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Syllabus

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Photogrammetriy & Remote sensing Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Civil Engineering Department 2nd Semester 2008/2009 Syllabus & Introduction – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Syllabus


1
Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning
Photogrammetriy Remote sensing
Civil Engineering Department
2nd Semester 2008/2009
Syllabus Introduction
Lecture - Week 1
2
Lecturer Information
Eng. Maha A. Muhaisen
MSc. Infrastructure Engineering
Office BK210 Tel. Ext. 1127 O. Hours Will
be provided later
3
Course Outline
  • Introduction
  • Concepts and Foundations of Remote Sensing
  • Elements of Photographic Systems
  • Basic Photographic Measurements and Mapping
  • Introduction to Airphoto Interpretation

4
Text Book
Lillesand, TM, Kiefer, RW Chipman, JW Remote
sensing and image interpretation, 5th
Edition 2004
5
Activities
  • Lectures
  • Theory and Principles
  • Examples
  • Group Work and Discussion
  • Quizzes

6
Grade Policy
Mid-term Exam 30 Final Exam 40 Assignments,
Quizzes 30 100
7
Introduction
8
Definitions
  • Remote sensing the identification and study of
    objects from a remote distance using reflected or
    emitted electromagnetic energy over different
    portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Photogrammetry the art or science of obtaining
    reliable quantitative information from aerial
    photographs.

9
What is Remote Sensing (RS)?
  • Formal and comprehensive definition
  • The acquisition and measurement of
    data/information on some property(ies) of a
    phenomenon, object, or material by a recording
    device not in physical, intimate contact with the
    feature(s) under surveillance techniques involve
    amassing knowledge pertinent to environments by
    measuring force fields, electromagnetic
    radiation, or acoustic energy employing cameras,
    radiometers and scanners, lasers, radio frequency
    receivers, radar systems, sonar, thermal devices,
    seismographs, magnetometers, gravimeters, and
    other instruments.

10
What is Remote Sensing (RS)?
  • Remote Sensing involves gathering data and
    information about the physical "world" by
    detecting and measuring radiation, particles, and
    fields associated with objects located beyond the
    immediate vicinity of the sensor device(s).

11
What is Remote Sensing (RS)?
  • Remote Sensing is a technology for sampling
    electromagnetic radiation to acquire and
    interpret non-immediate geospatial data from
    which to extract information about features,
    objects, and classes on the Earth's land surface,
    oceans, and atmosphere (and, where applicable, on
    the exteriors of other bodies in the solar
    system, or, in the broadest framework, celestial
    bodies such as stars and galaxies).

12
What is Remote Photogrammetry
  • Photogrammetry
  • The science or art of obtaining reliable
    measurements by means of photographs.
  • Photogrammetry is the art, science, and
    technology of obtaining reliable information
    about physical objects and the environment
    through the processes of recording, measuring,
    and interpreting photographic images and patterns
    of electromagnetic radiant energy and other
  • phenomena. (ASPRS, 1980)

13
What is Photogrammetry
  • Definitions (2)
  • Analog Photogrammetry
  • Using optical, mechanical and electronical
    components, and where the images are hardcopies.
    Re-creates a 3D model for measurements in 3D
    space.
  • Analytical Photogrammetry
  • The 3D modelling is mathematical (not re-created)
    and measurements are made in the 2D images.
  • Digital Photogrammetry
  • Analytical solutions applied in digital images.
    Can also incorporate computer vision and digital
    image processing techniques.
  • or Softcopy Photogrammetry
  • Softcopy refers to the display of a digital
    image, as opposed to a hardcopy (a physical,
    tangible photo).

14
Photograph Image
A scene which was detected as well as recorded on film. A scene which was detected electronically.
Chemical reactions on a light sensitive film detects the intensity of the incoming energy. Generate an electrical signal proportional to the incoming energy.
Simple, cheap, well known, high degree of spatial detail. Can sense in many wavelengths, data can be easily converted into digital form for automated processing.
Only sense in the wavelength of 0.3 0.9 µm, manual interpretation. Complex, expensive sensors
15
Relationships of the Mapping Sciences as they
relate to Mathematics and Logic, and the
Physical, Biological, and Social Sciences
Photogrammetry
16
A Brief History of Photogrammetry RS
  • 1851 Only a decade after the invention of the
    Daguerrotypie by Daguerre and Niepce, the french
    officer Aime Laussedat develops the first
    photogrammetrical devices and methods. He is seen
    as the initiator of photogrammetry.
  • 1858 The German architect A. Meydenbauer
    develops photogrammetrical techniques for the
    documentation of buildings and installs the first
    photogrammetric institute in 1885 (Royal Prussian
    Photogrammetric Institute).
  • 1866 The Viennese physicist Ernst Mach publishes
    the idea to use the stereoscope to estimate
    volumetric measures.
  • 1885 The ancient ruins of Persepolis were the
    first archaeological object recorded
    photogrammetrically.
  • 1889 The first German manual of photogrammetry
    was published by C. Koppe.
  • 1896 Eduard Gaston and Daniel Deville present
    the first stereoscopical instrument for
    vectorized mapping.
  • 1897/98 Theodor Scheimpflug invents the double
    projection.
  • 1901 Pulfrich creates the first Stereokomparator
    and revolutionates the mapping from stereopairs.
  • 1903 Theodor Scheimpflug invents the
    Perspektograph, an instrument for optical
    rectification.

17
A Brief History of Photogrammetry RS
  • 1910 The ISP (International Society for
    Photogrammetry), now ISPRS, was founded by E.
    Dolezal in Austria.
  • 1911 The Austrian Th. Scheimpflug finds a way to
    create rectified photographs. He is considered as
    the initiator of aerial photogrammetry, since he
    was the first succeeding to apply the
    photogrammetrical principles to aerial
    photographs.
  • 1913 The first congress of the ISP was held in
    Vienna.
  • until 1945 development and improvment of
    measuring (metric) cameras and analogue plotters.
  • 1964 First architectural tests with the new
    stereometric camera-system, which had been
    invented by Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen and Hans
    Foramitti, Vienna.
  • 1964 Charte de Venise.
  • 1968 First international Symposium for
    photogrammetrical applications to historical
    monuments was held in Paris - Saint Mand.

18
A Brief History of Photogrammetry RS
  • 1970 Constitution of CIPA (Comit International
    de la Photogrammetrie Architecturale) as one of
    the international specialized committees of
    ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and
    Sites) in cooperation with ISPRS. The two main
    activists were Maurice Carbonnell, France, and
    Hans Foramitti, Austria.
  • 1970ies The analytical plotters, which were
    first used by U. Helava in 1957, revolutionate
    photogrammetry. They allow to apply more complex
    methods aerotriangulation, bundle-adjustment,
    the use of amateur cameras etc.
  • 1980ies Due to improvements in computer hardware
    and software, digital photogrammetry is gaining
    more and more importance.
  • 1996 83 years after its first conference, the
    ISPRS comes back to Vienna, the town, where it
    was founded.
  • 1996 The film starring Brad Pitt, Fight Club is
    an excellent example of the use of photogrammetry
    in film where it is used to combine live action
    with computer generated imagery in movie
    post-production.
  • 2005 Topcon PI-3000 Image Station is launched.

19
Short History (1)
  • Analogue Photogrammetry
  • (Pure optical-mechanical way, 1911-1945) the
    large, complicated and expensive instruments
    could only be handled with a lot of experience
    photogrammetric operators.

Steroscopic Transfer Instruments --
Stereoplotters that Use Diapositives
20
Short History (2)
  • Analytical Photogrammetry (1957-1980)
    reconstruct the orientation no more analogue but
    algorithmic. The equipment became significantly
    smaller, cheaper and easier to handle, with
    servo motors to provide the ability to position
    the photos directly by the computer.

Automated (Analytical) Stereoplotter
21
Short History (3)
  • Digital Photogrammetry
  • (1980-now) use digital photos and do the work
    directly with the computer.

22
Photogrammetry
  • Aerial Photmgrammetry
  • Terrestial Photogrammetry

23
Chapter (1) Concept and Fundamentals of Remote
Sensing
24
(No Transcript)
25
Fundamental Principles of Electromagnetic
Radiation
Wave Theory c ? ? where c speed of light 3
x 108 m s-1 ? frequency (s-1, cycles/s, or
Hz) ? wavelength (m)
26
Finding Frequency from Wavelength
  • Given ? 0.55 µm green light
  • Find ?
  • Solution c ??
  • ? c / ?
  • ? (3 x 108 m s-1) / (0.55 x 10-6 m)
  • ? 5.45 x 1014 s-1

27
Finding Wavelength from requency
  • Given ? 6000 MHz 6000 x 106 s-1
  • Find ?
  • Solution c ??
  • ? c / ?
  • ? (3 x 108 m s-1) / (6 x 109 s-1)
  • ? 0.05 m 5 cm
  • microwave, or radar wavelength

28
Particle Theory
  • Q h?
  • where Q energy of a quantum, Joules (J)
  • h Plancks constant, 6.626 x 10-34 J s
  • ? frequency (s-1)

29
Relating Wave and Particle Theory
  • Q h? and c ??
  • ? c / ?
  • therefore, Q hc / ?
  • The longer the wavelength, the lower the energy
    content.

30
The Electromagnetic Spectrum
near-IR 0.7 1.3 µm earth during
daytime mid-IR 1.3 3.0 µm more reflected
sunlight thermal IR 3.0 14 µm more
emitted energy
Figure 1.3 The electromagnetic spectrum.
31
Visible Light
32
Nominal Regions of the Spectrum
  • Ultraviolet 0.3 - 0.4 µm
  • Visible 0.4 - 0.7 µm
  • Blue 0.4 - 0.5 µm
  • Green 0.5 - 0.6 µm
  • Red 0.6 - 0.7 µm
  • Near Infrared 0.7 - 1.3 µm
  • Photographic Infrared 0.7 - 0.9 µm
  • Mid Infrared 1.3 - 3 µm
  • Thermal Infrared 3 - 14 µm
  • Microwave (Radar) 1 mm - 1 m

33
Unit Prefix Notation
  • Multiplier Prefix Example
  • 103 kilo (k) kilometer
  • 10-3 milli (m) millimeter
  • 10-6 micro (µ) micrometer
  • 10-9 nano (n) nanometer
  • See also inside back cover of textbook
  • Note one micron one micrometer

34
Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation
Figure 1.4 Spectral distribution of energy
radiated from blackbodies of various temperatures.
35
The Stefan-Boltzmann Law
  • M sT4
  • Where M total radiant exitance, or emitted
    energy (W m-2)
  • s Stefan-Boltzmann constant (5.6697 x 10-8 W
    m-2 K-4)
  • T temperature (K)
  • Note All temperatures must be expressed in
    degrees Kelvin (kelvins) K C 273.15

36
Wiens Displacement Law
  • ?M A / T
  • Where ?M wavelength of maximum radiant
    exitance (µm)
  • A constant (2898 µm K)
  • T temperature (K)
  • Note All temperatures must be expressed in
    degrees Kelvin (kelvins)
  • K C 273.15

37
Figure 1.4 Spectral distribution of energy
radiated from blackbodies of various temperatures.
38
Atmospheric Effects on Electromagnetic Radiation
39
Figure 1.1 Electromagnetic remote sensing of
earth resources.
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