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??????????? Virtue, emotion, and moral education

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Title: ??????????? Virtue, emotion, and moral education


1
???????????Virtue, emotion, and moral education
  • ????????
  • National Taiwan Normal University
  • ???
  • Chien-Fu Lin

2
  • ????????????????,???????????????????????
    ?????
  • This essay is aimed both at exploring
    the intrinsic relationships between virtues and
    emotions and at expounding the significance of
    the cultivation of emotions and the formation of
    virtues in moral education.

3
  • ??,???????????,??????????,????Aristotle?????
    ,????????????,??????????????????????,???????,????
    ??????????,????????????????

4
  • Therefore, this essay is divided into three
    parts first of all, to discuss the meanings and
    nature of virtues, in particular referring to
    Aristotles virtue ethics secondly, to reveal
    the cognitional and evaluative aspects of the
    meanings of emotions and to furtherly make clear
    the possible inherent connections of emotions to
    virtues finally, being based on the
    aforementioned recognition and focusing on the
    development of virtues, to investigate the
    necessity of and the feasible ways of educating
    emotions.

5
??/Virtue
  • ??????(hexis, state of character),?????(faculty)??
    ?(pathos)?

6
??????????????????????,?????????????,???????(or
thos logos)????,????????????????????????(NE,
BK.2, 6)
  • Virtue is a state of character concerned with
    choice, lying in a mean, i.e. the mean relative
    to us, this being determined by a rational
    principle, and by that principle by which the man
    of practical wisdom would determine it.

7
Vice??(Virtue)Vice
  • Defect the intermediate excess
  • to feel at the right times,
  • to act with regerence to the right
  • objects, towards the
    right
  • people, with the right
  • motive, in the right way.

8
???????
  • ???????????????
  • he must choose the acts, and choose them for
    their own sakes.

9
  • ?? ????(moral virtues)
  • liberality, temperance, etc.
  • ????(intellectual
  • virtues)
  • art, scientific knowledge, practical
  • wisdom, intuitive reason,
  • philosophical wisdom.

10
  • ????????(deliberate)???(choose)????????(act in
    accordance with the choice)(????????)

11
  • ??????????????(practical reason),???????(practical
    syllogism)????
  • ???(the major premise)
  • light meats are digestible and wholesome
  • ???(the minor premise)
  • which sorts of meat are light
  • ??(conclusion)he would or would not produce
    health.

12
  • ???(the major premise)
  • ????????(the conception of a good life,
    etc.)???(want)???(goal)???(desire)??
  • ???(the minor premise)
  • ???????(the features of the specific
    situation)?
  • ??(conclusion)
  • ?????????(the disposition to act in accordance
    with the choice)?
  • ?????????????????????,???????????????????

13
  • ??????????????
  • Practical wisdom needs and completes moral
    virtues, and vice versa.

14
  • ?????????????(must enjoy acting virtuously)?

15
  • ??????????????????

16
?1 ?????????????emotions as mental phenomena
with heterogeneity
  • ???????????
  • (with or without intentionality)
  • intentionality?reference to something as its
    object?
  • e.g. fear-danger anger-obstruction,
  • hindrance, etc.

17
???????????????(with or without cognition or
evaluation)
  • fear the situation is dangerous for me.
  • anger there are some obstacles in my situation.

18
?????????????????(with both cause and object or
only with cause)
  • X happens before and emotion as its
  • cause.
  • Y is perceived in emotional awareness as its
    intentional object.

19
???????(dispositional emotion)??????(occurrent
emotion)
  • occurrent emotion what is felt occurrently (here
    and now).
  • dispositional emotion this underlying
    affectivity appears as a frame of mind (with
    which we are disposed to see the world in a
    certain way.)

20
?????(emotion and virtue)
  • ??the general relation between
  • them
  • 1.?????????,?????????????
  • Virtues are concerned not only with actions but
    also emotions and pleasures and pains.

21
  • 2. ????????????????
  • ??
  • Different virtues stand well with reference to
    various specific passions. (e.g. courage-fear and
    confidence good temper-anger, etc.)

22
  • ?1 ?????????????
  • The pleasure or pain that supervenes upon acts
    can be regarded as a sign of states of character.

23
?2 ??(Rorty, 1980 163-164)
emotion displaying mean state action displaying mean state choice displaying mean state
Excellence of character Yes Yes Yes
Self-control No Yes Yes
Lack of self-control No NO Yes
Badness of character No NO NO
24
???????? ???????? ????????
???? ? ? ?
?? ? ? ?
???? ? ? ?
?? ? ? ?
25
?1 ????????????????
  • emotional awareness ? the situation-perception in
    the minor premise
  • e.g. sense of indignation ? someone suffers
    unwarranted insult or injury

26
?2(???)?????????????????
  • Appetitive emotions ? the oretic mental state in
    the major premise
  • e.g. anger ? desire for revenge

27
???????????
  • The unable to focus ones
    attention in
  • deficiencies the minor premise
  • of
  • the
  • incontenent
  • action unable to be aware of the
    bearings of
  • the minor premise
    upon the end (s)
  • in the major premise.

28
?????????(emotion moral motive)
  • (???)????????????
  • ???????
  • (Appetitive emotions ? beliefs and
  • desires, the two components of
  • motive )

29
??????????(emotion the cultivation of virtues)
  • ?1 ????????,??????????????????
  • Before argument and teaching, the habit of
    ?loving what is noble and hating what is
    base?should be established.

30
?2 ?????????????????,?????????????
  • e.g.
  • In order to learn courage, the learner should be
    situated in the situation of danger.
  • good temper ? anger, etc.

31
?3 ???????????????????????,????????????
  • the relation of love, friendship, etc. ?
    emotional acceptance and identification ? create
    and pursue the new horizons of values.

32
?4 ???????????,????????
  • observe learners pleasures and pains ?
    understand their states of character

33
???????Some suggestions regarding moral education
  • ? ???????????????
  • Moral education should be carried out together
    with emotional education.

34
  • ? ??????????????
  • The formation of emotional habits in early stage
    should be cared about.

35
  • ? ????????????????
  • ?
  • The cultivation of both the proper ideal of life
    and the acute situation-perception.

36
  • ? ??????????????
  • Making good use of the identification with good
    models.

37
  • ? ???????????????
  • To appreciate different situations of life with
    the aid of literature and arts.

38
  • ? ????????????????
  • ???
  • To establish pedagogical relation or
    friendship to encourage the development of
    virtues.
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