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2014 WATER QUALITY-(B

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2014 WATER QUALITY-(B&C) Marine & Estuary KAREN LANCOUR National Bio Rules Committee Chairman C. Robyn Fischer National Event Supervisor Part 2: Coral Reef Ecology ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 2014 WATER QUALITY-(B


1
2014 WATER QUALITY-(BC) Marine Estuary
  • KAREN LANCOUR
  • National Bio Rules Committee Chairman

C. Robyn Fischer National Event Supervisor
2
Event Rules 2014
  • DISCLAIMER
  • This presentation was prepared using draft
    rules.  There may be some changes in the final
    copy of the rules.  The rules which will be in
    your Coaches Manual and Student Manuals will be
    the official rules.

3
Event Rules 2014
  • BE SURE TO CHECK THE 2014 EVENT RULES FOR EVENT
    PARAMETERS AND TOPICS FOR EACH COMPETITION LEVEL

4
TRAINING MATERIALS
  • Training Power Point content overview
  • Training Handout content information
  • Sample Tournament sample problems with key
  • Event Supervisor Guide prep tips, setup needs,
    and scoring tips
  • Internet Resources Training Materials on the
    Science Olympiad website at www.soinc.org under
    Event Information
  • A Biology-Earth Science CD and a Water Quality CD
    (updated to include marine 2014) are available
    from SO store at www.soinc.org

5
Aquatic Ecosystems
  • Freshwater
  • Lotic ecosystems flowing water
  • Streams
  • Rivers
  • Lentic ecosystems still water
  • Ponds
  • Lakes
  • Wetlands
  • Estuary ecosystems 2014
  • Marine ecosystems 2014
  • Coral Reef Ecology 2014

6
EVENT COMPONENTS
  • Ecology Content 2014
  • Part 1 Estuary and Marine Ecology
  • Part 2 Coral Reef Ecology
  • Part 3 Water Monitoring and Analysis
  • Process skills in data, graph and diagram
    analysis
  • Event parameters check the event parameters in
    the rules for resources allowed.

7
Part 1 Estuary and Marine Ecology
  • Areas such as
  • Aquatic Ecology in Marine/Estuary Environments
  • Aquatic Food Chains and Webs
  • Population Dynamics
  • Community Interactions
  • Nutrient Recycling
  • Water Cycle
  • Threats to Marine Estuary Water Quality

8
General Principles of Aquatic Ecology
  • ECOLOGY how organisms interact with one another
    and with their environment
  • ENVIRONMENT living and non-living components
  • ABIOTIC non-living component or physical
    factors as soil, rainfall, sunlight, temperatures
  • BIOTIC living component are other organisms.

9
Marine Ecology
  • Abiotic
  • Non-living part of the environment
  • Biotic
  • Living part of the environment
  • interdependence of all organisms living in the
    ocean, in shallow coastal waters, and on the
    seashore

10
Marine Abiotic Factors
  • water
  • salinity
  • light
  • pressure
  • temperature
  • dissolved gases
  • pH
  • tides
  • currents
  • waves
  • substratum
  • nutrient supply
  • exposure to air

11
Water Cycle
  • 97 of the water on earth is salt water in the
    ocean. Of the 3 of water that is fresh water,
    2 is frozen in ice caps and only 1 is usable by
    organisms as liquid water or water vapor found in
    lakes, rivers, streams, ponds , in the ground
    water, and as vapor in the atmosphere

12
Unique Qualities of Pure Water
  • The Unique Nature of Pure Water
  • Water is 775 times as dense as air at 0 o C
  • Water is found on earth in three forms liquid,
    solid and gas
  • Density maximum density is at 4o C not at
    freeing point of 0 o C and expands as it freezes
    so ice floats
  • The H20 molecule is polar and hydrogen bonding
    is present
  • Water is a polar molecule one end is positively
    charged and the other is negatively charged
  • Cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a
    body of water (surface tension) is very high

13
Salt Water Features
  • The oceans consist of (by mass)
  • 96.5 water
  • 3.0 sodium and chlorine ions (table salt, Na
    and Cl)
  • 0.5 other salts

14
Marine Environments
15
Marine Regions
16
Food Chain
  • Producer
  • 1st order Consumer or Herbivore
  • 2nd order Consumer or 1st order Carnivore
  • 3rd order Consumer or 2nd order Carnivore
  • 4th order Consumer or 3rd order Carnivore
  • Decomposers consume dead and decaying matter as
    bacteria

17
Marine Food Web
18
Ecologic Pyramids
  • Ecological pyramid - a graph representing
    trophic level numbers within an ecosystem. The
    primary producer level is at the base of the
    pyramid with the consumer levels above.
  • Numbers pyramid - compares the number of
    individuals in each trophic level. May be
    inverted
  • due to size of individuals
  • Biomass pyramid - compares the total dry weight
    of the organisms in each trophic level.
  • Energy pyramid - compares the total amount of
    energy available in each trophic level. This
    energy is usually measured in kilocalories.

19
Trophic Pyramids-Marine
The 10 rule for Energy Pyramids
20
Carbon, Nitrogen Phosphorus Cycles
21
Threats to Marine Ecosystems
  • Oil spills and their ecological disasters
  • Marine dumping of wastes plastic and other
    wastes
  • Dredging Wastes
  • Overfishing
  • Ocean acidification reducing calcium carbonate
  • Population displacement
  • Mangrove Destruction
  • Bycatch marine wildlife unintentionally caught
    as sea turtles, porpoises, albatross, crabs,
    starfish fish
  • Whaling is still a problem though strides are
    being make

22
Threats to Ocean Health
  • Marine Pollution
  • Habitat Destruction
  • Overfishing and Exploitation
  • Climate Change
  • Sea Temperature Rise
  • Ocean Acidification
  • Invasive Species
  • Ocean Dead Zones

23
Estuaries
  • The areas of water and shoreline where a
    freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
  • Estuaries can be partially enclosed body of water
    (such as bays, lagoons, sounds or sloughs) where
    two different bodies of water meet and mix
  • They often bordered by salt marshes or intertidal
    mudflats
  • Salinity varies within the estuary from nearly
    fresh water to ocean water

24
Importance of Estuaries
  • Of the 32 largest cities in the world, 22 are
    located on estuaries
  • Many animal species rely on estuaries for nesting
    and breeding
  • Most of the fish and shellfish eaten in the
    United States, including salmon, herring, and
    oysters, complete at least part of their life
    cycles in estuaries
  • Estuaries filter out sediments and pollutants
    from rivers and streams before they flow into the
    ocean, providing cleaner waters for humans and
    marine life
  • Humans also rely on estuaries for recreation,
    jobs, and even our homes
  • Coastal development, introduction of invasive
    species, over fishing, dams, and global climate
    change have led to a decline in the health of
    estuaries, making them one of the most threatened
    ecosystems on Earth

25
Estuary Classification
  • Estuaries can be classified according to their
    water circulation
  • The amount of circulation affects the salt
    distribution and salinity concentrations
  • salt-wedge fjord slightly
    stratified
  • vertically mixed freshwater 

26
Common Estuary Habitats
  • oyster reefs
  • kelp forests
  • rocky and soft
  • shorelines
  • submerged aquatic
  • vegetation
  • coastal marshes
  • mangroves forests
  • deepwater swamps
  • and riverine forests
  • mud flats
  • tidal streams
  • barrier beaches
  • salt marshes

27
Adaptation of Organisms
  • Physiological adaptations
  • How organisms adapt to the environment by changes
    in metabolism, behavior and other
    characteristics.
  • The genes of the organism remains unchanged
  • The adaptation is not passed onto its progeny
  • Evolutionary adaptations
  • Over generations, species adapt to the
    environment through natural selection.
  • Genetic differences of an individual organism
    that makes it better adapted to its environment
    are passed onto the organisms progeny

28
Adaptations of Estuary Organisms
  • Salinity, temperature, water levels and light
    levels vary along the length of an estuary
  • shutting up shells, digging borrows and excretion
    of excess salts
  • fish maintain water balance by actively drinking
    salt water
  • increasing their respiratory water flow and
    increase oxygen consumption
  • mechanisms to deal with high energy winds and
    waves
  • most efficient tree is low, with numerous crowded
    branches
  • the tree may include flattening of the trunk,
    root and branches in a plan parallel to the wind
    direction

29
Estuary Organisms Survival
30
Estuary Food Web
31
Threats to Estuaries EPA
  • Too many nutrients
  • Pathogens
  • Toxic chemicals
  • Habitat loss
  • Invasive Species
  • Changes in water flow

32
Point and Non-Point Pollution Sources
  • Pollutants pose a large threat to estuarine
    organisms
  • Pollutants are introduced into estuaries from
    either point sources or non-point sources.
  • Point sources are clearly defined, localized
    inputs such as pipes, industrial plants, sewer
    systems, oil spills from tankers, and aquaculture
    ventures.
  • Non-point sources are indistinct inputs that do
    not have a clearly defined source, such as runoff
    of petroleum products from roadways or pesticides
    from farmland.
  • A majority of pollutants find their way into
    estuaries from non-point sources
  • Non-point sources are harder to detect and
    control
  • Reduction of pollution requires substantial
    individual and collective efforts
  • The federal and state governments regulate them.

33
Estuary Preservation
  • Ensuring the health of our estuaries is vital to
    the survival of the plant and animal communities
  • To preserve our estuaries, the National Estuarine
    Research Reserve System was established to
    protect more than 1.3 million acres of estuarine
    habitat for long-term research, monitoring,
    education, and stewardship throughout the coastal
    United States.

34
Part 2 Coral Reef Ecology
  • Examine coral reefs and the effects of pollution
    on reef ecosystems
  • Topics that may be included are
  • coral reef biology
  • growth and reproduction
  • zooxanthellae
  • reef fish communities
  • reef ecosystem
  • health indicators
  • the importance of coral reefs
  • problems associated with pollution
  • management of reef systems

35
Coral Polyp
  • Stony corals are the major reef architects. These
    small marine animals, (individual organisms are
    called polyps), produce a hard skeleton made of
    calcium carbonate, which they extract from the
    seawater and combine with CO2 for limestone
  • Other reef building organisms include fire
    corals, blue pipe corals, coralline algae,
    tropical reef worms

36
Coral Life Cycle
  • First stage of the corals life cycle is planula
    larvae, which allows it to be free swimming.
  • Second stage of its life is polyp which is when
    the coral is stuck to a rock.
  • In the polyp stage, it is able to reproduce,
  • either asexual - involves the splitting of a
    coral (called fission) or sprouting another coral
    from itself (called budding).
  • sexually (with another polyp)
  • involves a cycle of
  • SPAWNING gtgt FERTILIZING gtgt PLANULAE LARVAE
    SETTLEMENT gtgt CLONING

37
Symbiosis Coral Zooxanthellae
  • Coral Polyp provides a home for the
    zooxanthellae, it provides nitrates and
    phosphates, and it gives off CO2
  • Zooxanthellae, a dinoflagellate carries out
    photosynthesis and make oxygen and food for the
    polyp through photosynthesis, gain nutrients from
    the corals nitrogen and phosphorus wastes, and
    provide for most of the colors for the coral in
    the reef making them look like underwater gardens

38
Coral Reef Regions
39
Requirements for Reef Formation
  • Solid structure for the base with a hard
    substrate for attachment
  • Warm water temperatures gt 20C (68F) and oceanic
    salinities
  • High Light Levels
  • Clear waters with high water transparency
  • Low nutrient waters - low in phosphate and
    nitrogen nutrients
  • Good water circulation with moderate wave action
    to disperse wastes and bring oxygen and plankton
    to the reef

40
Coral Reef Development
41
Zones of a Coral Biome
  • Shore or inner reef zone - area is between the
    crest and the shoreline-full of life including
    fishes, sea cucumbers, starfish, and anemones.
  • Crest reef zone - highest point of the reef and
    where the waves break over the reef.
  • Fore or outer reef zone - As the reef wall falls
    off, the waters get calmer. Around 30 feet deep,
    will be the most populated part of the reef along
    with lots of different types of coral species.

42
Coral Reef Organisms
  • Coral reefs are inhabited by thousands of species
    including
  • Algae
  • Sponges
  • Soft corals
  • Sea slugs
  • Urchins and star fish
  • Worms
  • Crabs and lobster
  • Snails
  • Clams, scallops,
  • and barnacles
  • Fish
  • Sea turtles
  • Sharks and rays

43
Coral Reef Food Web
44
Coral Reef Fish Communities
45
Coral Reef Importance
  • Fishery and nursery areas (food)
  • Tourism, recreation
  • Potential medicines
  • Coastal protection

46
Coral Reef Health Indicators
  • Marine Apex Predators
  • Biomass
  • Average Catch Length
  • Coral Cover
  • Indicator Organisms

47
INDICATOR ORGANISMS
  • Reef Check http//reefcheck.org/about_RC_Reef/pub
    lications/Reef20Check20Report.pdf/RC_report_FINA
    L_2.pdf
  • Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network-http//gcrmn.
    org/gcrmn-publication/status-of-coral-reefs-of-the
    -world-2008/
  • http//gcrmn.org/publication-category/status-of-co
    ral-reefs-of-the-world/

48
Healthy vs. Badly Damaged Reef
49
Coral Reef Threats
  • Chemical pollutants
  • Excess nutrients
  • Sedimentation
  • Coral bleaching
  • Coral diseases
  • Climate change and ocean acidification
  • Overfishing

50
Coral Reefs Threats
51
Healthy vs. Damaged Reef
52
Coral Reef Management
  • Fisheries regulation
  • Marine protected areas
  • Coastal zoning
  • The problem of ecosystem phase-shifts (how if
    corals die and area is taken over by algae, it
    achieves a new steady state and is very difficult
    for corals to re-colonize)

53
Part 3 Water Monitoring
  • Understand and interpret data related to testing
    procedures and purposes for water testing (No
    actual testing)
  • Build and demonstrate a salinometer capable of
    testing saltwater (1-10)

54
Chemical Analysis
  • Salinity - only actual testing with salinometer
  • Temperature
  • Aragonite Saturation - for marine esp. coral
    reefs
  • pH
  • Turbidity Light Saturation in marine
    environments
  • Dissolved oxygen
  • Biochemical oxygen demand
  • Phosphates
  • Nitrates
  • Total solids
  • Fecal Coliform
  • Their relationship to one another note the
    Water Quality Index used for freshwater does not
    apply to marine. Regions have their own marine
    water quality index.

55
Salinomter Hydrometer
  • Salinometers / Hydrometers
  • Hydrometer calibrated to read in of salt
    concentration
  • Materials
  • soda straw
  • modeling clay
  • a fine-tipped permanent marker
  • a tall clear container to hold
  • the solution for calibrating your
  • device
  • salt for mixing one or more standard solutions
  • water (tap water will work-distilled is better)

56
SALINOMETER TIPS
  • The narrow the diameter of the salinometer, the
    higher the water will rise this make
    calibration easier.
  • Small plastic pipettes instead of the straw and
    clay work well. Hold the pipette upside down,
    cut the opening to make it wider and weight it
    putting sand into the bulb. Cover the opening
    with tape or clay so the sand wont get wet when
    you calibrate it.
  • Measuring electronic conduction (the more salt
    the more electricity is conducted) is another
    possibility just be sure that the device is
    made by the team

57
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