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Current Legal Issues in Natural Gas Development

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Current Legal Issues in Natural Gas Development Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center Ross H. Pifer, J.D., LL.M., Director April 14, 2009 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Current Legal Issues in Natural Gas Development


1
Current Legal Issues in Natural Gas Development
2
Overview of Presentation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Current Natural Gas Litigation
  • Legislative Proposals
  • Basic Pennsylvania Laws
  • Oil and Gas Act
  • Oil and Gas Conservation Law
  • Dormant Oil and Gas Act

3
Natural Gas Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Lease Termination / PA Minimum Royalty Act
  • Eminent Domain
  • Environmental / Use of Surface Estate
  • Oil and Gas Act Preemption

4
Lease Termination Cases
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Middle District of Pennsylvania
  • Kropa v. Cabot Oil Gas Corp. (3/25/08)
  • Lauschle v. The Keeton Group (10/9/08)
  • Western District of Pennsylvania
  • Frederick v. Range Resources (10/17/08)
  • Susquehanna Co. Court of Common Pleas
  • Kilmer v. Elexco Land Services, Inc., and
    Southwestern Energy Production Co.

5
Lease Termination Cases
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Critical statute is 59 P.S. 33 Guarantee of
    Minimum Royalties
  • Primary Issue Does reduction of royalty for
    post-production costs create a problem with
    minimum royalty statute?

6
58 P.S. 33 Guarantee of Minimum Royalties
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • A lease or other such agreement conveying the
    right to remove or recover oil, natural gas or
    other designation from lessor to lessee shall not
    be valid if such lease does not guarantee the
    lessor at least one-eighth royalty of all oil,
    natural gas or gas of other designations removed
    or recovered from the subject real property.

7
Definition of Royalty
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Royalty is undefined in minimum royalty statute.
  • Royalty Owner is defined in Oil and Gas
    Conservation Law.
  • Royalty Interest is defined in Dormant Oil and
    Gas Act.
  • Industry practice

8
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Royalty Owner . . . An owner of an interest in
    an oil and gas lease which entitles him to share
    in the production of the oil and gas under the
    lease or the proceeds therefrom without
    obligating him to pay any costs under the lease.

9
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Royalty Interest An interest in an oil and gas
    lease which entitles the owner to share in the
    production of the oil and gas under the lease or
    proceeds from a lease without the obligation to
    pay any costs of production under the lease.

10
Kropa v. Cabot Oil Gas Corp.
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Facts
  • Five year lease for 25 per acre executed on
    March 7, 2006
  • Fraudulent inducement?
  • Assertion that company will never pay more than
    25 per acre.

11
Kropa v. Cabot Oil Gas Corp.
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Procedural History
  • Removed to federal court
  • Motion to Dismiss pending
  • Argument heard on September 16, 2008
  • Additional briefing on integration issue

12
Kropa v. Cabot Oil Gas Corp.
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Issues
  • Contract integration
  • Minimum Royalty Act
  • Appropriate remedy

13
Lauschle v. The Keeton Group
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Case filed by over 100 plaintiffs who own 18,200
    acres.
  • Lease agreements were executed in 2005 and 2006.
  • Motion to Dismiss was filed on November 24, 2008.
  • Oral argument is scheduled for May 29, 2009.

14
Frederick v. Range Resources
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Plaintiffs have received and continue to receive
    royalties from lease agreements in question.
  • If plaintiffs are successful, what is appropriate
    remedy?

15
Kilmer v. Elexco Land Service
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Susquehanna Co. Court of Common Pleas
  • March 3, 2009 Order ruled in favor of gas
    company
  • March 16, 2009 Opinion
  • Notice of Appeal filed with Superior Court on
    March 13, 2009
  • Petition for Extraordinary Relief filed with
    Supreme Court on April 6, 2009.

16
Eminent Domain Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Steckman Ridge
  • Underground storage fields in Bedford County
  • Will limit drilling into Marcellus Shale
    formation
  • FERC has granted certificate of public
    convenience.
  • On February 27, 2009, Steckman granted injunction
    to obtain immediate access onto properties.
  • Trial has been scheduled for June 15, 2009.

17
Environmental Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • POGAM v. USFS
  • POGAM and Allegheny Forest Alliance object to the
    Revised Forest Plan issued in March 2007.
  • Plan included restrictions on OGM development
    that were not subject to public comment.
  • Remedy sought is vacation of plan and remand to
    require public comment.

18
Environmental Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Forest Service Employees for Environmental Ethics
    v. USFS
  • Plaintiffs claim violations of NEPA for failure
    to require EIS or EA prior to issuance of Notices
    to Proceed.
  • Case was filed on November 20, 2008.
  • Case was settled on April 9, 2009.

19
Environmental Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Duhring v. USFS
  • Plaintiff owns interest in mineral estate and
    seeks access to surface estate to develop
    resource.
  • Notice to Proceed contained several conditions.
  • On March 6, 2009, court dismissed some claims
    pursuant to ruling on Motion for Summary
    Judgment.
  • Trial has been scheduled for February 1, 2010.

20
Environmental Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Belden Blake Corp. v. DCNR
  • Petitioner holds OGM rights beneath Oil Creek
    State Park.
  • DCNR imposed conditions for use of surface
    estate
  • Coordination agreement
  • Performance bond
  • Double stumpage fees

21
Environmental Litigation
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Belden Blake Corp. v. DCNR
  • Commonwealth Court ruled that DCNR had no
    authority to impose conditions.
  • Supreme Court heard oral argument on April 14,
    2008.

22
Use of Surface Estate
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • What is reasonable use?
  • Is reasonable use impacted by horizontal drilling
    techniques?
  • What are options for owner of surface estate?
  • Object to permit
  • Surface use agreement
  • Court injunction

23
Oil and Gas Act Preemption
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Supreme Court opinions
  • Borough of Oakmont
  • Restriction on oil and gas wells in R-1 zoning
    district was not preempted by Oil and Gas Act.
  • Salem Township
  • Surface and land development ordinance was
    preempted by Oil and Gas Act.
  • Pending before Commonwealth Court
  • Nockamixon Township
  • Argument was held on February 23, 2009.

24
Natural Gas Legislative Proposals
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Amendment of Clean and Green
  • Goal Establish uniformity statewide
  • Issues
  • Similar treatment to cell phone towers?
  • Severance of surface estate
  • Well sited on adjacent property

25
Legislative Proposals
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Severance tax
  • County Assessment Law
  • Surface owners rights
  • Expand Oil and Gas Conservation Law to encompass
    Marcellus Shale
  • Reporting requirements

26
Pennsylvanias Oil and Gas Laws
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 58 P.S. 1-701.7
  • Chapter 1 Oil and Gas Wells
  • Chapter 2 Test of Illuminating Oil
  • Chapter 5 Interstate Conservation Compact
  • Chapter 7 Oil and Gas Conservation Law
  • Chapter 8 Underground Storage Act
  • Chapter 9 Pennsylvania Used Oil Recycling Act
  • Chapter 10 Coal and Gas Resource Coordination
    Act
  • Chapter 11 Oil and Gas Act
  • Chapter 12 Dormant Oil and Gas Act

27
Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Organization of Oil and Gas Act
  • Chapter 1 Preliminary Provisions
  • Chapter 2 General Requirements
  • Chapter 3 Underground Gas Storage
  • Chapter 4 Eminent Domain
  • Chapter 5 Enforcement and Remedies
  • Chapter 6 Miscellaneous Provisions

28
Preliminary Provisions
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Declaration of Purpose Section 102
  • Permit optimal development . . . consistent with
    protection of health, safety, environment, and
    property
  • Protect safety of employees and facilities
  • Protect safety and property of those near
    development and
  • Protect natural resources

29
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Permitting Requirements Section 201
  • DEP permit is required prior to drilling.
  • Notice must be provided to
  • Surface owner
  • Surface landowner or water purveyors who have
    water supply within 1000 feet of proposed well
    location and
  • Owner / operator of underlying coal seams.

30
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Permit Objections Section 202
  • Surface owner has right to object to permit.
  • Objection must be filed with DEP within 15 days
    of receipt of notice and plat.
  • Objection can be based upon improper location of
    well or inaccurate information in permit
    application.
  • Coal mine owner / operator also has 15 days to
    file objection.

31
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Permitting Requirements Section 201
  • DEP has 45 days to issue permit.
  • Time period can be extended for additional 15
    days.
  • Permit can be rejected due to
  • Issuance of permit would violate law
  • Incomplete application
  • Unresolved objection from coal mine
  • Improper bonding
  • Violations on other wells.

32
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Permitting Requirements Section 201
  • Well must be drilled as indicated on permit
    application.
  • Permit generally expires after one year if
    drilling does not occur.
  • Permit remains in force until the well is
    plugged.
  • Permit cannot be transferred without DEP approval.

33
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Well Locations Restrictions Section 205
  • Wells cannot be drilled
  • Within 200 feet from building or water well
  • Within 100 feet from spring, stream, body of
    water, or wetland larger than one acre.
  • Waiver or variance can be granted from distance
    requirements.
  • DEP may impose conditions to protect people,
    property, and waters.
  • DEP is to consider impact of well on public
    resources when granting permit.

34
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Bonding Requirements Section 215
  • Bond must be obtained after submitting permit
    application but before drilling.
  • Bond is conditioned upon faithfully performing
    all of the drilling, water supply replacement,
    restoration, and plugging requirements of the
    Act.
  • Failure to comply with Act causes forfeiture of
    bond funds to Well Plugging Restricted Revenue
    Account.

35
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Ground Water Protection Section 207
  • Casing is required when
  • Drilling through fresh water strata
  • Certain coal seams.
  • Brines must be disposed of in compliance with
    Clean Streams Law.

36
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Protection of Water Supplies Section 208
  • Well operator must restore or replace a water
    supply that is polluted or diminished.
  • Presumption of Liability
  • Well is presumed to have caused pollution or
    diminution of water supply located within 1000
    feet of well.
  • Presumption can be rebutted by performing a
    predrill test of water supply.
  • Presumption also is rebutted if landowner refuses
    permission to perform a predrill test.

37
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Reporting Requirements Section 212
  • Completion report must be filed within 30 days of
    the completion of drilling.
  • Annual report containing production data must be
    filed with DEP.
  • Report is kept confidential for five years.
  • DEP has authority to request industry logs and
    other information.

38
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Well Site Restoration Section 206
  • Surface estate must be restored from disturbances
    caused by drilling activities.
  • Well operator must follow erosion and sediment
    control plan at all times during drilling.
  • Equipment must be removed and well site restored
    within nine months of completion of activity.
  • Time period can be extended for six months
  • Equipment can be stored on-site with landowner
    permission.

39
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Registration Requirements Section 203
  • Unpermitted wells must be registered with DEP.
  • Abandoned wells are to be reported to DEP so that
    well can be considered as an orphan well.

40
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Plugging Requirements Section 210
  • Plugging stops the vertical flow of fluids or
    gas within the well bore.
  • Well must be plugged prior to abandonment.
  • Operator must provide DEP with notice of plugging
    to afford DEP with the opportunity to be present
    at time of plugging.

41
General Requirements
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Coal Operator Responsibilities Section 214
  • Coal operators who are removing coal within 500
    feet of well must file maps with DEP.
  • Generally, coal operators can remove coal up to
    150 feet from well after notifying DEP.

42
Underground Gas Storage
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • General Gas Storage Reservoir Operations
    Section 303
  • Operators must attempt to locate all wells
    drilled into the reservoir.
  • All known wells must be plugged and reconditioned.

43
Underground Gas Storage
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Reporting Requirements for Gas Storage Operations
    Section 301
  • Storage operators with a reservoir within 10,000
    feet of a coal mine must file maps with DEP.
  • All storage operators must provide DEP with
    municipality in which their reservoir is located.
  • DEP may request maps detailing the specific
    boundaries of reservoir.

44
Underground Gas Storage
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Reporting Requirements for Coal Mine Operations
    Section 302
  • Coal mine owners / operators must file a map with
    DEP.
  • A coal mine that has been pierced by a well must
    file a map with DEP each year.
  • Coal mines have notice and reporting obligations
    if their mines come within 10,000 or 2,000 feet
    from a gas storage reservoir.

45
Underground Gas Storage
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Inspection of Facilities and Records Section
    305
  • Coal mines and gas storage operators can inspect
    records and facilities of the other.
  • Parties can request additional information from
    the other party (Section 306).

46
Eminent Domain Section 401
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Limited Right of Eminent Domain for Gas Storage
    Reservoir
  • Cannot be exercised until
  • Original recoverable oil or gas reserves have
    been depleted by at least 80 and
  • Condemnor has acquired right to store gas
    underlying at least 75 of proposed storage area.

47
Enforcement and Remedies
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Conferences Section 501
  • Any party having a direct interest in the
    subject matter may request that DEP convene a
    conference.
  • DEP representative shall be at conference.
  • Any agreement reached at conference shall be
    effective unless rejected by DEP within 10 days
    after conference.

48
Enforcement and Remedies
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Enforcement Orders Section 503
  • DEP has authority to suspend or revoke permit for
    violations of Act or other law such as Clean
    Streams Law.
  • DEP must provide written notice prior to
    suspension or revocation
  • Operator can request conference prior to
    determination and appeal to Environmental Hearing
    Board within 30 days after determination.

49
Enforcement and Remedies
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Restraining Violations Section 504
  • DEP can pursue injunction before
  • Court of Common Pleas
  • Commonwealth Court
  • Injunction can be sought to stop or prevent
    violation of Act.

50
Enforcement and Remedies
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Criminal Penalties Section 505
  • A violation is a summary offense.
  • Fine not more than 300
  • Imprisonment not more than 90 days
  • A willful violation is a misdemeanor offense.
  • Fine not more than 5,000
  • Imprisonment not more than one year
  • Each day is considered to be a separate offense.

51
Enforcement and Remedies
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Civil Penalties Section 506
  • Environmental Hearing Board can impose penalty up
    to 25,000 plus 1,000 per day of continued
    violation.
  • The amount of the penalty depends upon
  • Wilfullness of violation
  • Damage to natural resources
  • Endangerment of safety
  • Cost of remedying harm
  • Savings resulting to person

52
Miscellaneous Provisions
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Local Ordinances Section 602
  • All local ordinances and enactments purporting
    to regulate oil and gas well operations regulated
    by this act are hereby superseded. No ordinances
    or enactments adopted pursuant to the
    aforementioned acts shall contain provisions
    which impose conditions, requirements or
    limitations on the same features of oil and gas
    well operations regulated by this act or that
    accomplish the same purposes as set forth in this
    act.

53
Proposed Amendments to the Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 2007-2008 Proposed Legislation
  • House Bill 2227
  • Provide compensation for surface damage caused by
    oil and gas exploration.
  • House Bill 2533
  • Proposing enactment of the Surface Owners
    Protection Act, which would provide for duties of
    oil and gas well operators, for notice of
    operations and surface use compensation
    agreement, for restriction on issuance of
    permits, for attorney fees, and for emergency
    situations.

54
Proposed Amendments to the Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 2007-2008 Proposed Legislation
  • House Bill 2741
  • Provide for bonding and well-plugging funds.

55
Proposed Amendments to the Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 2009-2010 Proposed Legislation
  • HB 473
  • Proposing amendments to the Oil and Gas Act that
    would add definitions and secure compensation for
    surface damage
  • HB 808
  • Proposing amendments to the Oil and Gas Act that
    would further provide for bonding and well
    plugging funds

56
Proposed Amendments to the Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 2009-2010 Proposed Legislation
  • HB 934
  • Proposing amendments to the Oil and Gas Act that
    would provide for secured meters and further well
    reporting requirements
  • SB 297
  • Proposing amendments to the Oil and Gas Act that
    would provide additional well reporting
    requirements.

57
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Declaration of Purpose
  • Foster, encourage, and promote the
    development, production, and utilization of
    Pennsylvanias oil and gas resources
  • Prevent the waste of oil and natural gas
  • Permit the Commonwealth to realize and enjoy the
    maximum benefit of these natural resources.
  • Impractical to include shallow wells

58
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Application Section 3
  • OGC Law applies to all land within Pennsylvania.
  • The following wells are excluded from OGC Law
  • Those that do not penetrate the Onondaga horizon
  • Those that are less than 3,800 feet where the
    Onondaga horizon is closer than 3,800 from
    surface
  • Those drilled prior to OGC Law
  • Those for use in storage reservoir.

59
The Oil and Gas Conservation Law and the
Marcellus Shale
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
The Oil and Gas Conservation Law does not apply
to wells that do not penetrate the Onondaga
horizon, meaning wells drilled into the Marcellus
Shale are not covered by this law.
Depth of Marcellus Shale
Depth of Onondaga Horizon
Image by Robert Milici and Christopher Swezey,
2006, Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas
Resources Devonian ShaleMiddle and Upper
Paleozoic Total Petroleum System. Open-File
Report Series 2006-1237. United States Geological
Survey.
60
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Prohibition of Waste Section 4
  • Physical waste
  • Allowing gas, oil, or water to migrate to a
    different stratum
  • Drowning a stratum
  • Unnecessary loss of oil or gas at the surface
  • Inefficient spacing of wells

61
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Well Spacing Section 7
  • Definition of pool
  • an underground reservoir containing a common
    accumulation or oil and gas, or both, not in
    communication laterally or vertically with any
    other accumulation of oil or gas.

62
Well Spacing
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • When a well is drilled into, or below, the
    Onondaga horizon, those directly and immediately
    affected by the drilling of the well can apply
    to DEP for a well spacing order.

63
Well Spacing
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Process to Establish Spacing Order
  • Notice of hearing
  • DEP holds public hearing
  • DEP will render determination within 45 days.

64
Well Spacing
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Spacing Order
  • DEP will establish a unit representing the area
    in which a well can efficiently and economically
    extract natural gas.
  • The units within a pool generally will have
    uniform sizes and shapes.
  • The order will cover all land believed to be in
    the pool.

65
Well Spacing
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Spacing Order
  • DEP will consider the following factors
  • Surface topography and individual property lines
  • Proposed well spacing plans
  • Depth of production
  • Charateristics of the producing formation
  • Other geologic and scientific data.

66
Well Spacing
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Spacing Order
  • DEP will set a minimum distance that a well must
    be located from a unit boundary.
  • Under some circumstances, an operator may be
    permitted to drill a well outside prescribe
    distance, but production of well may be limited.

67
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Integration of Interest in Spacing Units
    Section 8
  • Multiple owners within a spacing unit may
    voluntarily integrate their separate parcels to
    develop natural gas within spacing unit.
  • If voluntary agreement is not reached, an
    operator can apply for an integration order.
  • DEP will conduct public hearing after notice.
  • DEP can issue just and reasonable order.

68
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Penalties Section 12
  • Violations are punishable by
  • A fine ranging from 500 to 5,000
  • Imprisonment not more than six months.
  • Each day is considered to be a separate offense.

69
Oil and Gas Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Enforcement Section 14
  • DEP can pursue injunctive relief to prevent or
    stop violations.

70
Oil and Gas Conservation Law and Marcellus Shale
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Until further legislation is passed, drilling
    into the Marcellus Shale will remain exempt from
    the unitization and spacing provisions of the OGC
    Law.

71
Proposed Amendments to the Oil and Gas
Conservation Law
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • 2007 2008 Session
  • House Bill 2453
  • Proposing amendments to the Oil and Gas
    Conservation Law, 58 P.S. 401-419, to make the
    law applicable to Marcellus Shale wells.
  • 2009 2010 Session
  • House Bill 977
  • Reintroduction of House Bill 2453.

72
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Enacted by legislature in 2005.
  • Permits development when all owners cannot be
    located.

73
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Purpose Section 2
  • to facilitate the development of subsurface
    properties by reducing the problems caused by
    fragmented and unknown or unlocatable ownership
    of oil and gas interests
  • to protect the interests of unknown or
    unlocatable owners of oil and gas
  • It is not the purpose of this act to vest the
    surface owner with title to oil and gas interests
    that have been severed from the surface estate.

74
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Creation of Trust Section 4
  • Any person with interest in oil and gas may
    petition Court of Common Pleas to declare a trust
    for benefit of unknown owners.
  • Petitioner must make diligent effort to locate
    owners.
  • Court will appoint financial institution as
    trustee for unknown owners.

75
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Administration of Trust Section 5
  • All payments due to the unknown owner(s) shall be
    made to trustee.
  • Trust shall remain in force until unknown owners
    have been identified.
  • Funds held in trust are subject to provisions in
    Fiscal Code relating to unclaimed and abandoned
    property.

76
Dormant Oil and Gas Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Responsibility of Lessee Section 6
  • Lessee who pays income to trustee shall not be
    liable for additional claims by unknown owners.

77
Coal and Gas Resource Coordination Act
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Requires coordination of coal mine and gas well
    operators
  • Applies to all gas wells that penetrate a
    workable coal seam
  • Provides for the establishment of a panel to make
    recommendations to DEP regarding well site
    locations
  • Provides for plugging requirements of wells that
    penetrate coal mines

78
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • The Agricultural Law Resource and Reference
    Center is a collaboration between
  • Penn State Dickinson School of Law
  • Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences
  • Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture

79
Contact Information
Agricultural Law Resource and Reference Center
  • Penn State Dickinson School of Law
  • Agricultural Law Center
  • 207C Lewis Katz Building
  • University Park, PA 16802
  • Phone (814) 865-3723
  • Email rhp102_at_dsl.psu.edu
  • Web www.dsl.psu.edu/centers/aglaw.cfm
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