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EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

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EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY FALL 2012 WHEN: MWF 11:45 12:35 WHERE: DeBartolo Hall 129 INSTRUCTOR: Mike Pfrender TA: Sheina Sims Course webpage: http://www.nd.edu/~mpfrende/ – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY


1
EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY FALL 2012 WHEN MWF 1145
1235 WHERE DeBartolo Hall 129 INSTRUCTOR
Mike Pfrender TA Sheina Sims Course webpage
http//www.nd.edu/mpfrende/
2
Nothing in biology makes sense except in light
of evolution Theodosius Dobzhansky 1973
3
Managing Evolving Fish Stocks
  • Evolutionary impact assessment is a framework for
    quantifying the effects of harvest-induced
    evolution on the utility generated by fish stocks.

Conover, Nature 2007 450179-180 Jorgensen et al.
Science 3181247- 8
4
How do complex organisms evolve?
5
What explains these exaggerated phenotypes???
6
What happened to these organisms?
7
How does social behavior evolve?
8
How do host pathogen relationships change
through time?
Human HIV Protein Structure
9
What are the evolutionary consequences of small
population size?
10
New candidates for oldest fossils Remains in
3.4-billion-year-old rocks hint at when cellular
life arose, and how it powered itself.
  • Researchers have found what could be the oldest
    microbial fossils yet documented. The traces,
    discovered in 3.4-billion-year-old Australian
    rocks, might help to resolve the question of when
    cellular life arose, and how it produced energy.

Wacey, D., Kilburn, M. R., Saunders, M., Cliff,
J. Brasier, M. D. Nature Geosci.
http//dx.doi.org/10.1038/NGEO1238 (2011).
11
Published online 21 August 2011 Nature
doi10.1038/news.2011.490 News Climate change
will hit genetic diversity Probable loss of
'cryptic' variation a challenge for
conservationists. Virginia Gewin
                             The stonefly
Arcynopteryx compacta needs cold water and has
short wings - it's not well equipped to escape
rising temperatures.A. Schmidt-Kloiber/W.
Graf Climate change represents a threat not only
to the existence of individual species, but also
to the genetic diversity hidden within them,
researchers say. The finding promises to
complicate assessments of how climate change will
affect biodiversity, as well as conservationists'
task in preserving it. DNA studies have revealed
that traditional species, as defined by
taxonomists, contain a vast amount of 'cryptic'
diversity such as different lineages, or even
species within species. Carsten Nowak, a
conservation biologist at the Senckenberg
Research Institutes and Natural History Museum in
Gelnhausen, Germany, and his colleagues have made
a first attempt to understand how global warming
might affect this form of diversity. Their
findings are published in Nature Climate Change1.
  • Climate change represents a threat not only to
    the existence of individual species, but also to
    the genetic diversity hidden within them,
    researchers say. The finding promises to
    complicate assessments of how climate change will
    affect biodiversity, as well as conservationists'
    task in preserving it.
  • DNA studies have revealed that traditional
    species, as defined by taxonomists, contain a
    vast amount of 'cryptic' diversity such as
    different lineages, or even species within
    species. Carsten Nowak, a conservation biologist
    at the Senckenberg Research Institutes and
    Natural History Museum in Gelnhausen, Germany,
    and his colleagues have made a first attempt to
    understand how global warming might affect this
    form of diversity. Their findings are published
    in Nature Climate Change1.
  • The team looked at aquatic insects living in the
    mountain streams of central Europe seven
    species of caddisfly, a mayfly and a stonefly.
    The insects were chosen because they are likely
    to be especially vulnerable to rising
    temperatures they need cold water, and have
    limited ability to travel large distances.

The stonefly Arcynopteryx compacta needs cold
water and has short wings - it's not well
equipped to escape rising temperatures.
12
MAJOR GOALS IN THIS COURSE
  • Describe major evolutionary events and patterns
    in the history biological diversity on Earth
  • Develop an analytical frame work to describe the
    process of evolutionary change in natural
    populations
  • Apply this framework to understand evolutionary
    dynamics especially with regard to human
    populations

13
  • COURSE REQUIREMENTS
  • Problem Sets, Writing Assignments, etc.
  • Total 100 pts.
  • Exams
  • 1st Midterm 100 pts.
  • 2nd Midterm 100 pts.
  • Final 100 pts.
  • Total 300 pts.

14
ACHIEVING HIGH FITNESS IN EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
  • Attend lectures regularly.
  • Take detailed notes.
  • Read over material before lecture.
  • Ask lots of questions and discuss the material
    with instructor and classmates.
  • Take advantage of office hours!!!!

15
  • Recommended Text for Evolutionary Biology
  • On reserve at the Library
  • Textbook website
  • http//wps.prenhall.com/esm_freeman_evol_4/

16
1 Question in Evolutionary Biology
What material is going to be on the exams?
Answer Any material in Assigned Readings,
PowerPoints or discussed in lecture is fair game.
17
Some Practical Applications of Evolutionary
Biology
  • Human Health
  • Evolution of pathogens and antibiotic resistance.
  • Understanding gene function through comparative
    study.
  • Tracing the origin and spread of infectious
    diseases.
  • Detection of nucleotide changes responsible for
    genetic disorders from gene genealogies.
  • Long-term consequences of medical intervention.

SARS Coronavirus
18
Some Practical Applications of Evolutionary
Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Industry
  • Drug design by in vitro or in vivo evolution.
  • Targeted searches for natural products
    bio-prospecting.
  • Agriculture
  • Crop Livestock improvement by selective
    breeding.
  • Evolution of pesticide resistance.
  • Transgenic organisms advantages and risks.

19
Some Practical Applications of Evolutionary
Biology
  • Fisheries Biology
  • Genetic consequences of selective harvesting.
  • How does selective harvesting affect the future
    of fisheries?
  • Genetic consequences of hatcheries.
  • How do hatchery raised fish affect wild stocks?

20
Some Practical Applications of Evolutionary
Biology
  • Conservation Biology
  • Identification of evolutionary significant units
    (ESUs).
  • Avoidance of inbreeding depression in captivity.
  • Avoiding the loss of adaptive variation.
  • Identification of minimal population size for
    viability.
  • Predicting the response to global change.

21
Adaptation in a Changing World Genetic
Approaches to Understanding Phenotypic Evolution
in Natural Populations
Michael E. Pfrender Evolutionary and Ecological
Genomics Lab Department of Biology
22
Tools for Ecological Genomics
WELL CHARACTERIZED ECOLOGY
COMPLETE GENOME SEQUENCE
GENETIC MAP
KNOCKOUT / TRANSGENIC LINES
QTL PANELS
GENE EXPRESSION ARRAYS
23
How do natural populations cope with
environmental change?
24
STUDY SYSTEM IN HIGH ELEVATION LAKES OF THE
SIERRA NEVADAS
25
  • Introduced salmonids are a rapid change in the
    environment leading to local extinction and/or
    adaptation of native invertebrates.

26
Rates of Adaptation
  • From these data we can estimate the rate of
    adaptation
  • Do Sierra Nevada Daphnia show high rates of
    evolutionary change in response to introduced
    predators?

r20.33 plt0.0001
r20.08 plt0.01
Fisk et al. (2007)
27
Changes in Pigmentation
  • Daphnia exposed to predation from introduced fish
    have reduced pigmentation

Scoville et al. In preparation
28
Genetic Basis of Changes in Pigmentation
  • Data from other arthropod systems provides a set
    of candidate genes involved in pigmentation
  • We are examining these gene for structural and
    functional changes as well as examining the
    patterns of gene expression

Insect Melanin Biosynthesis Pathways
(Melanin pathway modified from True 2003)
29
Transcriptional Response to Environmental
Stimulus Defense structures in response to
predator chemical cues
  • How do organisms respond to their environment?

Functional genomic approaches using whole genome
tiling arrays
30
Primary Goals of Evolutionary Biology
  1. To document evolutionary history.
  2. To understand the mechanisms that drive
    biological change through time.
  3. To apply this knowledge to understand the genetic
    underpinnings of biological diversity, and to
    solve practical problems in the life sciences.

31
WHAT IS EVOLUTION?
Darwin descent with modification Futuyma change
s in the properties of populations that
transcend the lifetime of a single
individual. F H changes in allele
frequencies over time.
  • Key Ingredients
  • Change that is heritable across generations.
  • A property of populations, not individuals.
  • Includes the possibility of cultural evolution
    (not in our genes).

32
All evolving systems have the following
properties
  • POPULATIONS Groups of entities.
  • VARIATION Members of the population differ from
    one another with respect to some characteristic.
  • HEREDITARY SIMILARITY Offspring resemble
    parents.

33
Historical Background
Plato (427-347 BC) Believed in 2 worlds the
real world (ideal and eternal), and an
illusionary world (imperfect and perceived
through the senses). Typological view of nature
individual variation as the imperfect
manifestation of ethos. Aristotle (384-322 BC)
Believed that all living organisms could be
arranged in a scale of nature or Great Chain of
Being. The ladder of life consists of graduation
from inanimate material through plants, through
lower animals and humans to other spiritual
beings.
34
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Established the
modern system of taxonomy in an attempt to
discover order in the diversity of life for the
greater glory of God.
  • Groupings based on similarity
  • Hierarchal relationships of organisms

35
Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier
de Lamarck 1809 Philosophie Zoologique
  • First articulated theory of evolution
  • Organisms continually arise by spontaneous
    generation.
  • Nervous fluid acts to move each species up the
    great chain of being.
  • Organisms develop adaptations to changing
    environment through the use and disuse of organs.
    (Heavy use attracts more nervous fluid.)
  • Acquired characteristics are inherited.

36
LAMARCKIAN EVOLUTION
37
Problems with Lamarcks ideas
  • There is no evidence of spontaneous generation.
  • There is no evidence of an innate drive toward
    complexity.
  • - E. coli - Parasites - Cave
    dwelling organisms
  • 3) There is no evidence of inheritance of
    acquired characteristics. (BUT..epigenetics???)
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