Introduction to Geographic Information Systems: Location Matters RESM 440 Lecture 2 Wed Aug 25, 2010 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Geographic Information Systems: Location Matters RESM 440 Lecture 2 Wed Aug 25, 2010

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Geographic Information Systems: Location Matters RESM 440 Lecture 2 Wed Aug 25, 2010 * Why use GIS? Address issues in human communities Address environmental concerns ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems: Location Matters RESM 440 Lecture 2 Wed Aug 25, 2010


1
Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
Location Matters RESM 440 Lecture 2 Wed Aug
25, 2010
2
Today
  • Topic
  • Introduction to Geographic Information Systems
  • This weeks lab
  • Introduction to ArcGIS (software)
  • Required readings
  • Bolstad, Chapter 1 (PDF on website or on reserve)
  • ESRI Geography Matters (PDF on website)

3
Introduction to GIS Outline
  • Background
  • Definition of GIS
  • Components and functions of a GIS
  • GIS as a tool
  • GIS in action examples
  • GIScience

4
Background
Geography is both science and art H.C. Darby,
1962 Geography is the study of variations in
phenomena from place to place Holt-Jensen, 1980
  • What is geography?
  • Geography matters
  • Understanding the world around us
  • Spatial information in everyday life

Source for quotes Matt Rosenberg, about.com
5
GIS
  • Geographic Information System(s) GIS
  • Linking geographic information with descriptive
    information
  • Intelligent digital maps for answering questions
  • Where will the hurricane make landfall?
  • Which regions of the U.S. are growing in
    population?
  • Which markets will have the WVU game on TV?

6
History of mapping
  • Humans make observations of surroundings

Views from high vantage points, early exploration
7
History of mapping
  • Early printed maps and drawings

summarizing known information
First known map to reference Appalachia
(Apalchen) by Diego Gutierrez, 1562 Source Dr.
David Walls, Sonoma University
8
Historical maps - examples
Morgantown and WVU, 1896
9
Mapping technology development
  • Advances in associated technologies allow for
    vast improvements in mapping

Data Collection
Data Storage and Manipulation
Kite Photography - San Francisco, 1906
10
Mapping technology development
  • Modernization Satellites, GPS receivers,
    advances in computers

Data Collection
Data Storage and Manipulation
11
History of GIS
  • Advances in mapping and computer technology also
    contributed to development of GIS
  • First uses of GIS
  • Early 1960s Canada Geographic Information
    System, Canada Land Inventory (Roger Tomlinson)
  • Late 1960s academic work in GIS, textbooks,
    computer cartography
  • Early 1970s digitizing advances, Landsat 1
    satellite launched
  • Early 1980s major commercial GIS software
    available (ESRIs ArcInfo precursor to ArcGIS)

12
Developments contributing to advances in GIS
Storing data digitally
Aerial photography
Use of computers
Mapping
Satellite imagery
Personal computers
Cartographic tools
Database programs
Conversion to digital format
Increased storage and speed
Digital cartography
Interdisciplinary applications
GIS
13
Definition of GIS
  • GIS Geographic Information System
  • Definition of a GIS
  • A computer-based system to aid in the
    collection, maintenance, storage, analysis,
    output, and distribution of spatial data and
    information

Source Bolstad, Chapter 1, Page 1
14
Components of a GIS
  • GIS components
  • Hardware
  • Computers, plotters, GPS units, servers etc.
  • Software
  • ArcGIS, many others
  • Data
  • Can be most time-consuming part of GIS
  • Methods/protocols
  • Tools, customized programs, standards
  • People!

Source Bolstad, Chapter 1, Page 13
15
Is Mapquest a GIS?
Collect/update data?
Store, maintain data?
Analyze data?
Output results?
GIS A computer-based system to aid in the
collection, maintenance, storage, analysis,
output, and distribution of spatial data and
information
16
Are navigation systems GISs?
Collect/update data?
Store, maintain data?
Analyze data?
Output results?
?
?
GIS A computer-based system to aid in the
collection, maintenance, storage, analysis,
output, and distribution of spatial data and
information
17
Five essential functions of a GIS
Query
Analyze
Store
Spatial Data
Display
Capture
18
1. Capturing spatial data
  • Creating or obtaining digital datasets

GPS Receivers
Scanning Existing Paper Maps
Mapping Websites
Mapping From Aerial Photos or Satellite Imagery
19
2. Storing spatial data
  • Spatial features
  • Descriptive information

Point features Firehouses Schools
Line features Roads Streams
Polygon features Water bodies Recreational areas
20
  • Spatial features are linked to a database

Parcel ID Owner Acres Zoning Building Value Year Built
08-001 West, Peggy 0.45 R 64,000 1954
08-002 School District 5.12 Ex - 1972
08-003 North, Tim 1.33 R 72,000 1956
08-004 7-Eleven 2.03 C 92,000 1995
21
  • Imagery and grid-based data

Aerial photography, 2003
Regional elevation data
22
3. Answering questions
  • GIS can answer questions regarding
  • Feature size or location
  • Spatial relationships of features from different
    layers
  • Distance
  • Examples

23
  • What is the largest county in WV?

24
  • How many industrial sites are located in Randolph
    county? Where are they?

25
  • How many industrial sites are found within 2
    miles of an interstate in WV? Where are they?

26
4. Analyzing data
  • GIS can analyze your data in many ways
  • Combining different data layers
  • Proximity analysis whats nearby?
  • Compare changes over time
  • Modeling
  • Network analysis and problem solving

27
Mapping change over time
US Population Density by County 1790-1990
28
Network analysis
Driving directions to downtown Morgantown
29
5. Displaying results
  • Summarizing data with a map or graphic
  • Visually interpret results

ESRI sample cartography project Cities shown by
population
30
Summarizing data with maps
31
Why GIS matters
  • GIS is used in everyday life
  • GIS
  • can be used to visualize information
  • can help answer geographic questions
  • links data to geographic locations
  • is a valuable money-saving and time-saving tool

32
Uses of GIS GIS in many fields
Natural Science Social Science Commercial Government/Public Service
Agriculture, soil science Archaeology, Anthropology Banking/finance Defense/military
Forestry, wildlife, fisheries Economics Business Health, human resources
Water resources, hydrology, engineering Epidemiology Media Law enforcement
Resource extraction, mining, petroleum Education Transportation Libraries, museums
Landscape architecture Sociology Utilities Statistics, information
33
Users of GIS
  • 2 million users of GIS software daily
  • Careers in GIS
  • Many jobs require use of GIS
  • Certification as GIS professional (GISCI)

34
Why use GIS?
  • Address issues in human communities
  • Address environmental concerns, limited resources
  • Legislative requirements for mapped information
  • Business benefits increased efficiency

35
Push pull in development of GIS
  • Push societys needs for better, more accurate
    information
  • Pull advances in associated technologies
  • Computing performance, cost, and storage
  • Remote sensing (imaging) and data collection
  • Data collection and Global Positioning Systems
    (GPS)

Source Bolstad, Chapter 1, Page 7
36
Limitations of GIS
  • Static or snapshot nature of spatial data
    need for frequent updates
  • Need for standard protocols, methods to ensure
    proper use of data, analyses
  • Expenses involved in data acquisition,
    specialized training, etc.
  • Need to know why GIS is necessary for your needs
    careful planning and organization required

Source Bolstad, Chapter 1, Page 18
37
GIS in action
  • Example Oneida County, Wisconsin (Bolstad, Ch
    1)
  • Population growth, seasonal and vacation homes
  • Nearby lakes sensitive to increased erosion and
    nutrients
  • GIS project to characterize parcels, link to
    landowner info

38
GIS in action (2)
  • WV Statewide Addressing and Mapping Board
  • Mapping for emergency services (E-911)
  • Aerial photographs for WV
  • Improved roads base map
  • Mapped structures
  • Geo-coded / assigned street addresses to all
    structures

Westover, WV
39
GISc - Geographic Information Science
  • Goal is to address the limitations of GIS
  • Science and theoretical foundation behind the
    technology
  • Considers questions raised by the use of the
    systems and technologies
  • A multidisciplinary field (landscape ecologists,
    hydrologists, economists, etc.)

40
Future trends
  • Real time data collection from satellite imagery
    or GPS for use in a GIS
  • Internet mapping capabilities including spatial
    analysis (e.g. Google Earth)
  • More interdisciplinary applications
  • Improved decision support tools linked to GIS

41
GIS software
  • Many GIS software packages exist (see Bolstad)
  • Tools to work with spatial data and perform GIS
    functions
  • Data-related functions
  • Entry, capture
  • Editing, error detection
  • Management (copy, merge, documentation)
  • Analysis functions (queries, models)
  • Output functions (map layout, graphics)
  • We will use ESRIs ArcGIS desktop software in lab

42
Summary
  • GIS links information to place smart maps
  • The definition, components, and functions of a
    GIS are all related
  • Components Data, methods, hardware, software,
    people
  • Functions Capture, store, query, analyze,
    display spatial data
  • GIS is used for many purposes in many fields
  • GIScience theoretical basis for GIS
  • GIS software tools for performing GIS
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