1 / 41
About This Presentation



Examples of developing a second individual learning plan as a ... team survey on our communication ... on our more direct approach in delivering ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:258
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 42
Provided by: WinL2


Transcript and Presenter's Notes


By Miss Alisa KaewKhao Code C62251
  • In Develop Teams and Individuals, there are many
    components that need to be applied in accordance
    with the procedures to be able to reach the
    objective. So we understand the following
  • Individual Learning Plans
  • How to Interview Individual
  • Questions you may use in interview
  • Learning and Development Plan
  • Team Learning Plans
  • Learning Options
  • Teams Performance
  • Training and Other Development
  • Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Planning for Monitoring and Evaluation
  • About Information What we want to know?
  • Different Kinds of Information
  • How will we get information?
  • Who should be involved about this?

  • What is an individual learning plan?
  • An effective individual learning plan (ILP) is at
    the heart of assessment, learning, support and
  • achievement. It helps the learner to become an
    active, motivated partner in learning.
  • The ILP is a personalized, flexible route map to
    guide each learners journey a dynamic working
    document, owned and used by the learner,
    supported by teachers, employers and others a
    record of learning goals and progression routes,
    initial and diagnostic assessment information,
    learning targets, progress
  • and achievements within different contexts for
    learning a communication aid between the learner
    and others who support the learning process in
    various contexts a way of making and reinforcing
    links and
  • connections between topics, subject and personal,
    learning and thinking skills.

  • In practice, this means learners using their ILP
  • record what they want to achieve on their
    learning journey their goals and progression
  • negotiate and plan exactly what they are going to
    do, how and when. The ILP will include
  • learning targets with outcomes and timescales,
    and details of how success will be determined
    (success criteria)
  • details of the resources, support and guidance
    the learner will use
  • details of where and how the learning will take
  • view every assessment as a learning opportunity
    and to plan for the next steps in learning
  • reflect on
  • what, and how, they learned
  • what went well and why
  • what went less well and why
  • where they could use the skills and approaches

  • Particularly effective practice identified in
    inspections includes
  • Developing a proforma for an individual learning
    plan that does not just meet the needs of funding
    bodies but covers all the elements required for a
    programme of learning. The development of the
    best proformas has taken into account the need to
    provide sufficient space for updating them.
  • Not completing individual learning plans in a
    rush to meet funding body requirements
    (inspectors still see the individual learning
    plan being completed and signed off in induction
    before initial assessment is fully completed so
    that a copy can be sent to the funding body).
  • Examples of developing a second individual
    learning plan as a 'working document' used
    throughout the time a learner is with the
    provider, that is focused on delivery of
    learning, assessment, support and target setting.
  • Delivery staff receiving training in order to
    understand the results of initial assessment,
    such as literacy, numeracy or language
    requirements, and their impact on learning. This
    includes other learner support needs such as
    dyslexia, to ensure that the individual learning
    plan reflects support, assessment arrangements
    and possible need for extra time.

  • Taking account of previous experience and
    learning, so that targets and times to gain
    assessments in an area in which learners have
    previous experience are realistic and do not hold
    the progress of learners up. Plans are individual
    in developing targets that stretch learners and
    keep them focused on achieving realistic
  • Ensuring that each learner has an individual
    learning plan, based on their initial assessment
    and mapping the route from that starting point to
    the achievement of individual goals, for example
    completing the full framework, or gaining
    sustainable employment.
  • Involving the learner in creating the first draft
    of their learning plan, understanding the reason
    for its contents and updating the plan with the
    learner (and employer if applicable) as training
    progresses and circumstances change.
  • Using the learning plan as a working document by
    checking progress against it during reviews or
    tutorial activities, amending target dates for
    milestones such as achievement of units, key
    skills or other qualifications as necessary.
  • Planning in more detail for the short term
    targets and in outline for the longer term

  • Using the individual learning plan to record how
    any additional support needs, identified by
    initial assessment, are to be provided for. This
    helps keep everyone involved in training in the
    'loop' and helps eliminate support being given in
    isolation from the main training programme.
  • There are several examples of work-based
    providers having targets that reflect particular
    types of 'model learner', for example ones who
    have previous experience or qualifications, or
    those with additional support needs. These act as
    a preliminary guide in setting targets which can
    then be altered as the learner progresses.
  • Some providers have altered individual learning
    plans to facilitate 'fast tracking' of learners,
    for example where emigration or pregnancy might
    prevent completion.
  • Some providers with good information technology
    resources have made individual learning plans
    available online, which can be updated. Sections
    can be printed for reference where access to
    computers is limited.
  • Quality improvement systems such as internal
    audit and review focusing on how well plans are
    completed and how they may be improved in the
    future. Good practice is noted and shared across
    the provider.

  • The Important of the Interview
  • The human resources department is responsible for
    screening candidates to verify the information on
    their resumes. Once that is done, qualified
    candidates are generally passed along to the
    manager of the department in which they'll work.
    As a department manager or supervisor, it's
    likely you'll be working very closely with the
    job candidate you hire. That's one reason it's so
    important that you're very thorough in your
    interview. Another reason is that your decision
    is an indication of your ability to manager. A
    good or bad choice will reflect on you. Your new
    hire will interact not only with you, but with
    your boss, your colleagues, your staff, and your
    customers. You'll be responsible for making sure
    the candidate
  • can do the job well
  • fits in well with other members of your
    department and
  • will be able to work well with you
  • Preparing For the Interview
  • Before you begin interviewing candidates, you
    should prepare some general questions. You will
    also want to take some time to review each job
    candidate's resume or application. This will give
    you the opportunity to prepare questions that are
    relevant to the candidate's work history

  • Conducting Yourself On the Interview
  • How you conduct yourself on the interview is as
    important as how the interviewee conducts him or
    herself. You should try to put the interviewee at
    ease since that will help insure that you get
    more honest answers. However, you shouldn't give
    the impression that you are relaxed type of
    manager if you aren't one. Don't forget it's as
    much about the potential employee deciding if
    this place is right for him or her as it is about
    you deciding if the candidate is right for the
    job. If this isn't a good match, from either
    party's perspective, it's best to find out now.
    It's very important to be polite and considerate.
    Keeping the candidate waiting, or taking phone
    calls in the middle of an interview reflects
    poorly on you and your company. This person you
    are interviewing may some day work for you, or,
    in this fast moving world, you may someday work
    for him or her.

  • Describe the most difficult problem you had to
    solve. What was the situation and what did you
    do? Would you do anything different next time?
  • In general, how do you handle conflict?
  • Describe a creative solution that you have
    developed to solve a problem.
  • What solution are you the proudest of?
  • Describe a time when you had to use fact-finding
  • What has been your most important work-related
  • Who or what caused you the most trouble in
    implementing your ideas?
  • What kinds of problems do you normally experience
    in a day?
  • Tell me about a situation that got out of
    control. How did you handle it?

  • Describe the best/worst co-worker youve ever
  • Tell me about something you achieved as a group
  • How would you define a good working atmosphere?
  • Tell me about a time you came up with a new idea.
    Were you able to get it approved? If so, how did
    you go about it?
  • Can you think of a time an idea of yours was
    rejected? Tell me about it.
  • Tell me about a time an idea or task of yours was
  • Tell me about a time you had to work according to
    a policy you disagreed with.
  • How do you go about making important decisions?
  • Tell me about the last time you made a good
    decision and describe what it was and what the
    results were.
  • Tell me about an important decision or judgment
    call youve had to make on the job.
  • Describe the worst decision you ever made and how
    you corrected it.

  • Learning and Development Policy
  • through an effective learning and development
    plan consistent with the principles of employment
    equity, it will encourage and assist all
    employees to
  • Acquire the knowledge and skills required to
    maximize their performance in their current
  • Acquire new competencies in response to, or in
    preparation for, changing job requirements or new
    job opportunities
  • Develop or redirect their careers as individual
    or organizational needs change
  • Acquire knowledge and understanding respecting
    issues of fairness, equity, and human rights.
  • Learning and development are shared
    responsibilities, and all employees are
    responsible for contributing to this undertaking.
    All decisions to engage in learning must be the
    product of discussion between the employee and
    the employee's supervisor

  • Learning and Development Action Plan
  • Learn
  • The employee should outline the steps and
    resources they will use to learn the new
    behavior. Since the Development Action Plan is
    being used to improve upon a strength or to
    develop an opportunity, it is key that the
    employee use resources and tools outside
    themselves. We chooses to use a number of tools
    to learn to improve his communication skills.
    Earlier when we was asked to picture another
    person that embodied the communication skills we
    wished to attain, we was given the idea of
    spending some time peering with this person to
    observe their behaviors in various types of
    interactions. Another resource we chose to use
    was a book that many of our colleagues had
    recommended but we had yet found the time to
    read. In many cases, employee development will
    require a number of tools in the learning phase
    of the plan. Since the Development Action Plan is
    a road map to employee development, like any good
    plan a timeline to accomplish each step should be
    documented. This will give we a deadline to focus
    on and his coach will know when to follow up on
    our progress.
  • Practice
  • In the next step of the action phase, this is a
    time to focus on applying the skills and
    behaviors without the pressure of being perfect
    but in a way that allows for continuous learning.
    We chooses to conduct some role play sessions
    with both our mentor and our manager, allowing us
    to practice our new skills prior to applying them
    with our team. We also chooses to act as a note
    keeper for our manager's team meeting. This
    activity allowed him the opportunity to ask
    clarifying questions and to ensure that we was on
    the same page with the rest of our peers in the
    meeting regarding what was discussed or

  • Learning and Development Action Plan
  • Feedback
  • The last step in the action phase is one of the
    most important feedback. Now that we has had the
    opportunity to learn and practice the new skills
    and behaviors, we needs to receive feedback on
    how we are progressing in making a behavior
    change and overall skill improvement. Without
    this constant feedback loop, we would not know if
    we was truly improving or what areas we still
    needs to focus on. Documenting some avenues for
    feedback up front will establish how the employee
    wishes to receive feedback and will also ensure
    that they are seeking it out. we plans to solicit
    feedback from our mentor and manager during their
    role playing sessions. This will allow him to
    make immediate behavior changes and to repeat the
    practice step. Keep in mind that immediate
    feedback is crucial to consistent behavior
  • Now that we have discussed how to set up the
    action portion of our Development Action Plan, we
    need to discuss how we will measure success. This
    step is imperative to establish up front so that
    both the coach and the employee have a clear
    target they are working toward. In production
    environments this is often an easy step to
    document, but when the strength or opportunity
    being addressed is more focused on a soft skill,
    coaches and employees can often struggle with
    determining how to measure the improvement. For
    we, we do not have a hard metric to apply as a
    success measure such as dollars collected,
    percent to goal, quality scores, etc. we instead
    must focus on more creative ways to measure our
    behavior changes and skill improvement. Some
    examples of how we could implement a measurement
    would be by conducting a pre and post team survey
    on our communication skills, improved competency
    or review ratings from our manager, or increased
    productivity from our team based on our more
    direct approach in delivering feedback.
  • Once the success measures have been identified
    you have a Development Action Plan lan that fully
    outlines the challenge or opportunity, the path
    the employee will take to accomplish their goal,
    and the way in which success will be measured.
    This should provide a clear road map for
    increased performance and employee development.

  • Information on Team Learning Plan (TLP)
  • The formal definitions of each competency are in
    the Appendix, but the word or phrases describing
    each competency are basically self-explanatory.
    The first set of competencies is universal or
    foundational competencies. These competencies are
    continually developed and evolving as you
    progress in your career. The universal
    competencies can be divided into three groups
  • 1. Personal qualities flexibility, motivation
    to serve the public interest, integrity and
    honesty, personal accountability for actions,
    resilience in facing difficulties, stress
    management, and interest in continual learning.
  • 2. Working with people interpersonal skills,
    emotional intelligence (knowing your strengths
    and weaknesses and appreciating other
    individuals capabilities), and conflict
  • 3. Task accomplishment oral communication,
    written communication, presentation and briefing
    skills, general computer literacy, specific
    desktop computer applications, using e-mail
    effectively, and problem solving.
  • These competencies are interdependent
    interpersonal skills, oral communication,
    emotional intelligence, and integrity and honesty
    all contribute to working with other people and
    problem solving in team situations. We also have
    grouped them because often training or work
    assignments involve more than one of these
    competencies. Conflict management training might
    also involve interpersonal skills and stress

  • Learning Solutions can assist you to identify and
    meet the development needs of your team. Your
    learning advisor will work with you to design a
    customised learning solution to support you and
    your team and to assist you in meeting your
    goals. We can tailor programs for teams who
  • undergoing restructures or change initiatives
  • working to define their vision, values and key
  • developing a strategic plan
  • seeking to improve communication and engagement
  • needing to improve efficiency and responsiveness
    to internal and external clients
  • building a new team or introducing a new leader
    to the team
  • Our solutions can include
  • facilitation of strategic planning sessions
  • customised versions of courses run in Learning
    Solutions open program
  • programs designed to meet specific needs
    particularly in the area of building effective
  • assistance to establish mentoring programs
  • coaching for key staff

  • Performance Management for Teams
  • Performance Management for Teams is different to
    Team Building (and it is also different to
    Performance Management for individuals).
  • There are many different definitions of 'team
    building', but in most people's eyes it refers to
    an activity that helps develop the team in some
    way - it can include a wide range of things, such
  • outdoor activities
  • offsite workshops
  • having a meal out together
  • sharing an email list or bulletin board
  • meeting in the coffee lounge during work breaks
  • etc.
  • These can be very useful. But they are often a
    matter of 'hit or miss'. The activities are
    introduced in the belief or hope that they will
    improve the way the group operates - but whether
    they are seen to impact on collective performance
    or not depends more on whether you believe
    'intuitively' that they are good for the team,
    rather than the inherent or demonstrable value of
    the activities.
  • That is where Team Performance Management has an
    important role to play.

  • Team Performance Management is focused directly
    on the achievement of the team's key business
    objectives. It bridges the gap between the team
    building 'enablers' and business performance
    results. It removes the reliance on 'faith' - the
    need to believe that team building works before
    investing in it - and establishes a direct
    connection between collective behaviours and team
  • Team Performance Management is predicated on the
    following three principles
  • Team Behaviours are different to Individual
    Behaviours. Most competency frameworks include
    "teamwork", but these usually refer to what an
    individual does within a team, not what a team
    does collectively together. E.g. whilst all the
    individuals in a team can behave in trustworthy
    ways, this does not guarantee that the team will
    build trust together - this is also dependent on
    other factors such as the environment they work
    in, or the team processes they use for
    communicating, deciding, rewarding, etc..
  • The behaviours that make a team successful vary -
    from team to team and from time to time. Eg the
    profile of behaviours that makes a design team
    successful is different from the profile that
    make a financial audit team successful. And if
    the design team is using a top-down approach, for
    optimal performance, it needs to change its
    behaviours once it gets beyond the outline design
    and starts work on the detailed implementation of
    the ideas.
  • Team behaviours can be changed using a team
    performance management process. In essence,
    performance management involves establishing
    behavioural goals, measuring current behaviours
    to identify the gap between the current and
    desired behaviour profile, and then planning,
    implementing and monitoring changes in order to
    close that gap. There are both similarities and
    significant differences between performance
    management processes for individuals and teams.

  • The methodology we offer for Team Performance
    Management achieves these principles in the
    following ways
  • Behavioural goals are established, closely allied
    to team performance/results, using the "Ideal
    Team Profile Questionnaire". This questionnaire
    can be used as a 360 with senior managers, staff,
    customers and peer groups, to identify what
    behaviours will make the team most successful.
  • The current behaviors are established using the
    "Management Team Roles - indicator".
  • Target and current behaviours can then be
    compared in a behavioural gap analysis.
  • The insight gained from the gap analysis can be
    used to take action in order to close that gap.
    By shifting behaviors closer to those required
    for optimum success, team performance will
  • In summary, the key difference between
    traditional team building and team performance
    management is that the former engages in
    activities in the belief that they will
    indirectly lead to improvements in team
    performance (sometimes they do, sometimes they
    don't). Team Performance Management, however,
    identifies the team behaviours that will lead
    directly to business success, and then uses a
    process to change the behaviours accordingly.

  • There are a couple of secrets about what
    employees want from training and development
    opportunities, however. Plus, training and
    development opportunities are not just found in
    external training classes and seminars. These
    ideas emphasize what employees want in training
    and development opportunities. They also
    articulate your opportunity to create devoted,
    growing employees who will benefit both your
    business and themselves through your training and
    development opportunities.
  • Training and Development Options Job Content and
  • You can impact training and development
    significantly through the responsibilities in an
    employees current job.
  • Training and Development Options Job Content and

  • You can impact training and development
    significantly through the responsibilities in an
    employees current job.
  • Expand the job to include new, higher level
  • Reassign responsibilities that the employee
    does not like or that are routine.
  • Provide more authority for the employee to
    self-manage and make decisions.
  • Invite the employee to contribute to more
    important, department or company-wide decisions
    and planning.
  • Provide more access to important and
    desirable meetings.
  • Provide more information by including the
    employee on specific mailing lists, in company
    briefings, and in your confidence.
  • Provide more opportunity to establish goals,
    priorities, and measurements.
  • Assign reporting staff members to his or her
    leadership or supervision.
  • Assign the employee to head up projects or
  • Enable the employee to spend more time with
    his or her boss.
  • Provide the opportunity for the employee to
    cross-train in other roles and responsibilities.

  • Training and Development Options Internal
    Training and Development
  • Employees appreciate the opportunity to develop
    their knowledge and skills without ever leaving
    work or the workplace. Internal training and
    development brings a special plus. Examples,
    terminology, and opportunities reflect the
    culture, environment, and needs of your
  • Enable the employee to attend an internally
    offered training session. This session can be
    offered by a coworker in an area of their
    expertise or by an outside presenter or trainer.
  • Ask the employee to train other employees with
    the information learned at a seminar or training
    session. Offer the time at a department meeting
    or lunch to discuss the information or present
    the information learned to others. (Make this an
    expectation when employees attend external
    training and conferences.)
  • Perform all of the activities listed before,
    during and after a training session to ensure
    that the learning is transferred to the
    employees job.
  • Purchase business books for the employee. Sponsor
    an employee book club during which employees
    discuss a current book and apply its concepts to
    your company.
  • Offer commonly-needed training and information on
    an Intranet, an internal company website.

  • Provide training by either knowledgeable
    employees or an outside expert in a brown bag
    lunch format. Employees eat lunch and gain
    knowledge about a valuable topic. (Some ideas
    include investing in a 401(k), how to vary and
    balance investments, tips for public speaking,
    how to get along with the boss, and updates on
    new products that make work easier. These
    opportunities are unlimited survey employees to
    pinpoint interests.)
  • The developers and other interested employees at
    a client company recently put on a day long
    conference with lunch and all of the trappings of
    an external conference at a local conference
    center. Attended by interested employees, the
    conference sessions were almost all taught by
    internal staff on topics of interest to their
    internal audience. Picture a "real" day long
    conference and you'll see the opportunity.
    Employees were pumped up beyond belief they
    learned and enjoyed the day and gained new
    respect for the knowledge and skills of their

  • Training and Development Options External
    Training and Development
  • Especially to develop new skills and ideas,
    employee attendance at external training is a
    must. Attaining degrees and university attendance
    enhance the knowledge and capabilities of your
    staff while broadening their experience with
    diverse people and ideas.
  • Enable the employee to attend an external
    seminar, conference, speaker, or training event.
  • Perform all of the activities listed before,
    during and after a training session to ensure
    that the learning is transferred to the
    employees job.
  • Pay for the employee to take online classes and
    identify low or no cost online (and offline)
  • Pay for memberships in external professional
    associations with the understanding that
    employees will attend meetings, read the
    journals, and so forth and regularly update
  • Provide a flexible schedule so the employee can
    take time to attend university, college, or other
    formal educational sessions.
  • Provide tuition assistance to encourage the
    employee's pursuit of additional education.

  • Training and Development Secrets
  • These are key factors in multiplying the value of
    the training and development you provide.
  • Allow employees to pursue training and
    development in directions they choose, not just
    in company-assigned and needed directions.
  • Have your company support learning, in general,
    and not just in support of knowledge needed for
    the employees current or next anticipated job.
    Recognize that the key factor is keeping the
    employee interested, attending, and engaged.
  • The development of a life-long engaged learner is
    a positive factor for your organization no matter
    how long the employee chooses to stay in your
    employ. Use these training and development
    activities to ensure that you optimize the
    employee's motivation and potential retention.

  • Monitoring
  • Monitoring is about collecting information that
    will help you answer questions about your
    project. It is important that this information is
    collected in a planned, organised and routine
    way. You can use this information to report on
    your project and to help you evaluate.
  • All organisations keep records and notes, and
    discuss what they are doing. This simple checking
    becomes monitoring when information is collected
    routinely and systematically against a plan. The
    information might be about activities or
    services, your users, or about outside factors
    affecting your organisation or project.
  • Monitoring information is collected at specific
    times daily, monthly or quarterly.
  • Here are some basic points for successful
  • build simple, user-friendly monitoring systems
    into everyday activities, collecting data at the
    most natural point
  • get commitment from those collecting the
    information, by explaining why they are doing it
  • make sure that everyone responsible for
    monitoring has clear and consistent guidelines
  • make sure that monitoring records are completed
    fully and accurately people may not regard it
    as a high-priority activity
  • give people collecting the information feedback
    on the results of their monitoring, and how it is
    being used to make the organisation more
  • check that the project is not collecting the same
    piece of information more than once.

  • Get good advice on how your database can best
    serve your information needs. Talk to another
    project with a good management information system
    and to a database expert, if possible. Think
    about the links you want to create between
    different types of information. For example, you
    may want to be able to link user profile data
    with attendance at different activities.
  • It is important to be familiar with the Data
    Protection Act. Make sure data is used for its
    intended purpose. If personal information is kept
    about individual service users, make sure that
    they know exactly what the evaluation is for,
    what data exists, that they can have access to it
    to check its accuracy, and that the project will
    preserve their confidentiality.

  • Evaluation
  • Evaluation is about using monitoring and other
    information you collect to make judgements about
    your project. It is also about using the
    information to make changes and improvements.
  • Your monitoring information is likely to contain
  • profile information on your users
  • basic project record keeping, such as the minutes
    of meetings and case records
  • statistical information on take-up of services
  • feedback sheets from training courses and
  • diaries and other records of events
  • complaints and compliments from users.
  • When you evaluate, you will use this information,
    but often you will need to carry out additional
    data gathering. Your monitoring information will
    probably suggest further questions that need an
    answer. You need to think clearly about where the
    focus of the evaluation will be and who and where
    you want to obtain information from. Make sure
    you set enough time aside for this additional
    information gathering. Questionnaires take time
    to develop, and should be tested with a small
    sample from your target group to see if they will
    capture the information you want. Interviews take
    time to organise and even longer to write up and
  • Evaluation is a set of interlinked activities.
    Each of these is an important part of the overall
    process and needs adequate time built in to
    protect the quality of the evaluation.

  • Monitoring and evaluation not only measure how
    well you are doing, but also help you to be more
  • Providing information to funders and other
  • Monitoring and evaluation will provide useful
    information for funders about the level of
    activities and benefits for your users. You will
    be able to give examples of what has worked well,
    and what your users most value. You will also be
    in a better position to make a good case to
    funders for continuing or developing activities.
    You can also use your evaluation findings for
    publicity, for lobbying or campaigning, for
    advocacy and to highlight gaps in services.
  • Learning from evaluation
  • Sharing the information within your project will
    help you to become a learning organization.
    Management can improve its decision-making, and
    staff and volunteers will appreciate the value of
    the work that they do and understand how they can
    make further improvements. Once the immediate
    reporting back has taken place, make sure that
    dates are set for action so that impetus and
    enthusiasm are not lost.

  • Using evaluation for organisational planning and
  • The evaluation can provide decision-makers with
    knowledge and information to make informed
    choices. Your evaluation should show which parts
    of the project are working, for what people and
    in what circumstances, and provide a warning if
    something is going wrong. These are key findings
    and you need to decide what action to take. Is
    extra funding needed? Are new activities
    required? Do staff need extra training or skills?
  • The evaluation will also provide information for
    your next year plan. It will help you to review
    your objectives. Are your services or activities
    the right ones to achieve the intended change or
    benefits? If the project has brought about some
    unexpected results, how will you take those into
    account in future planning? You may need to
    gather more information about the outside world,
    for example local strategies and other service
    provision, before making decisions about changing

  • The evaluation may give you clearer information
    about who is using your services, about your
    members, or who you are reaching with your
    information or publicity. This will help you to
    think more carefully about who you are not
    reaching. If the findings point out areas where
    need is greatest or least served, you may need to
    consider redefining your target group. You may
    need to carry out more publicity or establish new
    contacts and networks. It may be that you need to
    follow up your evaluation with a more in-depth
    needs analysis.
  • Your evaluation will also allow you to review
    your targets for outputs and outcomes. If you
    have not met certain targets, or if you have
    exceeded them, then you should be able to set
    this against what you now know about the capacity
    of the project and the performance of other
    agencies. Your evidence should be strong enough
    to show if there were good reasons for a lower
    than expected performance, whether targets were
    set realistically and whether you should adjust
  • Use the lessons learnt about what you could do
    better, or differently, in your operational
    planning. Do you need to
  • change the way the project is managed?
  • reallocate resources?
  • expand or change direction?
  • Staff and volunteers are under pressure in their
    daily work routines and will need motivation to
    use evaluation findings and make changes. Work
    towards changing the culture of the organisation,
    so that people are receptive to new ideas and
    challenging feedback.

  • Using evaluation to set service delivery
  • Evaluation should give you some important
    information about how you deliver your services
    to users, how this affects user satisfaction and
    how service delivery affects the outcomes for
    users. For example, user satisfaction and trainer
    observations should allow you to set standards
    for your training.  These could be about such
    things as the maximum number of participants, the
    quality of training materials or accessibility
    for disabled people.
  • Reviewing key resources
  • Your evaluation should not just look at the
    results of your activities, but should relate
    these to the projects inputs. How have
    activities been affected by the projects
    management structure, its staffing or funding
    levels? Are the projects physical facilities
    unsuitable or is the project transport
    inadequate? Do you need improved information
    technology to support the project?
  • Using evaluation for policy change
  • Evaluation can play a key role in highlighting
    the effect that wider social structures and
    policies have on your own work and on the lives
    of the people you work with.
  • Policy is influenced by a combination of factors,
    including the assumptions, personal ideology and
    interests of the policy-makers. Although the
    processes involved in policy-making are complex,
    evaluation can be designed not only to improve
    practice, but also to improve and change policies
    at many levels.
  • When you report on your evaluation, think about
    who your audience is. If you intend to publish
    the evaluation, this clarity about your audience
    is essential. Communicate the lessons you have
    learnt directly and simply. Be direct about what
    types of policies might be effective, based on
    findings. Communicate what you know to community
    members and project users. This can gain you
    allies to help you influence policy-makers.

  • Using evaluation for strategic planning
  • There is an important role for evaluation in
    strategic as well as operational planning. The
    strategic planning process starts when you have
    analysed monitoring and evaluation data.
  • Steps in strategic planning
  • Monitoring and evaluation data can provide
    valuable information for analysis of
    organisational strengths, weaknesses,
    opportunities and threats.
  • Effective monitoring and evaluation will help
    your organisation to provide services of the
    highest possible quality, and embody the highest
    standards of integrity, credibility and
    accountability. It will make sure that you are
    working with the greatest possible effectiveness
    and efficiency, that you provide value for money
    and, above all, that the work you do will make a
    real difference.

  • Monitoring and evaluation plans should be created
    after the planning phase and before the design
    phase of a program or intervention.  The plan
    should include information on how the program or
    intervention will be examined and assessed. 
    Generally, the plan should outline
  • the underlying assumptions on which the
    achievement of program goals depend
  • the anticipated relationships between activities,
    outputs, and outcomes (the framework)
  • well-defined conceptual measures and definitions,
    along with baseline data
  • the monitoring schedule
  • a list of data sources to be used
  • cost estimates for the monitoring and evaluation
  • a list of the partnerships and collaborations
    that will help achieve the desired results and
  • a plan for the dissemination and utilization of
    the information gained.
  • When should evaluations be conducted?
  • Evaluations should be conducted at the beginning
    and end of an intervention process. They should
    include collection of baseline data for
    comparison purposes.
  • Evaluations are usually conducted to answer key
    questions on the programmes performance and
    carried out when the staff or the donor wants to
    make key decisions around the programme such as
    how to improve the programme, which activities to
    continue or discontinue and whether or not to
    scale up the programme.

About Information What we want to know?
  • What we want to know is linked to what we think
    is important. In development work, what we think
    is important is linked to our values.
  • Most work in civil society organisations is
    underpinned by a value framework. It is this
    framework that determines the standards of
    acceptability in the work we do. The central
    values on which most development work is built
  • Serving the disadvantaged
  • Empowering the disadvantaged
  • Changing society, not just helping individuals
  • Sustainability
  • Efficient use of resources.
  • So, the first thing we need to know is what we
    are doing and how we are doing it meeting the
    requirements of these values? In order to answer
    this question, our monitoring and evaluation
    system must give us information about

  • Who is benefiting from what we do? How much are
    they benefiting?
  • Are beneficiaries passive recipients or does the
    process enable them to have some control over
    their lives?
  • Are there lessons in what we are doing that have
    a broader impact than just what is happening on
    our project?
  • Can what we are doing be sustained in some way
    for the long-term, or will the impact of our work
    cease when we leave?
  • Are we getting optimum outputs for the least
    possible amount of inputs?
  • Different Kinds of Information Quantitative and
  • Information used in monitoring and evaluation can
    be classified as
  • Quantitative or
  • Qualitative.

  • Qualitative measurement tells you how people feel
    about a situation or about how things are done or
    how people behave. So, for example, although you
    might discover that 50 of the teachers in a
    school are unhappy about the assessment criteria
    used, this is still qualitative information, not
    quantitative information. You get qualitative
    information by asking, observing, interpreting.
  • Some people find quantitative information
    comforting it seems solid and reliable and
    objective. They find qualitative information
    unconvincing and subjective. It is a mistake to
    say that quantitative information speaks for
    itself. It requires just as much interpretation
    in order to make it meaningful as does
    qualitative information. It may be a fact that
    enrolment of girls at schools in some developing
    countries is dropping counting can tell us
    that, but it tells us nothing about why this drop
    is taking place. In order to know that, you would
    need to go out and ask questions to get
    qualitative information. Choice of indicators is
    also subjective, whether you use quantitative or
    qualitative methods to do the actual measuring.
    Researchers choose to measure school enrolment
    figures for girls because they believe that this
    tells them something about how women in a society
    are treated or viewed.

  • The monitoring and evaluation process requires a
    combination of quantitative and qualitative
    information in order to be comprehensive. For
    example, we need to know what the school
    enrolment figures for girls are, as well as why
    parents do or do not send their children to
    school. Perhaps enrolment figures are higher for
    boys than for girls because a particular
    community sees schooling as a luxury and prefers
    to train boys to do traditional and practical
    tasks such taking care of animals. In this case,
    the higher enrolment of girls does not
    necessarily indicate higher regard for girls.
  • This is dealt with in some detail in the toolkit
    on action planning, in the section on monitoring,
    collecting information as you go along. Your
    methods for information collecting need to be
    built into your action planning. You should be
    aiming to have a steady stream of information
    flowing into the project or organisation about
    the work and how it is done, without overloading
    anyone. The information you collect must mean
    something dont collect information to keep
    busy, only do it to find out what you want to
    know, and then make sure that you store the
    information in such a way that it is easy to

  • Usually you can use the reports, minutes,
    attendance registers, financial statements that
    are part of your work anyway as a source of
    monitoring and evaluation information.
  • However, sometimes you need to use special tools
    that are simple but useful to add to the basic
    information collected in the natural course of
    your work. Some of the more common ones are
  • Case studies
  • Recorded observation
  • Recording and analysis of important incidents
    (called critical incident analysis)
  • Structured questionnaires
  • One-on-one interviews
  • Focus groups
  • Sample surveys
  • Systematic review of relevant official

  • Almost everyone in the organisation or project
    will be involved in some way in collecting
    information that can be used in monitoring and
    evaluation. This includes
  • The administrator who takes minutes at a meeting
    or prepares and circulates the attendance
  • The fieldworkers who writes reports on visits to
    the field
  • The bookkeeper who records income and
  • In order to maximise their efforts, the project
    or organisation needs to
  • Prepare reporting formats that include
    measurement, either quantitative or qualitative,
    of important indicators. For example, if you want
    to know about community participation in
    activities, or womens participation
    specifically, structure the fieldworkers
    reporting format so that s/he has to comment on
    this, backing up observations with facts.
  • Prepare recording formats that include
    measurement, either quantitative or qualitative,
    of important indicators. For example, if you want
    to know how many men and how many women attended
    a meeting, include a gender column on your
    attendance list.

  • Record information in such a way that it is
    possible to work out what you need to know. For
    example, if you need to know whether a project is
    sustainable financially, and which elements of it
    cost the most, then make sure that your
    bookkeeping records reflect the relevant
  • It is a useful principle to look at every
    activity and say What do we need to know about
    this activity, both process (how it is being
    done) and product (what it is meant to achieve),
    and what is the easiest way to find it out and
    record it as we go along?
  • Designing a monitoring and/or evaluation process
  • As there are differences between the design of a
    monitoring system and that of an evaluation
    process, we deal with them separately here.
  • Under monitoring we look at the process an
    organisation could go through to design a
    monitoring system.
  • Under evaluation we look at Purpose, Key
    evaluation questions and Methodology.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)