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Social Exchange Theory Behavioral Theory

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SSS 571 Human Behavior & the Social Environment November 8, 2010 Lynn Mayer, MSW, PhD Application How would exchange theory define this problem? How do the exchange ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Social Exchange Theory Behavioral Theory


1
Social Exchange Theory Behavioral Theory
  • SSS 571
  • Human Behavior
  • the Social Environment
  • November 8, 2010
  • Lynn Mayer, MSW, PhD

2
Lewins wisdom
  • There is nothing so practical
  • as a good theory.

3
Plan
  • Explore and challenge some misconceptions
  • Present Behavioral theory and Social Exchange
    theories via 7 questions
  • Focus on people's problems and groups problems
    and how these theories help us understand the
    problems and help them change
  • Put it all together by applying to case examples

4
  • So, what did you learn about social exchange and
    behavioral theories from your reading?
  • What are your assumptions about them from your
    reading or past experience?

5
Reviewing, what is theory?
  • an interrelated set of concepts
  • that are based on observations
  • the relationship between concepts is expressed as
    hypotheses
  • These concepts and hypotheses are tested or
    testable
  • and are intended to explain or predict phenomena.

6
7 Questions
  1. What are the major premises of the theory?
  2. Who thought this theory up?
  3. Who are the social workers building on this early
    thinking?
  4. How does the theory understand problems?
  5. How did problems come to be?
  6. How do problems go away on their own?
  7. How do social workers help make problems go away?

7
  • Behavioral Theory

8
QUESTION 1 What are the major premises of
Behavioral Theory?
  • We are what we do.
  • We learn what we do (overt and covert behavior)
    through respondent (classical) conditioning,
    operant conditioning, and modeling
  • Behavior is maintained by antecedent and
    consequential conditions
  • To change what we are, we must change what we do
    by modifying the maintaining conditions

9
The Behavioral ABC
  • A B
    C
  • Antecedent Behavior
    Consequence

10
QUESTION 2 Who thought this theory up?
  • Respondent Behavior and Conditioning Ivan
    Pavlov
  • Operant Behavior and Conditioning B.F. Skinner
  • (among others)

11
Respondent Behavior Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936
12
  • Does the name Pavlov ring a bell?
  • No, but it makes my mouth water!

13
MOTHER GOOSE AND GRIMM MIKE PETERS
14
Operant Behavior Conditioning
B.F. Skinner 1904-1990
15

16
(No Transcript)
17
QUESTION 3 Who are the social workers building
on this early thinking?
  • Eileen Gambrill
  • Bruce Thyer

18
Eileen Gambrill
  • Behavioral practice involves an empirical
    approach to personal and social problems in which
    the selection of assessment and intervention
    methods is based whenever possible on related
    research.

19
Bruce Thyer
  • ...It is a mistake to conclude that behavioral
    social work practice requires any lesser degree
    of clinical skill and acumen or complexity of
    conceptualization than other approaches to
    practice.

20
QUESTION 4 How does behavioral theory
understand problems?
  • Problems are behaviors that are maladaptive for a
    person
  • Problem behaviors include those that are overt
    and observable to others or covert and not
    observable (thoughts, feelings, physiological
    responses)
  • Problem behaviors include those that are
    respondent (reflexive) or operant (voluntary)
  • Like all behaviors (we do have adaptive ones),
    they were learned in the past but maintained in
    the present by antecedents and/or consequences

21
Pop Quiz Question 1
  • Bruce Thyer would say, This is an angry client.
  • True
  • False

22
Pop Quiz Question 2
  • Eileen Gambrill would say, This clients anger
    is easily and often stimulated.
  • True
  • False

23
Respondent (Reflex) Behavior
  • Involuntary responses, driven by the central
    nervous system (not the skeletal muscles),
    dependent on the stimuli that precede them
  • Respondent behavior is dependent upon antecedent
    stimulus changes in the environment
  • Respondent behavior itself is not learned it is
    an automatic reflex elicited by a natural
    stimulus, but it can be conditioned to a neutral
    stimulus
  • S R

24
Operant Behavior
  • Voluntary behavior of the skeletal muscles with
    which we operate on the environment
  • Dependent on the reinforcing consequences that
    follow
  • Operant behavior is learned through operant
    conditioning through reinforcement
  • R S

25
Operant Behavior
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vI_ctJqjlrHA

26
QUESTION 5 How did problems come to be?
  • Problem behaviors, like all behaviors are learned
    in the past
  • But they are maintained in the present by
    maintaining conditions
  • Some behaviors are maintained by antecedent
    conditions (under stimulus control)
  • Others are maintained by consequential conditions

27
Maintaining Antecedents
  • Mother tries to strengthen daughters getting
    ready for school by providing reinforcing
    praise, but if Mom ceases to cajole, yell,
    prompt, the behavior doesnt happen
  • Anxiety is triggered by the presence of a
    dominating authority figure
  • A child successfully learns to read, because she
    has the prerequisite knowledge, skill, and
    resources (setting conditions)

28
Maintaining Consequences
  • Good work performance is strengthened by a
    monetary bonus
  • Aspirin-taking becomes more probable if the
    headache goes away
  • Childs shouting out in class continues despite
    teachers lecturing, yelling, chastising (the
    ubiquitous negative attention!)

29
We learn behaviors in 3 ways
  • We learn respondent behavior through respondent
    conditioning
  • We learn operant behavior through operant
    conditioning
  • (We also learn through modeling)

30
Learning through Respondent (Classical)
Conditioning
  • Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov found
  • A dog that involuntarily salivates upon
    presentation of natural stimulus meat - learns
    (or is conditioned) to salivate when presented
    with a neutral stimulus a bell through
    repeated pairing of the bell with the
    presentation of the meat.
  • By repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a
    natural, the neutral stimulus will come to elicit
    the same response thus, it becomes a conditioned
    stimulus

31
Why should social workers care?
  • Affective responses (e.g. fear or anger) are
    respondent behaviors that can become conditioned
    to neutral stimuli
  • Child in hospital
  • Painful medical treatment Fear
  • Painful treatment white coats Fear
  • White coats
    Fear

32
Learning through Operant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinner observed that the rate of animal
    behavior may be increased or decreased by
    altering the consequences
  • Successive approximation random behavior
    approximating a desired operant behavior is
    reinforced later, behaviors that are
    successively closer approximations of the desired
    behavior are systematically reinforced, shaping
    the desired behavior.

33
QUESTION 6 How do problems go away on
their own?
  • Through respondent extinction
  • Through operant extinction
  • If there are unpleasant consequences for the
    behavior (punishment or cost)
  • By learning a competing adaptive behavior

34
Respondent Extinction
  • What is respondent extinction?
  • Conditioned stimulus that has maintained
    maladaptive respondent behavior loses its power
    to elicit the problematic response
  • Example Woman with a bridge phobia keeps
    forcing herself to drive over bridges with no ill
    effect and gradually the anxiety lessens.
  • But what if she cant bring herself to do this?

35
Operant Extinction
  • What is operant extinction?
  • Maladaptive operant behavior that was previously
    maintained by reinforcing consequences is no
    longer reinforced
  • Example Childs shouting out in class (rather
    than raising her hand) has been consistently
    attended to by the teacher (reinforced), albeit
    by chastising, is then ignored by the teacher and
    the shouting out weakens
  • Is this a sufficient solution?

36
Unpleasant consequences punishment or
response cost suppression
  • What is response cost and punishment?
  • Operant behavior, previously maintained by
    antecedents or reinforcing consequences, is now
    followed by something unpleasant
  • Example Dangerous or risky driving lessens
    after a serious accident
  • Is this a sufficient solution?

37
Learning a competing adaptive behavior
  • What is Differential Reinforcement of Other
  • An adaptive behavior that competes with the
    maladaptive one is (differentially) reinforced
    while the maladaptive one is ignored
  • Example the teacher praises the child when she
    raises her hand and ignores shouting out

38
QUESTION 7 How do social workers help
make problems go away?
  • Deceleration techniques
  • Acceleration techniques
  • (Modeling techniques)

39
Deceleration Techniques Based on Respondent
Extinction
  • Weaken a maladaptive behavior by focus on removal
    of the maintaining A
  • Systematic desensitization or gradual exposure to
    the feared stimulus
  • Possible pairing of stimulus with relaxation
    response
  • Conditioned stimulus loses its power
  • A form of Respondent extinction and DRO

40
Deceleration Techniques Based on Operant
Extinction
  • Weaken a maladaptive behavior by focus on the
    removal of the maintaining C
  • Time out from positive reinforcement
  • Ignoring
  • Response-cost
  • Punishment

41
Ethics
  • Some things work but are unethical e.g. cattle
    prods

42
Acceleration Techniques
  • Acceleration techniques strengthen a new
    adaptive behavior via reinforcement applying a
    new maintaining C
  • Direct reinforcement of adaptive behavior
  • Differential reinforcement of a competing
    behavior
  • Token economy (indirect reinforcement)

43
Application
  • Case A Fear Clinging in a Young Child
  • A young man walks into a nursing home with her
    mother to visit her grandmother. She sees a man
    in a white coat whom she has never seen before.
    She feels fear and immediately clings to her
    mother.

44
Application
  • Case A 1 Fear
  • How does behavioral theory define fear in
    general?
  • Use explanatory concepts from behavioral theory
    to explain how fear might have come to be for
    this child.
  • Use change concepts from behavioral theory to
    explain how this childs fear could go away on
    its own.
  • Use change concepts from behavioral theory to
    explain how social workers help make fear go away.

45
Application
  • A 2 Clinging
  • How does behavioral theory define clinging in
    general?
  • Use explanatory concepts from behavioral theory
    to explain how clinging might have come to be for
    this child.
  • Use change concepts from behavioral theory to
    explain how this childs clinging could go away
    on its own.
  • Use change concepts from behavioral theory to
    explain how social workers help make clinging go
    away.

46
  • We are what we do
  • to change what we are,
  • we must change what we do.

47
  • Social Exchange Theory

48
QUESTION 1 What are the major premises of
Exchange Theory?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vqplf38QT0dU

49
Social Exchange Theories
  • Rooted in Utilitarianism, Functional
    Anthropology, Psychological Behaviorism
  • 1960s
  • Challenge to Functionalism

50
Social Exchange Theories
  • Concepts
  • Profits
  • Costs
  • Punishments
  • Rewards Foregone
  • Satiation
  • Scarcity
  • Power
  • Principle of Least Interest
  • Norm of Reciprocity
  • Distributive Justice
  • Achieved Investments
  • Ascribed Investments
  • Status
  • Status Congruence
  • Norms

51
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • George C. Homans
  • Psychological Principles
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Psychological Reductionist
  • Social Behavior

52
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Homans Propositions
  • Success Proposition
  • Stimulus Proposition
  • Value Proposition
  • Deprivation Satiation Proposition
  • Aggression Approval Propositions
  • Rationality Proposition

53
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Peter Blau
  • 1918 - 2002
  • Types of rewards
  • Extrinsic rewards
  • Intrinsic rewards
  • Categories of Social Groups
  • Emergent
  • Established

54
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Blaus Stages
  • Personal Exchange Transactions
  • Differentiation of Status Power
  • Legitimatization Organization
  • Opposition Change

55
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Richard Emerson
  • 1925 - 1982
  • Exchange analysis of networks social structures
  • Mathematical approach
  • Power dependence

56
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Emersons Exchange Network
  • There is a set of either individual or collective
    actors.
  • Valued resources are distributed among the
    actors.
  • There is a set of exchange opportunities among
    all the actors in the network.
  • Some exchange opportunities have developed into
    actually used exchange relations.
  • Exchange relations are connected to one another
    in a single network structure.

57
Social Exchange Theories - WHO
  • Karen Cook
  • Exchange networks v network theory
  • Exchange theory as integrative
  • Micro
  • Macro

58
QUESTION 3 Who are the social workers building
on this early thinking?
  • ??????????
  • exchange theory has received little attention in
    social work.

59
QUESTION 4 How does social exchange
theory understand problems?
  • Types of Power
  • Coercive
  • Reward
  • Expert
  • Legitimate
  • Referent

60
QUESTION 5 How did problems come to be?
61
QUESTION 6 How do problems go away on
their own?
62
QUESTION 7 How do social workers help
make problems go away?
  • Application
  • Interpersonal
  • Within Small Groups
  • Within Families
  • Between Small Groups
  • Between Various Groups
  • Between Nations and Nations

63
  • Think about using social exchange theory
  • Follow an old path and you find the expected.
  • Blaze a new trail and you have an adventure.
  • Evelyn Loeb

64
Application
  • Case C Two Agencies Competing for Same Grant
  • A large county agency has had the grant to
    provide Head Start (HS) services. They have been
    the only grantee in the area for years. A
    different, smaller agency unexpectedly gets the
    grant to provide a new service, Early Head Start
    (EHS), in the same geographic area. This agency
    has never gotten a HS grant before. The large
    agency is not funded to provide EHS services.

65
Application
  • Case C continued
  • So the small agency will serve the babies and
    the large agency will serve the preschoolers. As
    the small agency is writing their start up plan,
    they are told by the federal office to consult
    with the large agency for help. When they call,
    the large agency wont help.

66
Application
  • How would exchange theory define this problem?
  • How do the exchange theory concepts apply?
  • Which of Homans propositions do you think is
    influencing the behavior of the small agency? Of
    the large agency? Why?
  • The small agency needs something from the large
    agency. Using Blau, what do you think the small
    agency will do to get it?
  • Who has the power in this situation? What kind?
  • What would a social worker do in this situation
    using this theory?

67
Many Ways of Knowing
  • There are many truths and many ways of
    knowing. Each discovery contributes to our
    knowledge, and each way of knowing deepens our
    understanding and adds another dimension to our
    view of the worldwe must not turn our backs on
    any opportunities to enhance our knowledgethe
    boundaries of our profession are wide and deepno
    one way of knowing can explore this vast and
    varied territory.
  • Ann Hartman
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