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This document is contained within the Traditional Tools and Skills Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:

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Title: This document is contained within the Traditional Tools and Skills Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since other related resources found in this toolbox may be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by visiting the following URL:


1
  • This document is contained within the Traditional
    Tools and Skills Toolbox on Wilderness.net. Since
    other related resources found in this toolbox may
    be of interest, you can visit this toolbox by
    visiting the following URL http//www.wilderness.
    net/index.cfm?fusetoolboxessectools. All
    toolboxes are products of the Arthur Carhart
    National Wilderness Training Center.

2
Use of Native Materials in Wilderness
  • Policy Regarding Trails, Bridges and
    Administrative Facilities

3
Example Structures with Native Material Options
  • Trail Structures
  • Turnpikes
  • Check dams
  • Culverts
  • Water bars
  • Retaining walls
  • Bridges - many parts, such as
  • Stringers
  • Decking
  • Handrails
  • Administrative facilities
  • Buildings
  • Fences
  • Signs and posts

4
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5
Common Questions
  • Use of
  • Rock or local logs?
  • Local logs or imported logs?
  • Imported logs or dimensional lumber?
  • Pressure treated lumber?
  • (including stringers, decking, railing)
  • Filter fabric in turnpikes?
  • Rock, plastic, or metal culverts?

6
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7
  • What are
  • Trail and Wilderness
  • Managers to do?
  • Whats the policy?

8
Forest Service Policy on Use of Native Materials
in Wilderness
  • Wilderness Act
  • Forest Service Manual Trails Wilderness
  • Forest Service Handbook Trails
  • Forest Plan and/or Wilderness Management Plan for
    your area
  • Designating legislation for your Wilderness, if
    applicable
  • Wilderness Recreation Opportunity Spectrum

9
Forest Service Policy on Use of Native Materials
in Wilderness
10
Forest Service Policy on Use of Native Materials
in Wilderness
  • Nothing directly related to the use of native
    materials in Wilderness

11
Forest Service Policy on Use of Native Materials
in Wilderness
  • Nothing directly related to the use of native
    materials in Wilderness
  • Plenty of general direction that can be applied
    to answer questions related to the use of native
    materials

12
Wilderness Act
  • Section 2 (a)
  • "wilderness areas shall be administered to
    provide forthe preservation of their wilderness
    character

13
Wilderness Act
  • Section 2 (c) Key phrases -
  • where the earth and its community of life are
    untrammeled by man..
  • protected and managed so as to preserve its
    natural conditions
  • with the imprint of man's work substantially
    unnoticeable

14
Wilderness Act
  • Section 4 (b)
  • each agency administering any area designated
    as wilderness shall be responsible for preserving
    the wilderness character of the area

15
Wilderness Character
  • The four qualities of wilderness related to
    wilderness character
  • Untrammeled wilderness is essentially
    unhindered and free from modern human control or
    manipulation.
  • Natural wilderness ecological systems are
    substantially free from the effects of modern
    civilization.
  • Undeveloped wilderness is essentially without
    permanent improvements or modern human
    occupation.
  • Outstanding opportunities for solitude or a
    primitive and unconfined type of recreation .
  • From Monitoring Selected Conditions Related to
    Wilderness Character A National Framework 2005

16
FSM CHAPTER 2320 WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT
  • 2320.6 - The Wilderness Management Model and the
    Wilderness Act
  • The more human influence, the lower the purity of
    a wilderness is the less human influence on a
    wilderness, the higher
  • Manage wilderness toward attaining the highest
    level of purity in wilderness within legal
    constraints.

17
FSM CHAPTER 2320 WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT
  • Where a choice must be made preserving the
    wilderness resource is the overriding value.
  • Economy, convenience, commercial value, and
    comfort are not standards of management or use of
    wilderness.
  • Because uses and values on each area vary,
    management and administration must be tailored to
    each area

18
FSM CHAPTER 2320 WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT
  • Ensure that other resources and activities
    within wilderness are coordinated and in harmony
    with the wilderness resource includ(ing) the
    trail system

19
FSM CHAPTER 2320 WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT
  • Design, construct, and maintain the
    transportation system in wilderness to provide
    access
  • Design and locate trails to fit into the natural
    landscape as unobtrusively as possible.
  • Design bridges to minimize the impact on the
    wilderness.

20
FSM CHAPTER 2320 WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT
  • Trees may be cut for use in the construction and
    maintenance of authorized structures located
    within the wilderness when it is not reasonably
    possible to obtain the necessary material from
    outside the wilderness.

21
FSM 2353 - NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TRAILS
  • Provide trail recreation opportunities that
    emphasize the natural setting
  • Emphasize long-term cost effectiveness and need
    when developing or rehabilitating trail
    facilities.

22
FSH 2309.18 - TRAILS MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK
  • The objective of trail development is to provide
    a facility that minimally affects resources,
    that requires minimal maintenance, and that
    serves the intended type and level of use.

23
FSH 2309.18 - TRAILS MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK
  • Wilderness Considerations. The standards for
    trails and waterways within a wilderness will
    reflect the minimum requirements to achieve the
    following goals
  • To construct and maintain the trail and necessary
    facilities so that they appear to be a part of
    the wilderness environment and not an intrusion
    upon it.

24
Wilderness Management Plans
  • Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness General Management
    Direction
  • The use of metal or plastic culverts is
    prohibited.

25
So what does all that mean?
  • Lacking specific policy direction
  • regarding the use of native materials,
  • apply the general direction

26
  • Work together to evaluate each situation and
    determine what is the appropriate combination of
    materials to meet both wilderness and trail
    management objectives.
  • Use the Minimum Requirements Decision Guide for
    complex projects
  • (see www.wilderness.net for examples)
  • Unique outcomes will result based on the
    specifics of the situation.

27
Expectations for Wilderness Projects
  • When any Forest Service employee works in
    Wilderness, they become a Wilderness Manager.
  • The starting point should be to figure out how to
    accomplish the objective with the minimum
    necessary materials, tools, transportation,
    impacts and how to best protect wilderness
    character.
  • Consider and evaluate all the options select the
    combination that results in the least impact to
    wilderness character and is in conformance with
    law and policy.

28
  • Whats your ideal for
  • Wilderness Projects?
  • (from the trails perspective)

29
Three Links Creek Bridge
30
Three Links Creek Ford
31
Cupboard Creek Bridge
32
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