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ENGL 6310/7310 Popular Culture Studies Fall 2011 PH 300 M 240-540 Dr. David Lavery 9/26/11 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Theodore Adorno (1903-1969). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ENGL 6310/7310 Popular Culture Studies


1
ENGL 6310/7310 Popular Culture Studies Fall
2011 PH 300 M 240-540 Dr. David Lavery 9/26/11
2
Popular Culture Studies
Marxism
3
Marxism
Popular Culture Studies
My students, communists, at Wa Dong Shi Dah,
Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China (April,
1981)
4
Popular Culture Studies
Marxism
Part Three Marxism 7. Karl Marx and Frederick
EngelsRuling Class and Ruling Ideas 8. Karl
MarxBase and Superstructure 9. Frederick
EngelsLetter to Joseph Bloch 10. Theodor W.
AdornoOn Popular Music 11. Antonio Gramsci
Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State 12. Tony
BennettPopular Culture and the 'turn of
Gramsci' 13. John StoreyRockin' Hegemony West
Coast Rock and Amerika's War in Vietnam
(discussion led by Sherrie Michael) 14. 
Christine GledhillPleasurable Negotiations 15.
Stuart HallThe Rediscovery of 'Ideology' Return
of the Repressed in Media Studies 16. Ernesto
Laclau with Chantal MouffePost-Marxism without
Apologies
5
Popular Culture Studies
Karl Marx (1818-83). German economist,
philosopher, sociologist
Marxism
6
Popular Culture Studies
Marxism
7
Popular Culture Studies
Karl Marx (1818-83).
Marxism
8
Popular Culture Studies
The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch
the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the
ruling force in society , is at the same time its
ruling intellectual force.Marx and
Engels Freedom of the press is limited to those
who own one.A. J. Leibling
Marxism
9
Marxism
Popular Culture Studies
Opening of The Communist Manifesto A spectre is
haunting Europe the spectre of communism. All
the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy
alliance to exorcise this spectre Pope and Tsar,
Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German
police-spies. Where is the party in opposition
that has not been decried as communistic by its
opponents in power? Where is the opposition that
has not hurled back the branding reproach of
communism, against the more advanced opposition
parties, as well as against its reactionary
adversaries? Two things result from this
fact I. Communism is already acknowledged by all
European powers to be itself a power. II. It is
high time that Communists should openly, in the
face of the whole world, publish their views,
their aims, their tendencies, and meet this
nursery tale of the Spectre of Communism with a
manifesto of the party itself. To this end,
Communists of various nationalities have
assembled in London and sketched the following
manifesto, to be published in the English,
French, German, Italian, Flemish and
Danish languages.
10
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 7. Karl Marx and Frederick
EngelsRuling Class and Ruling Ideas
Marxism
11
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 9. Frederick EngelsLetter to
Joseph Bloch
Marxism
12
Popular Culture Studies
Alienation The estrangement the proletariat feels
from the work of his/her hands, the products of
his/her labor.
Marxism
13
Popular Culture Studies
All that is solid melts into air. The
bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly
revolutionizing the instruments of production,
and thereby the relations of production, and with
them the whole relations of society. Conservation
of the old modes of production in unaltered form,
was, on the contrary, the first condition of
existence for all earlier industrial classes.
Constant revolutionizing of production,
uninterrupted disturbance of all social
conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation
distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier
ones. All fixed, fast frozen relations, with
their train of ancient and venerable prejudices
and opinions, are swept away, all new-formed ones
become antiquated before they can ossify. All
that is solid melts into air, all that is holy is
profaned, and man is at last compelled to face
with sober senses his real condition of life and
his relations with his kind.Marx and Engels,
The Communist Manifesto
Marxism
14
Popular Culture Studies
Authenticity In Marxism, describes a life lived
according to the rational needs and ambitions of
the individual, free from the imposed false
consciousness of a capitalized society.
Marxism
15
Popular Culture Studies
Base-superstructure Both terms associated
(initially) with classical Marxist theory. The
'base' refers to the economy and modes of
production (e.g. feudal, capitalist). The
'superstructure' refers to the social, cultural,
legal and other arrangements which operate in
relation to a particular economic base. For
example, compare the social and political
institutions of a feudal economy with those
institutions which are seen to typify late
twentieth-century Western economies. (Storey
Glossary)
MassThink on Base/Superstructure
Marxism
16
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 8. Karl MarxBase and
Superstructure
Marxism
17
Popular Culture Studies
Co-Optation In Neo-Marxism, the ability of a
capitalist society to subsume criticism/opposition
into its media content (advertising, media
texts). Todd Gitlin famously observed that
capitalism tends to transform the desire for
real change into the availability of novel
goods.
Marxism
18
Popular Culture Studies
Co-Optation Ronald Reagan regularly used a song
with the following lyrics as entrance music at
campaign stops. I had a buddy at Khe
Sahn Fighting off the Viet Cong They're still
there, he's all gone He had a little girl in
Saigon I got a picture of him in her arms Down in
the shadow of the penitentiary Out by the gas
fires of the refinery I'm ten years down the
road Nowhere to run, ain't got nowhere to go I'm
a long gone Daddy in the U.S.A. Born in the
U.S.A. I'm a cool rocking Daddy in the
U.S.A. Born in the U.S.A. --Bruce Springsteen,
Born in the USA
Marxism
19
Marxism
Popular Culture Studies
Cultural Hegemony Cultural hegemony is the
philosophic and sociological concept, originated
by the Marxist philosopher Antonio Gramsci, that
a culturally-diverse society can be ruled or
dominated by one of its social classes. It is the
dominance of one social group over another, e.g.
the ruling class over all other classes. The
theory claims that the ideas of the ruling class
come to be seen as the norm they are seen as
universal ideologies, perceived to benefit
everyone whilst only really benefiting the ruling
class.Wikipedia. Hegemony Term associated
with the work of Antonio Gramsci, referring to
the way in which dominant groups in society,
through processes of intellectual/moral
leadership, seek to win the consent of
subordinate groups in society. Hegemony theory,
especially as deployed by neo-Gramscian cultural
theorists, stresses process of incorporation and
resistance in the cultural field. Moreover,
texts, practices and commodities have to be made
to mean texts do not mean anything outside the
conflictual context in which meanings are
articulated/contested. See also articulation above
 bricolage above. Hegemony explained on the
Theory.org Gramsci page.
20
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 11. Antonio Gramsci
Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State
Marxism
21
Popular Culture Studies
Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). Italian cultural
theorist and philosopher.
Watch a Lecture About Gramsci Watch a
Documentary in Italian on Gramsci (nice visuals)
Theory.orgs Gramsci Page
22
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 11. Antonio Gramsci
Hegemony, Intellectuals and the State
Marxism
23
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 12. Tony BennettPopular
Culture and the 'turn of Gramsci'
Marxism
24
Popular Culture Studies
Dialectic Hegelian The engagement of thesis
and antithesis, yielding synthesis, which,
according to the German philosopher Hegel,
governs both intellectual and material history.
Marx applied such a principle in his own
conception of history, with capitalist society
playing the role of thesis, the proletariat as
antithesis, and the new communist society that
would result as the synthesis
  • Thesis
  • Antithesis
  • Synthesis

Marxism
25
Popular Culture Studies
Marxism
Dominant Culture The dominant culture is the
culture of the dominant social grouping. It is
not necessarily the culture of the majority
(though it often is) but rather the culture of
those who have the resources, assets, and means
by which to control the cultural mileaux of a
society. The dominant social groupings sphere of
influence affects language, fashion, norms,
values, behaving, and thinking Dominant cultures
always contain scripts and programs which support
the economic and political interests of the
dominant social groupings, and ensure
uninterrupted operation of The System. For
example, in western societies the dominant
cultures emphasize hard work and achievement
(i.e., wage slavery), respect for property
owners, and individual responsibility for the
manifestation of individual reality. These
cultural/ideological prescriptions ensure people
accept wage slavery and, more importantly for
those who benefit from the exploitation and
callous disregard for human life, dignity, and
right, blame themselves when they are unable to
find an acceptable niche within which to jack
themselves into The System. (Spirit Wiki)
26
Popular Culture Studies
Bricolage Term often associated with youth and
subcultures. Products are combined and
transformed in ways not intended by their
producers commodities are rearticulated to
produce 'oppositional' meanings. See the work of
Dick Hebdige and his readings of punk and other
subcultures. (Storeys Glossary)
Marxism
27
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 14.  Christine
GledhillPleasurable Negotiations
Marxism
28
Popular Culture Studies
False Consciousness Marxist theory that people
are unable to see things, esp. exploitation,
oppression, and social relations, as they really
are the hypothesized inability of the human mind
to develop a sophisticated awareness of how it is
developed and shaped by circumstances
(Dictionary.com)
Marxism
29
Popular Culture Studies
Todd Gitlin (1943- ). Americn sociologist and
media critic.
The genius of consumer society is its ability to
convert the desire for change into a desire
for novel goods.Todd Gitlin, Inside Prime Time
30
Popular Culture Studies
Fetishism To deify or give unnatural significance
or meaning to objects. Marx argued that
capitalism fetishizes commodities/objects. More
on Commodity Festishism.
Marxism
31
Popular Culture Studies
The Frankfurt School The Frankfurt School
refers to a group of German-American theorists
who developed powerful analyses of the changes in
Western capitalist societies that occurred since
the classical theory of Marx. Working at the
Institut fur Sozialforschung in Frankfurt,
Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s,
theorists such as Max Horkheimer, T.W. Adorno,
Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal, and Erich Fromm
produced some of the first accounts within
critical social theory of the importance of mass
culture and communication in social reproduction
and domination. The Frankfurt School also
generated one of the first models of a critical
cultural studies that analyzes the processes of
cultural production and political economy, the
politics of cultural texts, and audience
reception and use of cultural artifacts (Kellner
1989 and 1995).Douglas Kellner Where Arnold
and Leavis saw anarchy, the Frankfurt School
see only conformity a situation in which the
deceived masses (133) are caught in a circle of
manipulation and retroactive need in wich the
unity of the system grows ever strong (Storey
62).
Marxism
32
Popular Culture Studies
Walter Benjamin (1892-1940)
Read The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical
Reproduction
33
Popular Culture Studies
Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979). German/American
philosopher and Marxist.
34
Popular Culture Studies
Theodore Adorno (1903-1969). German sociologist
and critic.
35
Popular Culture Studies
According to the Frankfurt School . . .
Culture Mass Culture
Real False
European American
Multi-dimensional One-dimensional
Active consumption Passive consumption
Individual creation Mass production
Imagination Distraction
Negation Social cement
Marxism
36
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 10. Theodor W. AdornoOn
Popular Music The Two Spheres of
Music Standardization Pseudo-Individualization Pop
ular Music and Leisure Time The Social Cement

Marxism
37
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 13. John StoreyRockin'
Hegemony West Coast Rock and Amerika's War in
Vietnam Shellie Michael
Marxism
38
Popular Culture Studies
Ideology (a) Views, beliefs, values and opinions
of a particular group or class systematised body
of ideas (b) material practices (e.g. holidays
the celebration of Christmas) (c) ideological
forms (as in the way texts offer a particular
view or (distorted) perspective of the world.
(Storeys Glossary)
Marxism
39
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 15. Stuart HallThe
Rediscovery of 'Ideology' Return of the
Repressed in Media Studies
Marxism
40
Popular Culture Studies
Interpellation Taken from the work of Althusser
and refers to the ways in which texts and
institutions seem to 'speak to', 'hail' or
'address' subjects as unique individuals.
Adverts, for example, seem to interpellate/address
subjects in specific ways (especially the direct
address 'You!'). Interpellation also operates
alongside ideology (e.g. the capitalist notion of
the unique individual). See the work of Judith
Williamson.Storeys Glossary
Marxism
41
Popular Culture Studies
John Berger (1926- ). British art critic,
Marxist, novelist.
Watch Ways of Seeing Clips)
42
Popular Culture Studies
43
Popular Culture Studies
44
Popular Culture Studies
John Berger (1926- ). British art critic,
Marxist, novelist.
45
Popular Culture Studies
Neo-Marxism/Post-Marxism Neo-Marxism is a loose
term for various twentieth-century approaches
that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory,
usually by incorporating elements from other
intellectual traditions, such as critical
theory, psychoanalysis or Existentialism (in the
case of Sartre). . . . As with many uses of the
prefix neo-, many theorists and groups designated
as neo-Marxist have attempted to supplement the
perceived deficiencies of orthodox Marxism or
dialectical materialism. Many prominent
neo-Marxists, such as Herbert Marcuse and other
members of the Frankfurt School, were
sociologists and psychologists. Neo-Marxism
comes under the broader framework of the New
Left. Neo-Marxism is also used frequently to
describe opposition to inequalities experienced
by Lesser Developed Countries in a globalized
world. (Wikipedia)
Marxism
46
Popular Culture Studies
Part Three Marxism 16. Ernesto Laclau with
Chantal MouffePost-Marxism without Apologies
Marxism
47
Popular Culture Studies
Repressive State Apparatus (RSA) Althusser
suggests that ideology is institutional,
informing and structuring the operations of
political administrations, media, art, etc. When
such ideological state apparatuses fail to win
the consent of subjects, then states will use
repressive measures - where RSA refers to police
force, army, prison system, etc.Storeys
Glossary
Marxism
48
Popular Culture Studies
Louis Althusser (1918-1990). French Marxist
philosopher.
On 16 November 1980, Althusser strangled his
wife Hélène to death, following a period of
mental instability. There were no witnesses, and
the exact circumstances are debated with some
claiming it was deliberate, others accidental.
Althusser himself claimed not to have a clear
memory of the event, saying that, while he was
massaging his wife's neck, he discovered he had
strangled her. Althusser was diagnosed as
suffering from diminished responsibility, and he
was not tried, but instead committed to the
Sainte-Anne psychiatric hospital. Althusser
remained in hospital until 1983. Upon release, he
moved to Northern Paris and lived reclusively,
seeing few people. He continued to work and
write, but published little. A notable exception
is his autobiography, L'Avenir dure longtemps, in
which Althusser describes the killing (among
other topics). He died of a heart attack on 22
October 1990 at the age of 72. Much of his
post-1980 work has been published
posthumously. --Wikipedia
49
Popular Culture Studies
Surplus Value In Marxist economics, the amount
by which the value of the worker's product
exceeds the wage the worker is paid, viewed as
the source of capitalist profit.Websters
Dictionary
Marxism
50
Popular Culture Studies
Wants/Needs According to Ivan Illich (Toward a
Theory of Needs), capitalism confuses needsfood,
housing, clothing, etc.with wants--longed-for
material acquisitions, whose desirability is
instilled via advertising and other mass media
instruments.
Marxism
51
Popular Culture Studies
Koyaanisqatsi (Godfrey Reggio, 1982. Music by
Philip Glass. koyaanisqatsi (Hopi) life out of
balance, crazy life, life about to change into
something else.
Marxism
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