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Chapter Four: Nonexperimental Methods I: Descriptive Methods, Qualitative Research, and Correlational Studies

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Title: Chapter Four: Nonexperimental Methods I: Descriptive Methods, Qualitative Research, and Correlational Studies


1
Chapter Four Nonexperimental Methods I
Descriptive Methods, Qualitative Research, and
Correlational Studies
2
Descriptive Methods
3
Descriptive Methods
  • Descriptive methods do not involve manipulation
    of an independent variable.

4
Descriptive Methods
  • Descriptive Methods
  • Do not involve manipulation of an independent
    variable
  • When we use descriptive methods, we can only
    speculate about causation that may be involved.

5
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data

6
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Refers to use of data recorded by other
    individuals for other purposes

7
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Refers to use of data recorded by other
    individuals for other purposes
  • (e.g. public health and census data)

8
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Refers to use of data recorded by other
    individuals for other purposes
  • (e.g. public health and census data)
  • The General Social Survey is an archival source
    that can be accessed online
  • http//www.icpsr.umich.edu8080/GSS/

9
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Potential Problems
  • You will not know exactly who left the data you
    are investigating.

10
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Potential Problems
  • You will not know exactly who left the data you
    are investigating.
  • The participants may have been selective in what
    they chose to write.
  • This problem is also known as selective deposit.

11
Descriptive Methods
  • Archival and Previously Recorded Sources of Data
  • Potential Problems
  • You will not know exactly who left the data you
    are investigating.
  • The participants may have been selective in what
    they chose to write.
  • Archival and previously recorded sources of data
    may not survive long enough for you to make use
    of them.

12
Descriptive Methods
  • Comparisons with the Experimental Method

13
Descriptive Methods
  • Comparisons with the Experimental Method
  • We are not able to exercise any control with
    regard to gathering these data and cannot make
    any statements regarding cause-and-effect.

14
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques

15
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Case studies

16
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Case studies
  • Involves intense observation and recording of
    behavior of a single (perhaps two) participant(s)
    over an extended period of time.

17
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Case studies
  • Involves intense observation and recording of
    behavior of a single (perhaps two) participant(s)
    over an extended period of time.
  • There are no guidelines for conducting a case
    study and the procedures employed, behaviors
    observed, and reports produced may vary
    substantially.

18
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Case studies
  • Involves intense observation and recording of
    behavior of a single (perhaps two) participant(s)
    over an extended period of time.
  • There are no guidelines for conducting a case
    study and the procedures employed, behaviors
    observed, and reports produced may vary
    substantially.
  • Frequently used in clinical settings to help
    formulate ideas and hypotheses for further
    research.

19
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Case Studies
  • Naturalistic Observation

20
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Involves seeking answers to research questions by
    observing behavior in the real world.

21
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Involves seeking answers to research questions by
    observing behavior in the real world.
  • The first goal of naturalistic observation is to
    describe behavior as it occurs in the natural
    setting without the artificiality of the
    laboratory.

22
Descriptive Methods
  • Observational Techniques
  • Naturalistic Observation
  • Involves seeking answers to research questions by
    observing behavior in the real world.
  • The first goal of naturalistic observation is to
    describe behavior as it occurs in the natural
    setting without the artificiality of the
    laboratory.
  • The second goal of naturalistic observation is to
    describe the variables that are present and the
    relations among them.

23
Psychological Detective
  • Why should the researcher be concealed or
    unobtrusive in a study using naturalistic
    observation?

24
Psychological Detective
  • Why should the researcher be concealed or
    unobtrusive in a study using naturalistic
    observation?
  • The reactance or reactivity effect

25
Psychological Detective
  • Why should the researcher be concealed or
    unobtrusive in a study using naturalistic
    observation?
  • The reactance or reactivity effect
  • Refers to biasing of the participants responses
    because they know they are being observed.

26
Psychological Detective
  • Why should the researcher be concealed or
    unobtrusive in a study using naturalistic
    observation?
  • The reactance or reactivity effect
  • Refers to biasing of the participants responses
    because they know they are being observed.
  • The reactivity effect is also known as the
    Hawthorne effect because of the location of the
    original study.

27
Descriptive Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • The researcher becomes part of the group being
    studied.

28
Descriptive Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • The researcher becomes part of the group being
    studied.
  • Often used when the goal of the research project
    is to learn something about a specific culture or
    socioeconomic group.

29
Descriptive Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • The researcher becomes part of the group being
    studied.
  • Often used when the goal of the research project
    is to learn something about a specific culture or
    socioeconomic group.
  • Ethnography is a form of participant observation
    based on the anthropological tradition of
    research.

30
Descriptive Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • The researcher becomes part of the group being
    studied.
  • Often used when the goal of the research project
    is to learn something about a specific culture or
    socioeconomic group.
  • Ethnography is a form of participant observation
    based on the anthropological tradition of
    research.
  • Observer as participant refers to a researcher
    who primarily observes a situation but who
    interacts with the others (Glesne, 1999).

31
Descriptive Methods
  • Participant Observation
  • The researcher becomes part of the group being
    studied.
  • Often used when the goal of the research project
    is to learn something about a specific culture or
    socioeconomic group.
  • Ethnography is a form of participant observation
    based on the anthropological tradition of
    research.
  • Observer as participant refers to a researcher
    who primarily observes a situation but who
    interacts with the others (Glesne, 1999).
  • Participant as observer refers to the
    researcher who becomes a part of the culture by
    working and interacting extensively with the
    others (Glesne, 1999).

32
Psychological Detective
  • What are the drawbacks and weaknesses of the
    participant observer technique?

33
Psychological Detective
  • What are the drawbacks and weaknesses of the
    participant observer technique?
  • An extended period of time may be necessary
    before the participant observer is accepted as a
    member of the group that is under study.

34
Psychological Detective
  • What are the drawbacks and weaknesses of the
    participant observer technique?
  • An extended period of time may be necessary
    before the participant observer is accepted as a
    member of the group that is under study.
  • Cannot make cause-and-effect statements.

35
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective

36
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because

37
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because
  • A client typically chooses the clinician, whereas
    the participant observer chooses the others to be
    studied.

38
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because
  • A client typically chooses the clinician, whereas
    the participant observer chooses the others to be
    studied.
  • Unlike participant observers, clinicians cannot
    be unobtrusive because they have been asked to
    participate in the situation.

39
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because
  • A client typically chooses the clinician, whereas
    the participant observer chooses the others to be
    studied.
  • Unlike participant observers, clinicians cannot
    be unobtrusive because they have been asked to
    participate in the situation.
  • Although the participant observer can remain
    passive, clinicians must intervene in the
    situation.

40
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because
  • A client typically chooses the clinician, whereas
    the participant observer chooses the others to be
    studied.
  • Unlike participant observers, clinicians cannot
    be unobtrusive because they have been asked to
    participate in the situation.
  • Although the participant observer can remain
    passive, clinicians must intervene in the
    situation.
  • The participant observers goal is understanding,
    whereas the clinicians goal is helping.

41
Descriptive Methods
  • Clinical perspective
  • Schein (1987) argued convincingly that the
    clinical perspective or model is not a
    subcategory of participant observation because
  • A client typically chooses the clinician, whereas
    the participant observer chooses the others to be
    studied.
  • Unlike participant observers, clinicians cannot
    be unobtrusive because they have been asked to
    participate in the situation.
  • Although the participant observer can remain
    passive, clinicians must intervene in the
    situation.
  • The participant observers goal is understanding,
    whereas the clinicians goal is helping.
  • Participant observers validate their findings by
    replication while clinicians validate their
    findings by being able to predict the results of
    a given intervention.

42
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.

43
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Time sampling

44
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Time sampling
  • Involves making observations at different time
    periods in order to obtain a more representative
    sampling of the behavior of interest.

45
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Time sampling
  • Involves making observations at different time
    periods in order to obtain a more representative
    sampling of the behavior of interest.
  • Selection of time periods may be determined
    randomly or in a more systematic manner.

46
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Time sampling
  • Involves making observations at different time
    periods in order to obtain a more representative
    sampling of the behavior of interest.
  • The use of time sampling may apply to the same or
    different participants.

47
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Situation sampling

48
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Situation sampling
  • Involves observing the same behavior in several
    different situations. This techniques offers the
    researcher two advantages

49
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Situation sampling
  • Involves observing the same behavior in several
    different situations. This techniques offers the
    researcher two advantages
  • By sampling behavior in several different
    situations, you are able to determine whether the
    behavior in question changes as a function of the
    context in which you observed it.

50
Descriptive Methods
  • Choosing Behaviors and Recording Techniques.
  • Situation sampling
  • Involves observing the same behavior in several
    different situations. This techniques offers the
    researcher two advantages
  • By sampling behavior in several different
    situations, you are able to determine whether the
    behavior in question changes as a function of the
    context in which you observed it.
  • You are likely to observe different participants
    in the different situations and because different
    individuals are observed, your ability to
    generalize any behavioral consistencies across
    the various situations is increased.

51
Descriptive Methods
  • Deciding how to present the results of your
    research project.

52
Descriptive Methods
  • Deciding how to present the results of your
    research project.
  • Qualitative presentation of results

53
Descriptive Methods
  • Deciding how to present the results of your
    research project.
  • Qualitative presentation of results
  • Report consists of a description of the behavior
    in question (a narrative record) and the
    conclusions prompted by this description.

54
Descriptive Methods
  • Deciding how to present the results of your
    research project.
  • Qualitative presentation of results
  • Report consists of a description of the behavior
    in question (a narrative record) and the
    conclusions prompted by this description.
  • Quantitative or numerical presentation of
    results

55
Descriptive Methods
  • Deciding how to present the results of your
    research project.
  • Qualitative presentation of results
  • Report consists of a description of the behavior
    in question (a narrative record) and the
    conclusions prompted by this description.
  • Quantitative or numerical presentation of
    results
  • Need to know how behavior under investigation is
    going to be measured and how these measurements
    will be analyzed.

56
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer

57
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • There are two main reasons for using more than
    one observer

58
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • There are two main reasons for using more than
    one observer
  • One observer may miss or overlook a bit of
    behavior.

59
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • There are two main reasons for using more than
    one observer
  • One observer may miss or overlook a bit of
    behavior.
  • There may be some disagreement concerning exactly
    what was seen and how it should be rated or
    categorized.

60
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • When two individuals observe the same behavior,
    it is possible to see how well their observations
    agree.

61
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • When two individuals observe the same behavior,
    it is possible to see how well their observations
    agree.
  • The extent to which the observers agree is called
    interobserver reliability.

62
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • When two individuals observe the same behavior,
    it is possible to see how well their observations
    agree.
  • The extent to which the observers agree is called
    interobserver reliability.
  • Low interobserver reliability indicates that the
    observers disagree about the behavior(s) they
    observed.

63
Descriptive Methods
  • Using More than One Observer
  • When two individuals observe the same behavior,
    it is possible to see how well their observations
    agree.
  • The extent to which the observers agree is called
    interobserver reliability.
  • Low interobserver reliability indicates that the
    observers disagree about the behavior(s) they
    observed.
  • High interobserver reliability indicates
    agreement.

64
Descriptive Methods
  • Here is the formula for calculating interobserver
    reliability
  • of times observers agree
  • ______________________ X 100 percent of
    agreement
  • of opportunities to agree
  • 85 agreement is generally considered to be an
    acceptable minimum level for interobserver
    reliability.

65
Qualitative Research
66
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.

67
Qualitative Research
  • Qualitative research
  • is defined as an inquiry process of
    understanding a social or human problem, based on
    building a complex, holistic picture, formed with
    words, reporting detailed views of informants,
    and conducted in a natural setting (Creswell,
    1994, p. 2)

68
Qualitative Research
  • Qualitative research
  • is defined as an inquiry process of
    understanding a social or human problem, based on
    building a complex, holistic picture, formed with
    words, reporting detailed views of informants,
    and conducted in a natural setting (Creswell,
    1994, p. 2)
  • The qualitative research style is much less
    formal and impersonal, and the reader of a
    qualitative research report can expect to find
    such additions as definitions that evolved
    during a study (Creswell, 1994, p. 7)

69
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.

70
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.
  • The qualitative researcher is committed to
    studying particular people in specific settings.

71
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.
  • The qualitative researcher is committed to
    studying particular people in specific settings.
  • Qualitative researchers prefer to use inductive
    logic.

72
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.
  • The qualitative researcher is committed to
    studying particular people in specific settings.
  • Qualitative researchers prefer to use inductive
    logic.
  • Qualitative research begins with guiding
    hypotheses reflecting a global issue of interest
    (Marshall Rossman, 1989).

73
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.
  • The qualitative researcher is committed to
    studying particular people in specific settings.
  • Qualitative researchers prefer to use inductive
    logic.
  • Qualitative research begins with guiding
    hypotheses reflecting a global issue of interest
    (Marshall Rossman, 1989).
  • Qualitative researchers typically analyze their
    data simultaneously with data collection, data
    interpretation, and narrative reporting writing
    (Creswell, 1994, p. 153).

74
Qualitative Research
  • The qualitative researcher believes that a full
    description of human behavior includes peoples
    feelings in addition to what they are doing and
    how they are doing it.
  • The qualitative researcher is committed to
    studying particular people in specific settings.
  • Qualitative researchers prefer to use inductive
    logic.
  • Qualitative research begins with guiding
    hypotheses reflecting a global issue of interest
    (Marshall Rossman, 1989).
  • Qualitative researchers typically analyze their
    data simultaneously with data collection, data
    interpretation, and narrative reporting writing
    (Creswell, 1994, p. 153).
  • Grounded theory is one of the most popular forms
    of contemporary qualitative research.

75
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)

76
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive
    theories that are grounded in (based on) reality.

77
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive
    theories that are grounded in (based on) reality.
  • Grounded theory is not advocated for all types of
    research questions.

78
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive
    theories that are grounded in (based on) reality.
  • Grounded theory is not advocated for all types of
    research questions.
  • Knowing the literature too well can hamper the
    creativity necessary to doing grounded theory
    research.

79
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • The ultimate goal of this approach is to derive
    theories that are grounded in (based on) reality.
  • Grounded theory is not advocated for all types of
    research questions.
  • Knowing the literature too well can hamper the
    creativity necessary to doing grounded theory
    research.
  • The heart of the grounded theory approach occurs
    in its use of coding, which is analogous to data
    analysis in quantitative approaches.

80
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)

81
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding

82
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding
  • The researcher labels and categorizes the
    phenomena being studied.

83
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding
  • The researcher labels and categorizes the
    phenomena being studied.
  • Axial coding

84
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding
  • The researcher labels and categorizes the
    phenomena being studied.
  • Axial coding
  • Involves finding links between categories and
    subcategories from open coding.

85
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding
  • The researcher labels and categorizes the
    phenomena being studied.
  • Axial coding
  • Involves finding links between categories and
    subcategories from open coding.
  • Selective coding

86
Qualitative Research
  • Types of coding in grounded theory research
    (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • Open coding
  • The researcher labels and categorizes the
    phenomena being studied.
  • Axial coding
  • Involves finding links between categories and
    subcategories from open coding.
  • Selective coding
  • Entails identifying a core category and relating
    the subsidiary categories to this core.

87
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • From the process of selective coding, the
    grounded theory researcher moves toward
    developing a model of process and a transactional
    system, which essentially tells the story of the
    outcome of the research.

88
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • From the process of selective coding, the
    grounded theory researcher moves toward
    developing a model of process and a transactional
    system, which essentially tells the story of the
    outcome of the research.
  • Process refers to a linking of actions and
    interactions that result in some outcome .

89
Qualitative Research
  • Grounded Theory (Strauss Corbin, 1990)
  • From the process of selective coding, the
    grounded theory researcher moves toward
    developing a model of process and a transactional
    system, which essentially tells the story of the
    outcome of the research.
  • Process refers to a linking of actions and
    interactions that result in some outcome .
  • A transactional system is grounded theorys
    analytical method that allows an examination of
    the interactions of different events. The
    transactional system is depicted in a conditional
    matrix such as that shown in figure 4.2

90
Correlational Studies
  • A correlational study involves the measurement
    and determination of the relation between two
    variables

91
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations

92
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation

93
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation
  • As one variable increases, scores on the other
    variable also increase.
  • A perfect positive correlation has a correlation
    coefficient of 1.

94
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation
  • As one variable increases, scores on the other
    variable also increase.
  • Negative correlation

95
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation
  • As one variable increases, scores on the other
    variable also increase.
  • Negative correlation
  • Indicates that an increase in one variable is
    accompanied by a decrease in the second variable.
  • A perfect negative correlation has a correlation
    coefficient of 1.

96
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation
  • As one variable increases, scores on the other
    variable also increase.
  • Negative correlation
  • Indicates that an increase in one variable is
    accompanied by a decrease in the second variable.
  • Zero correlation

97
Correlational Studies
  • The Nature of Correlations
  • Three basic patterns may emerge
  • Positive correlation
  • As one variable increases, scores on the other
    variable also increase.
  • Negative correlation
  • Indicates that an increase in one variable is
    accompanied by a decrease in the second variable.
  • Zero correlation
  • Indicates a lack of relation between the two
    variables.
  • The correlation coefficient for a zero
    correlation is zero (or close to zero).
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