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University of Limerick

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University of Limerick Basic Principles and Operation of Turbines in the Production of Electricity Presented by R n n Dunbar Department of Manufacturing and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: University of Limerick


1
University of Limerick
2
Basic Principles and Operation of Turbines in the
Production of Electricity
Leaving Certificate Engineering Special Topic 2007
  • Presented by Rónán Dunbar
  • Department of Manufacturing and Operations
    Engineering
  • University of Limerick

3
Production of Electricity in Ireland
  • Two Sources Renewable and Non-renewable

4
Production of Electricity in Ireland
  • Rely Heavily on imported fuel

5
Generation of Electricity
  • Involves Conversion of Energy
  • Energy stored in
  • Fuel
  • Water in a Dam
  • Wind Motion
  • Converted to Electrical Energy by Turbine

6
What Does a Turbine do?
  • Extracts Energy from Flow of Fluid
  • Water
  • Steam
  • Wind
  • Connected to Generator to Make Electricity

7
Principles of Operation
  • Hydrofoil/Airfoil

-
Bernoullis principle
8
Principles of Operation
  • Impulse Turbines

9
Principles of Operation
  • Reaction Turbines

10
Types of Turbines
  • Wind Turbines
  • Each Blade is an aerofoil
  • Blades Controlled by
  • Pitch
  • Stall

11
Efficiency of Wind Turbines
  • Characteristics of Wind Power
  • Relationship between wind speed and power out
    put.
  • Variations in Wind speed
  • Considering a one week period
  • Ref Eirgrid

12
Friday 17th November 2006
13
Saturday 18th November 2006
14
Sunday 19th November 2006
15
Monday 20th November 2006
16
Tuesday 21st November 2006
17
Wednesday 22nd November 2006
18
Thursday 23rd November 2006
19
Friday 24th November 2006
20
Supplying the National Grid
21
Rated Power /Rated Wind Speed
22
Steam Turbine
  • Developed in 19th Century (Parsons)
  • Operates on same general principle as wind
    turbines only more complex.
  • Steam turbine power plants operate on a Rankine
    cycle.

23
Steam Turbine - Operation
24
Multi-level Turbines
  • Advanced Design
  • Steam Passes through one set of Turbine blades
  • Redirected by Idler
  • Steam Passes another set of Turbine Blades

Second Set
Idler
First Set
25
Coupling of Steam Turbines
  • Turbines in Series
  • Uses Waste Steam from Previous Turbine

26
Coupling of Steam Turbines
  • Note the Increase in Diameter of the Turbine
  • As the pressure drops the
  • volume of the gas increases
  • Boyles Law

27
Hydro Turbines
  • Power Affected by
  • Head
  • Volume of Flow

28
Principles of Operation
  • Impulse
  • Impulse Turbines changes the velocity of a jet of
    water
  • Change in momentum exerts a force on turbine
  • Force acting over a distance Work
  • Reaction
  • Reaction Turbines change the pressure of the
    water
  • The water therefore gives up Energy

29
Pelton Turbine
  • Impulse Turbine
  • High Head Required

30
Francis Turbine
  • Reaction Turbine
  • Spiralled Inlet
  • Guide Vanes

31
Kaplan Turbine
  • Reaction Turbine
  • High Flow
  • Low Head

32
Resources
  • www.awea.org
  • www.howstuffworks.com
  • www.eirgrid.com
  • www.sei.ie
  • www.windpower.dk
  • www.eere.energy.html
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