Frontier Army class - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Frontier Army class PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 4a2062-OWUzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Frontier Army class

Description:

The US Army Post Civil War 1865-1898 Army Career, 1876? US Army role- Johnson s Reconstruction US Army role- Radical Reconstruction National Guard movement 1880s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:133
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 43
Provided by: usouthalE1
Learn more at: http://www.usouthal.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Frontier Army class


1
The US Army Post Civil War 1865-1898
2
TLOs and ELOs
  • Understand the effect demobilization and
    reconstruction had on the US Army
  • Understand the rise of the National Guard and how
    it differed from the militia of an earlier era
  • Understand the Armys role in non-military
    missions of the era
  • Understand the relative isolation of the Army
    during this period as well as its increasing
    professionalism
  • Understand the significance of the Armys role in
    the Frontier Wars.

3
Themes Id stress
  • Reading from two chapters
  • Chapter 13 Darkness and Light The Interwar
    Years, 1865-1898
  • Chapter 14 Winning the West The Army in the
    Indian Wars, 1865-1890
  • Going from a large convention force to a more
    historically normal force.
  • New missions and challenges- Reconstruction and
    Indian Wars
  • Looking inward- professional development
  • Technology implemented or ignored

4
Army Career, 1876?
5
Relevance to Today?
The Civil War and large volunteer army
Massing on Mexico border- show of
force Non-standard missions- stability and support
Non-standard missions- fighting an irregular
enemy
Professional education improvements Questioning
relevance of traditional branches
6
Size of the Army (Post Civil War Army)
  • Volunteers
  • 1.2M in May 1865
  • 400K by Nov 1865
  • 11K in 1866
  • 0 in 1867
  • Regular Army
  • Held at 54K in 1866
  • 37K in 1869
  • 27.5K in 1876
  • lt25K in 1877 (field strength)
  • Stays at this level until 1898

7
Organization of the Army (Regular Establishment)
  • 1861-65 - 19 regiments of infantry, 6 of cavalry,
    5 of artillery
  • 1866 (Reorganization) - 45 regiments of infantry,
    10 of cavalry, 5 of artillery, 6 black regiments
    (38th, 39th , 40th, 41st Infantry, 9th 10th
    Cavalry), 4 Veteran Reserve Corps
  • 1869 (Consolidation) - 25 regiments of infantry,
    10 of cavalry, 5 of Artillery, 4 black regiments
    (24th 25th Infantry, 9th 10th Cavalry), up to
    1000 Indian scouts
  • No brigades, divisions, or corps
  • Smallest Army ever in proportion to U. S.
    population (63 million in 1890)


8
Employment
  • Reconstruction
  • Civil Disturbances
  • Indian Pacification

9
Reconstruction
  • Army was the primary instrument of Congressional
    Reconstruction
  • Reconstruction Act of 1867, divided the eleven
    ex-Confederate States, excluding Tennessee, into
    five military districts.
  • After about 1867, only 8,100 troops were
    stationed in the South.
  • Never large enough to guarantee rights of
    freedmen or overawe Southern population
  • Last Federal troops finally removed from South in
    1877

10
US Army role- Johnsons Reconstruction
  • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Land
  • (1865-69)
  • Relief of blacks and whites in war torn south
  • Admin justice in relationship to freed slaves
  • Management abandoned and confiscated land
  • regulation black labor under new conditions
  • education of blacks

11
Top Primary school for Freedmen, Vicksburg,
MS Bottom Primary School for Freedmen in charge
of Mrs. Green, at Vicksburg, Mississippi.
12
Scalawags
Carpetbaggers
13
Stanton, Sec of War
Grant, CG
1866 Johnson declares rebellion at an end, and
civil government restored Elections of 1866
violence, CSA officials elected Grant issues
circular Take orders from Congress if
removed Also increases Armys role in
maintaining order
14
US Army role- Radical Reconstruction
Maintain order Military districts Enforce
laws Voting Fight white supremacists
groups Place in the middle between local
officials, citizens, and freed blacks- everyone
against them.
Sherman (Commanding General after Grant) No
matter what change we may desire in the feelings
and thoughts of the people. . .we cannot
accomplish it by force. Nor can we afford to
maintain . . . an army large enough to hold them
in subjugation. Neither Republicans or Democrats
seems to care a damn of the service of the
country.
15
Results of Reconstruction
Negative
Positive
  • States rejoin Union
  • Democratic rule continues
  • No (violent) vengeance on the losers
  • African-Americans make some gains
  • Slavery ends
  • Freedman schools, public education
  • Income grew
  • Legalized families
  • Southern economy remains backwards
  • Corruption taints rebuilding effort
  • For African-Americans
  • Never met promises of 14th (male suffrage), 15th
    Amendments (no right or vote denied based on
    race, color, or previous condition of servitude)
  • Allows Jim Crow laws to legally circumvent
    amendments
  • Blacks still subject to a century of racism and
    discrimination

16
Civil Disturbances
  • Generally labor disputes and strikes
  • Over 300 - Most notable cases
  • Railroad strikes of 1877 - preserve order
  • Pullman Strike of 1894 - strike-breakers
  • Militia (National Guard) called upon even more
    than Regular Army
  • Major success during this period came in 1887
    when Congress raised annual appropriation to
    militia from 200,000 (since 1808) to 400,000

17
National Guard movement 1880s- 1890s
Volunteer Soldier of America 1887
Sen John Logan
Emory Upton
The Military Policy of the United States 1904
1879- National Guard Association 1881-1892- every
state revises their military code
18
Army Challenges
  • Army was isolated from American society Duty was
  • Distant from population centers (frontier)
  • Distasteful (policing strikes)
  • Intellectual trends against a army
  • Business Pacifism

Wars are obsolete Therefore armies are
unnecessary
19
Isolation of the Army on the Frontier
  • Argument that it created the ethos of the Army
    still seen today
  • Professional education system
  • Self policing
  • Apolitical officer corps
  • Expected to operate with little guidance of
    oversight

20
Professionalism
  • Definition of Professionalism Initial
    membership and future advancement required
    mastery of a body of theoretical knowledge unique
    to its service.
  • Expertise
  • Responsibility
  • Corporateness
  • Education Being created during this period

21
Development of Army Professionalism
GEN William Sherman
COL Emory Upton
Creation of School of Application for Infantry
and Cavalry 1881
The Military Policy of the United States 1904
Creation of Naval War College, 1884
RADM Stephen Luce
22
Professionalism (Doctrine)
No guiding head, no Official Army Doctrine
  • Unofficial
  • Cavalry Journal
  • Army-Navy Journal
  • Journal of the Military Service Institution of
    the US
  • Emory Upton (a voice crying in the wilderness,
    dies young and insane)
  • Official
  • Only bright spot - CGSC at Fort Leavenworth
  • In 1881, not the same school as today, but the
    mission is very similar

23
Officer development
  • Lieutenant to Captain - Seniority in the Regiment
  • Major to Colonel Seniority in the Arm
  • LT to Major 24 to 26 Years
  • Major to Colonel 33 to 37 Years
  • Aging Officer Corps - No Retirement Pension Until
    Late 1880s

Fredrick Benteen Captain (1866 1883)
There will not be one-fourth part of the present
field officers in the Army physically capable of
supporting the hardships of an active campaign.
They will be worn-out old men. Army and Navy
Journal
24
Training
  • Colonel 3,500
  • 2d Lieutenant 1,400
  • Sergeant 264
  • Privates 156

Small salaries are best for young officers who
know little of the real value of money. It
teaches them to avoid extravagance and practice
economy. Congressman Banning
25
Training (Personnel)
  • Officer Corps
  • Aging with stagnant, seniority promotion system
  • Congressional mandate, lt 1/2 pre-war regulars
  • No retirement pension until late 1880s
  • Temporary wartime ranks abolished Generals
    become captains
  • Enlisted Soldiers
  • Many foreigners
  • Inhospitable duty stations
  • Few incentives to stay
  • Many reasons to leave
  • Underpaid (16 to 13/month), and unpaid (Jul-Nov
    1877)

26
Soldiers
  • Foreign Paupers
  • 50 of the Ranks
  • Outstanding Soldiers and NCOs
  • Turnover
  • Death
  • Desertion
  • Discharge
  • Training
  • 21 Year Old Recruit
  • 3 to 4 Weeks
  • Basic Skills
  • Weak Horsemanship and Marksmanship

27
Other sources of manpower
  • Buffalo Soldiers
  • 9th, 10th Cavalry
  • 38th, 39th, 40th, 41st Infantry
  • Combined into 24th and 25th Infantry
  • 4 desertion rate vs 24 Army average
  • Indian Scouts
  • Various tribes
  • Played on natural tribal hostilities

28
Equipment
29
Origins of Army customs?
30
Training (Weapons)
  • Civil War weapons were obsolete but plentiful
  • Army made the decision to maintain a single shot
    rifle
  • Adopted a center-fire cartridge
  • Artillery remains muzzle-loading until
    Spanish-American War
  • With no allocated funds, marksmanship training is
    non-existent until 1890s (after several
    disasters)
  • Enemy is often better armed and supplied

31
Technology
New weapons technology ignored Old technology
called into question Impact railroads, telegraph,
naval developments
32
Indian Pacification
  • It gives me great pleasure to announce to
    Congress that the benevolent policy of the
    Government, steadily pursued for nearly thirty
    years, in relation to the removal of the Indians
    beyond the white settlements is approaching to a
    happy consummation. . .
  • What good man would prefer a country covered
    with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages
    to our extensive Republic, studded with cities,
    towns, and prosperous farms . . . ?

President Andrew Jackson message to Congress On
Indian Removal (1830)
33
Indian Pacification
  • Best known role of the 19th century US Army
  • Fought 943 engagements between 1865 and 1898
  • The Army never used more than 4000 troops except
    in the Sioux War of 1876 and the Nez Perce War of
    1877
  • Included two disasters
  • Fetterman (80 men) in December 1866
  • Custer (250 men) in June 1876
  • Nature of the struggle
  • Indians usually fought using hit-and-run tactics
  • Army struggled with tactics and strategy

34
Army Opponents
  • MAJ GEN Winfield S. Hancock advised Congress in
    1876 that Indian Service of the Army was
  • Entitled to No Weight
  • in determining the proper strength,
    composition, and organization of the Army.
  • Utley
  • Frontier Regulars, 45


35
Army Opponents
  • Indians
  • Fought as individuals
  • Tied to forage and families
  • No hierarchy
  • Did not believe in decisive combat
  • Small success was magnified
  • Army
  • Caught in a no win situation
  • Want to fight a conventional fight
  • Ability to sustain with rail and rivers
  • Conduct of winter campaigns
  • Must be everywhere small forces piecemealed

36
(No Transcript)
37
Winning the West
  • The U.S Army in the Indian Wars
  • 1865-1890

38
Colville
Steilacoom
Vancouver
Shaw
Benton
Walla Walla
Sioux
Buford
Nez Perce
Ellis
C.F. Smith
Boise
Modoc
Phil Kearny
Klamath
Sully
Hall
Randall
Laramie
Bridger
D.A. Russell
Halleck
Cheyenne/Arapahoe
Douglas
Churchill
Omaha
McPherson
Kearney
Riley
Leavenworth
Wallace
Hayes
Harker
Kiowa
Larned
Lyon
Dodge
Garland
Apache
Union
Wingate
Bascom
Verde
Comanche
McDowell
Sumner
Apache
Yuma
Bayard
Lowell
Stanton
Bowie
Indian Wars Bozman Trail Hancocks
War 1866-1868
Seldon
Richardson
Griffin
Cummings
Bliss
Quitman
Concho
Stockton
Davis
Clark
39
Colville
Steilacoom
Vancouver
Shaw
Benton
Walla Walla
Sioux
Buford
Nez Perce
Ellis
C.F. Smith
Boise
Modoc
Phil Kearny
Klamath
Sully
Sioux
Hall
Randall
Laramie
Bridger
D.A. Russell
Halleck
Cheyenne/Arapahoe
Douglas
Churchill
Omaha
McPherson
Kearney
Riley
Leavenworth
Wallace
Hayes
Harker
Kiowa
Larned
Lyon
Dodge
Garland
Apache
Supply
Union
Wingate
Cheyenne/Arapaho
Bascom
Verde
Comanche
Sill
McDowell
Sumner
Kiowa/Comanche
Apache
Yuma
Bayard
Lowell
Stanton
Bowie
Seldon
Richardson
Griffin
Cummings
Indian Wars Southern Plains War 1868-1869
Bliss
Quitman
Concho
Stockton
Davis
Clark
40
Colville
Steilacoom
Vancouver
Shaw
Benton
Walla Walla
Buford
Abraham Lincoln
Keogh
Nez Perce
Ellis
Yates
Sioux
C.F. Smith
Boise
Modoc
Phil Kearny
Klamath
Sully
Meade
Sioux
Hall
Randall
Laramie
Bridger
Robinson
D.A. Russell
Halleck
Douglas
Churchill
Omaha
McPherson
Kearney
Riley
Leavenworth
Wallace
Hayes
Harker
Harker
Larned
Lyon
Dodge
Garland
Apache
Supply
Union
Wingate
Cheyenne/Arapaho
Bascom
Verde
Sill
McDowell
Sumner
Kiowa/Comanche
Apache
Yuma
Thomas
Bayard
Lowell
Stanton
Bowie
Seldon
Indian Wars Apache 1871-75 Red River War
1874-75 Sioux War 1876
Richardson
Huachuca
Griffin
Cummings
Bliss
Quitman
Concho
Stockton
Davis
Clark
41
Colville
Steilacoom
Vancouver
Shaw
Lapwai
Benton
Walla Walla
Nez Perce
Buford
Missoula
Abraham Lincoln
Keogh
Nez Perce
Ellis
Yates
Sioux
C.F. Smith
Modoc/ Klamath
Boise
Modoc
Phil Kearny
Klamath
Sully
Meade
Sioux
Hall
Randall
Laramie
Bridger
Robinson
D.A. Russell
Halleck
Douglas
Churchill
Omaha
McPherson
Kearney
Riley
Leavenworth
Wallace
Hayes
Harker
Harker
Larned
Lyon
Dodge
Garland
Supply
Union
Wingate
Cheyenne/Arapaho
Bascom
Verde
Sill
McDowell
Sumner
Kiowa/Comanche
Apache
Yuma
Thomas
Bayard
Lowell
Stanton
Bowie
Seldon
Richardson
Huachuca
Indian Wars (North West) Modoc War 1872-73 Nez
Perce War 1877
Griffin
Cummings
Bliss
Quitman
Concho
Stockton
Davis
Clark
42
Questions?
About PowerShow.com