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Entrepreneurship Indicators Project Developing Comparable Measures of Entrepreneurship and the Factors that Enhance or Impede It Tim Davis OECD Statistics Directorate Structural Business Statistics Meeting May 10/11, 2007, Paris

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Title: Entrepreneurship Indicators Project Developing Comparable Measures of Entrepreneurship and the Factors that Enhance or Impede It Tim Davis OECD Statistics Directorate Structural Business Statistics Meeting May 10/11, 2007, Paris


1
Entrepreneurship Indicators Project Developing
Comparable Measures of Entrepreneurship and the
Factors that Enhance or Impede ItTim Davis
OECD Statistics Directorate Structural
Business Statistics Meeting May 10/11, 2007,
Paris

2
Entrepreneurship Indicators Project
  • Background
  • Fundamental Aims of the Project
  • Engaging Countries and Other Participants
  • Definitions and Measures
  • Frameworks for Entrepreneurship and for
    Indicators
  • Examples of Entrepreneurship Indicators
  • Forthcoming meetings
  • Key deliverables in 2007and 2008

3
Background
  • Long history of OECD and other interest in E-Ship
  • Numerous OECD entrepreneurship studies
  • Explicit policy priority for virtually all
    countries
  • Little explicit entrepreneurship data at NSOs
  • Little sustained international statistical
    development
  • Asked to test feasibility of better international
    measures
  • Financial support and a push from
  • Kauffman Foundation
  • International Consortium for Entrepreneurship
    (ICE)

4
Entrepreneurship-Related Work at OECD
  • SMEs and Employment Creation, 1996
  • Fostering Entrepreneurship, (Jobs Strategy), 1998
  • Women Entrepreneurs in SMEs, 1998
  • Small Business, Job Creation and Growth, 1998
  • Impact of Product Market Regulation, 1999 and
    2005
  • Linking Entrepreneurship to Growth, 2000
  • Business Views on Red Tape, 2001
  • Entrepreneurship and Local Development, 2003
  • Firm Demographics and Survival, 2003
  • Factors of Success and Statistical Strategies,
    2002
  • Fostering Firm Creation and Entrepreneurship,
    2004
  • Micro-Policies for Growth and Productivity, 2005

5
ICE Countries
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • United States
  • OECD

6
Feasibility Study
  • Confusion regarding definitions/measures
  • Inadequacy or non-comparability of any single
    measure
  • Opinion surveys and case studies supply many
    indicators
  • Member-country interest and support
  • Demand for internationally-comparable measures
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Determinants of entrepreneurship
  • Linked to Policy objectives
  • Relevant to policy tools available to countries
  • Many data gaps but also potential data sources

7
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9
Feasibility Study and Action Plan
  • BUT
  • Will countries accept to harmonise data?
  • Will countries invest in data?
  • Cautious Yes voiced through Statistics
    Committee
  • With CSTAT support and additional Kauffman
    funding
  • Project launched in Fall 2006
  • Important additional support from
  • ICE Consortium
  • Denmark
  • OECD
  • Eurostat
  • Effectively..a Joint OECD/Eurostat Project

10
Fundamental Aims and Steps of the Project
  • 1. Measurement Manual Standard definitions and
    measurement tools
  • 2. Compile and publish a Compendium on
    Entrepreneurship
  • STEPS
  • Engage national and international bodies so that
    money and effort will be devoted to producing
    data
  • Establish Indicator Priorities Identify data
    required by policy-makers to measure
    Entrepreneurship and underlying factors
  • Agree on definitions, methods and sources
  • Data collection from Statistical Business
    Registers
  • Partner with other data producers Identify and
    assemble other data from existing sources
  • Develop, pilot and run (co-ordinate) new
    entrepreneurship surveys

11
Engaging countries and others in the EIP
  • The Entrepreneurship Indicators Steering Group
  • Eurostat
  • Broadens European input Implementation
    experience
  • Partner on Manuals and data collection
  • International Consortium on Entrepreneurship
    (ICE)
  • Committee on Industry, Innovation,
    Entrepreneurship
  • Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship (OECD)
  • Strengthens Policy and Research inputs
  • Committee on Statistics (OECD)
  • Links to Entrepreneurship Research Bodies (EIM)

12
Entrepreneurship Indicators Steering Group
  • Informal Body created by Stats Directorate and
    Committee
  • Sub-set of OECD countries other experts
  • Statistical and entrepreneurship policy/research
    expertise
  • 1st Meeting Dec 06 (Rome) 2nd Meeting June 07
    (Istanbul)
  • Still some membership gaps
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Italy
  • Korea
  • Netherlands
  • Sweden
  • United Kingdom
  • United States
  • Eurostat
  • EU Commission-DG-ENT
  • OECD CFE
  • World Bank
  • Kauffman Foundation

13
What is Entrepreneurship? - Definitions
  • An attitude? A behaviour? A specific economic
    activity?
  • Numerous definitions exist
  • Ability to marshal resources to capitalize on
    opportunities
  • Willing to take risks, be innovative exploit
    opportunities
  • None of these are necessarily limited to new or
    small firms
  • Term is often (simplistically) applied to
    leaders, hard workers, innovators, any SME or
    anyone in business

14
Entrepreneurship Definitions
  • Does a single, perfect definition exist?
  • And could it be measured?
  • Steering Group is developing an overarching
    definition
  • A conceptual description to guide choice of
    measures
  • But
  • Statisticians want to leap ahead to the process
  • Break it down to measure inputs and outputs
  • If entrepreneurship is happening ..
  • .what is the measurable result?

15
Fundamental or Umbrella Definitions
  • Broad by design Vetting and approvals yet to
    come
  • Will accommodate numerous, specific policy goals
    and associated measures
  • The entrepreneur is the person who creates and
    exchanges value through the identification and
    employment of changes in resources, opportunities
    and/or innovation.
  • Entrepreneurship is the phenomena associated
    with the mindset, planning and activities that
    create and exchange value through the
    identification and employment of changes in
    resources, opportunities and/or innovation.
  • Entrepreneurial activity is the enterprising
    human action associated with the creation and
    exchange of value through the identification and
    employment of resources, opportunities and/or
    innovation.

16
What is Entrepreneurship? - Measures
  • For some
  • Its simply self-employment or creation of new
    firms
  • Assume more firm creation leads to more high
    growth
  • But for others, including us, it is more
  • Important to link to (OECD/EU) policy interests
  • Entrepreneurship is the process leading to the
    creation and growth of businesses
  • Must measure both creation and growth

17
What is Entrepreneurship? - Measures
  • Are policy-makers also interested in
  • Entrepreneurship in existing even old firms ?
  • Take-overs, reactivations, transfers and
    transitions ?
  • Export behaviour ? Innovation by young firms ?
  • Initially, more measures are desirable
  • Clarity and comparability are key
  • Measures of entrepreneurship and its drivers

18
Entrepreneurship Process Demand and Supply Model
External Factors influencing
  • Incentives
  • Culture/Motivation
  • Framework Conditions

Entrepreneurship Performance
Demand Opportunities
Supply Abilities
  • Financial Capital
  • Social/Human Capital
  • Technology Transfer
  • Access to Market
  • Firm Creation
  • High-growth firms
  • Business Density

19
Organising Indicators
  • Several categories of Indicators
  • Determinants or Framework Conditions for
    Entrepreneurship
  • Performance or Degree of Entrepreneurship
  • Impact of Entrepreneurship
  • Also
  • Attributes of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial
    firms
  • Some indicators link to policy e.g. Education
  • Others enhance knowledge and help target
    programs
  • e.g. Age, Entrepreneurial Heredity

20
Entrepreneurship Framework
21
Indicator Priorities and Definitions
  • Ideally Establish complete indicator list first
  • Schedule dictates simultaneous work
  • A Steering Group Task Force is defining
    indicators
  • While some data collection already under way
  • Manual Drafting Group is joint OECD/Eurostat
    activity
  • Joint Business Demography Manual
  • Joint Entrepreneurship Indicators Manual

22
Indicator Examples Entrepreneurship Performance
  • Firm start-up rates, by size category
  • Measures of high-growth firms


  • Firm survival rates
  • Business density
  • Degree of entry and exit churn
  • Business ownership Self-employment
  • Innovation measures Commercialisation of
    research
  • Attributes of the entrepreneurial firms

23
Indicator Examples Entrepreneurship Determinants
  • Access to financing
  • Entrepreneurship education
  • Taxation and incentives
  • Business infrastructure
  • Ease of entry
  • Administrative and regulatory burdens
  • Innovation and RD
  • Access to technology
  • Re-start possibilities Bankruptcy environment

24
Entrepreneurship Indicators Performance,
Determinants, Impact
25
Key Deliverables 2007/2008
  • Fall 2007
  • High Growth Definitions and Measures (Seminar)
  • Risk Capital Definitions and Data sources
  • December 2007
  • Preliminary OECD-Eurostat Measurement Manual
  • Compendium of available indicators
  • September 2008
  • Measurement Manual
  • Compendium of Entrepreneurship Indicators
  • 2007/2008
  • Sponsorship and funding support

26
Forthcoming Meetings and Activities
  • June 2007 (Istanbul)
  • Entrepreneurship Indicators Steering Group
  • Workshop on Entrepreneurship Indicators at World
    Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policy
  • Fall 2007
  • Seminar on High Growth
  • Entrepreneurship Indicators Steering Group
  • ICE Consortium Meeting
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