The Italian Polity Paolo R. Graziano Political Science AY 2011-2012 Lecture 16 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Italian Polity Paolo R. Graziano Political Science AY 2011-2012 Lecture 16

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... very limited mobilization: limited leadership: poorly defined limits, but quite predictable The transition to democracy ... (Christian Democratic Party) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Italian Polity Paolo R. Graziano Political Science AY 2011-2012 Lecture 16


1
The Italian Polity Paolo R.
Graziano Political Science AY 2011-2012Lecture
16
2
Outline
  • Italian polity formation, consolidation and
    transformation - from a centralized to a
    quasi-federal state
  • Italian democratization the nature of Italian
    partycracy
  • Italy and the international environment -
    especially, the role of Europe in changing the
    Italian political system (and policies)

3
From a centralized to a quasi-federal state I
  • Late unification process (1861) and Italian
    specificities
  • Italian elites constantly wanted to catch up
    with other influential European countries such
    as France and United Kingdom
  • complex (and poorly implemented) unification was
    rather an annexation led by the Kingdom of
    Sardinia and the Savoy monarchy which was able to
    win the support of the moderate wing of the
    1850s national(istic) movement
  • long-lasting opposition (until 1929) towards the
    new nation-state by the Church

4
From a centralized to a quasi-federal state II
  • The elite unification was fairly easy but Italian
    society was still very fragmented especially
    with respect to the North-South divide
    (questione meridionale). Fragmentation was
  • linguistic
  • religious
  • economic (i.e. land property was more diffused in
    northern and central Italy than in the south)
  • The late industrialization (end of 19th century)
    increased the societal and economic
    fragmentation.

5
From a centralized to a quasi-federal state III
  • The evolution of a new nation-state
  • from administrative centralization (1861-1970) to
    regionalization (cooperative federalism)
  • from parliamentary monarchy (1861-1946) to
    parliamentary democracy (1946 - )
  • progressive extention of unrestricted male
    suffrage (1919) and universal suffrage (1946)

6
Democratization Italian style
  • political society from limited pluralism, to
    full party pluralism after WW2
  • civil society traditional weakness of civil
    society, until very recently occupied by
    political parties
  • economic society limited pluralism due to the
    strong presence of the state in the economy until
    early 1990s
  • rule of law significant presence of diffused
    implementation gaps
  • state apparatus from northern administrative
    elite (1861-1896) to more balanced one

7
The fascist state (1922-1943)
  • After WW1, restructuring of the Italian political
    system and decline in its ability to perform
    effectively, i.e. solve the relevant problems
    faced by the post-WW1 Italian society
  • authoritarian nature of the fascist state
  • pluralism limited
  • ideology very limited
  • mobilization limited
  • leadership poorly defined limits, but quite
    predictable

8
The transition to democracy (1946-1992)
  • transition began under war conditions (1943)
  • supporting coalition monarchy, Christian
    Democratic, Communist and Socialist parties
  • 1946 referendum passed in favour of a republican
    State and inauguration of a Constituent Assembly
    whose main aim was to draft the Constitution
  • 1948 Constitution enters into force Italy
    became a parliamentary multy-party democracy
  • crucial problem strong link between domestic and
    international environment which determined the
    exclusion of center-left parties from
    governmental positions
  • party-based (Christian Democratic Party)
    consolidation with great government instability

9
The 90s crisis and reconsolidation?
  • In the early 90s, judicial prosecution (clean
    hands or mani pulite) of a large section of the
    Italian political class and defreezing of
    international situation determined
  • high parliamentary turnover (70 of the members
    lost their seats)
  • significant party restructuring and emergence of
    new parties
  • revival of forgotten political cleavages
  • change from a multipolar political competition to
    a bipolar mode (also due to specific electoral
    reforms)
  • institutional restructuring (for example,
    increased Presidential power)
  • public policy reforms

10
Italy and the international environment
  • the smallest big European country
  • which learned to increase its position
    internationally via multilateral organizations
  • Italy soon became a NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
    Organization) member and was a founding member of
    the European Economic Community
  • Increasing Europeanism, but until when?
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