50
Holistic or Analytical Rubrics?
  • Holistic Rubric
  • Gives a single score or rating for the entire
    product or performance based on an overall
    impression of a students work.
  • Used with summative assessments and standardized
    tests.
  • Analytical Rubric
  • Divides a product or performance into essential
    traits or dimensions (Look Fors) so they can be
    judged separately. Provides a profile of
    strengths and weaknesses.
  • Used with formative assessments

51
Example of Rubric
BENCHMARK SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE
Wow! You've Got It! Nearly There! Oops!
Describe how citizens can participate in election campaigns. (VI.3.LE.1). The student clearly explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes three ways in which they can participate. The student explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes two way in which they can participate. The student explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes one way in which they can participate. The student either explains why citizens should participate in elections or describes one way in which they can participate.
0 the criteria for a score of 1 have not been
met.
52
Example of Rubric
BENCHMARK SCORE SCORE SCORE SCORE
1 2 3 4
Describe how citizens can participate in election campaigns. (VI.3.LE.1). The student either explains why citizens should participate in elections or describes one way in which they can participate. The student explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes one way in which they can participate. The student explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes two way in which they can participate. The student clearly explains why citizens should participate in elections and describes three ways in which they can participate.
0 the criteria for a score of 1 have not been
met.
53
Activity
  • Individually
  • Begin planning the assessments for the outcomes
    that you have unpacked for your unit
  • summative, authentic assessment tasks
  • formative assessment tasks

54
POP
  • Purpose
  • Analyzing the new GLCEs and HSCEs for good
    classroom assessment and instruction, leading to
    increased student achievement
  • Objectives
  • Differentiate between the purposes of assessment
  • Unpack expectations into targets
  • Match targets to methods of assessment
  • Develop a set of assessments for your classroom
  • Procedure
  • PowerPoint slides for presenting information
  • Practice with the expectations
  • Use of templates and protocols

55
Questions?
  • Stan Masters
  • Coordinator of Curriculum, Assessment,
  • and School Improvement
  • Lenawee Intermediate School District
  • 4107 North Adrian Highway
  • Adrian, Michigan 49921
  • 517-265-1606 (phone)
  • 517-265-2953 (fax)
  • stan.masters_at_lisd.us
  • http//www.lisd.us/curriculum/
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