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U.S. History Top 100


U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC. Goals 1-6 Goal 1: The New Nation (1789-1820) The learner will identify, investigate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History Top 100

U.S. History Top 100
  • What every student should know to pass the U.S.
    History EOC.
  • Goals 1-6

Goal 1 The New Nation (1789-1820)
  • The learner will identify, investigate, and
    assess the effectiveness of the institutions of
    the emerging republic.

Suffrage during the Federalist Era
  • Who could vote?
  • White males who owned property.
  • Who could not vote?
  • White males who did not own property
  • Women
  • African-Americans
  • Native Americans

Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
  • Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against
    Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey. The army put
    down the rebellion.
  • The incident showed that the new government under
    the Constitution could react swiftly and
    effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the
    inability of the government under the Articles of
    Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Washingtons Farewell Address, 1796
  • Would not seek a third term
  • Warned against competing political parties
  • Warned against complicated entanglements of

Development of the two-party system
  • Democratic Republicans
  • Led by Thomas Jefferson
  • Thought states should have more power
  • Wanted to base economy on farming
  • Were pro-French
  • Supported a strict construction of the
  • Federalists
  • Led by Alexander Hamilton
  • Favored a strong central government
  • Wanted to base economy on industry and trade
  • Were pro-British
  • Supported a loose construction of the

XYZ Affair, 1797
  • Delegates were sent to France to meet with French
    foreign minister Talleyrand.
  • The American delegates were told they could meet
    with Talleyrand only in exchange for a large
    bribe. They did not pay the bribe.

Alien Sedition Acts, 1798
  • These laws were passed by the Federalist Congress
    and signed by President Adams.
  • The Alien Act increased the waiting period for an
    immigrant to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years
    and the president could deport dangerous aliens.
  • The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish
    defamatory statements about the federal
    government. It was an attempt to silence
  • The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which
    initiated the concept of "nullification" of
    federal laws were written in response to the

Marbury v. Madison, 1803
  • The case arose out of Jefferson's refusal to
    deliver the commissions to the judges appointed
    by Adams' Midnight Appointments.
  • This case established the Supreme Court's right
    to judicial review.

Louisiana Purchase, 1803
  • The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi
    River to the Rocky Mountains from France for 15
  • Jefferson was interested in the territory because
    it was valuable for trade and shipping and
    provided room to expand.
  • The Constitution did not give the federal
    government the power to buy land, so Jefferson
    used loose construction to justify the purchase.

Goal 2 Expansion and Reform (1801-1850)
  • The learner will assess the competing forces of
    expansionism, nationalism, and sectionalism.

Eli Whitney and the Cotton Gin
  • 1798 - The cotton gin was a machine which could
    separate cotton from its seeds. Whitneys
    invention made cotton a profitable crop. It also
    reinforced slavery in the economy of the South.

Missouri Compromise, 1820
  • Admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a
    free state. Declared that all territory north of
    3630" would become free states, and all
    territory south of that latitude would become
    slave states.

Monroe Doctrine, 1823
  • Declared that Europe should not interfere in the
    Western Hemisphere and any interference by a
    European power would be seen as a threat to the
  • Mostly just a show of nationalism, the doctrine
    had no major impact until the late 1800s.

Tariff of Abominations
  • Tariff of 1828 raised the tariff on imported
    manufactured goods. It protected the North but
    harmed the South South said that the tariff was
    unconstitutional because it violated state's

Indian Removal, 1838-1839
  • During the winter, troops evicted the Cherokee
    tribe from their homes in Georgia and moved them
    to Oklahoma. Many died on the trail. The journey
    became known as the "Trail of Tears".

Hudson River School of Art
  • In the 1820s, a group of American painters,
    painted landscapes.

  • An anti-foreign feeling that arose in the 1840's
    and 1850's in response to the influx of Irish and
    German Catholics.

Womens Reform Movement
  • In the 1800's, women were not allowed to be
    involved in politics or own property, had little
    legal status and rarely held jobs.
  • The women's movement was often overshadowed by
    the anti-slavery movement. Men who had been
    working with the women's movement worked for the
    abolition of slavery once it became a major

Henry Clay
  • Clay helped heal the North/South rift by aiding
    passage of the Compromise of 1850, which served
    to delay the Civil War.

Goal 3 Crisis, Civil War and Reconstruction
  • The learner will analyze the issues that led to
    the Civil War, the effects of the war, and the
    impact of Reconstruction on the nation.

Compromise of 1850
  • Admitted California as a free state
  • Organized Utah and N.M. without restrictions on
  • Adjusted the Texas/N.M. border
  • Abolished slave trade in D.C.
  • Established tougher fugitive slave laws.
  • Its passage was hailed as a solution to the
    threat of national division.

Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
  • This act repealed the Missouri Compromise.
    Popular sovereignty (vote of the people) would
    determine whether Kansas and Nebraska would be
    slave or free states.

Dred Scott v. Sanford, 1857
  • A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming
    that his four year stay in free land had made him
    a free man. The U.S. Supreme Court decided he
    could not sue in federal court because he was
    property, not a citizen.

Causes of Secession, 1860
  • After Lincoln was elected, seven Southern states
    seceded. They cited as their reason for seceding
    the election of a President whose opinions and
    purposes are hostile to slavery.

Emancipation Proclamation, 1862
  • Lincoln freed all slaves in states that had
    seceded. Lincoln had no power to enforce the law.

Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
  • 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee,
    lasted three days and the North won. Considered a
    turning point of the Civil War.

Civil War Amendments
  • 13th - Freed all slaves, abolished slavery.
  • 14th - It granted full citizenship to all
    native-born or naturalized Americans, including
    former slaves and immigrants. No state shall deny
    a person life, liberty, or property without due
    process of law.
  • 15th - No one could be denied the right to vote
    on account of race, color or having been a slave.
    It was to prevent states from amending their
    constitutions to deny black suffrage.

Reconstruction Plans
  • Presidential Plans
  • Lincoln offered the Ten Percent Plan.
  • Johnsons plan was similar to Lincolns, but
    required wealthy planters to request pardons and
    did not support voting rights for
  • Congressional Plan
  • Radical Republicans passed the Wade-Davis Bill.
    Lincoln pocket vetoed the bill.
  • Established Freedmens Bureau and passed the
    Civil Rights Act of 1866.

Civil Rights Act of 1866
  • Prohibited abridgement of rights of blacks or any
    other citizens.

Compromise of 1877
  • Hayes promised to show concern for Southern
    interests and end Reconstruction in exchange for
    the Democrats accepting the fraudulent election
    results. He took Union troops out of the South.

Goal 4 The Great West and the Rise of the Debtor
  • The learner will evaluate the great westward
    movement and assess the impact of the
    agricultural revolution on the nation.

Motivation for Westward Movement
  • Government Incentives
  • Pacific Railway Acts
  • Morrill Land-Grant Act
  • Homestead Act
  • Private Property
  • Miners
  • Cattle ranchers
  • Farmers

Challenges of Westward Movement
  • Lack of resources wood and water
  • Severe weather, bugs, floods, prairie fires, dust
    storms, drought
  • Conflicts with Native Americans

Improvements in Agriculture
  • Mechanized reaper reduced labor force
  • Steel plow cut through dense sod
  • Barbed wire kept cattle off crops
  • Windmills powers irrigation systems
  • Hybridization allowed greater yields

Transcontinental Railroad, 1869
  • Union Pacific began in Omaha in 1865 and went
    west. Central Pacific went east from Sacramento
    and met the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory
    Point, Utah.

Dawes Act, 1887
  • It tried to dissolve Indian tribes by
    redistributing the land. Designed to forestall
    growing Indian poverty, it resulted in many
    Indians losing their lands to speculators.

Helen Hunt Jackson
  • A muckraker whose book exposed the unjust manner
    in which the U.S. government had treated the
    Indians. Protested the Dawes Severalty Act.

Cross of Gold Speech, 1896
  • Given by William Jennings Bryan, he said people
    must not be "crucified on a cross of gold",
    referring to the Republican proposal to eliminate
    silver coinage and adopt a strict gold standard.

Goal 5 Becoming an Industrial Society (1877-1900)
  • The learner will describe innovations in
    technology and business practices and assess
    their impact on economic, political, and social
    life in America.

Influence of Big Business
  • Larger pools of capital
  • Wider geographic span
  • Broader range of operations
  • Revised role of ownership
  • New methods of management

  • A theory that the economy does better without
    government intervention in business.

Credit Mobilier Scandal, 1872
  • Union Pacific received a government contract to
    build the transcontinental railroad
  • It "hired" Credit Mobilier to do the actual
    construction, charging nearly twice the actual
    cost of the project.
  • The scheme was discovered and the company tried
    to bribe Congress with gifts of stock to stop the
  • This was the biggest bribery scandal in U.S.
    history, and led to greater public awareness of
    government corruption.

Jane Addams Hull House, 1889
  • Social reformer who worked to improve the lives
    of the working class. She founded Hull House in
    Chicago, the first private social welfare agency
    in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile
    delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak

Social Darwinism
  • Applied Darwin's theory of natural selection and
    "survival of the fittest" to human society -- the
    poor are poor because they are not as fit to
    survive. Used as an argument against social
    reforms to help the poor.

Gospel of Wealth, 1889
  • Andrew Carnegie was an American millionaire and
    philanthropist who donated large sums of money
    for public works. His book argued that the
    wealthy have an obligation to give something back
    to society.

Labor Practices
  • Collective Bargaining - Discussions held between
    workers and their employers over wages, hours,
    and conditions.
  • Labor Unions organization of workers
  • Strikes refusal to perform work until demands
    are met.

Labor Unions
  • Knights of Labor
  • An American labor union originally established as
    a secret fraternal order and noted as the first
    union of all workers. It was founded in 1869.
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Began in 1886 with about 140,000 members by 1917
    it had 2.5 million members. It is a federation of
    different unions.

Thomas Nast
  • Newspaper cartoonist who produced satirical
    cartoons, he invented "Uncle Sam" and came up
    with the elephant and the donkey for the
    political parties. He nearly brought down Boss

Jacob Riis
  • Early 1900's writer who exposed social and
    political evils in the U.S. Muckraker novel.

Goal 6 The emergence of the United States in
World Affairs (1890-1914)
  • The learner will analyze causes and effects of
    the United States emergence as a world power.

Alfred Mahan
  • As Americans increased business overseas it
    became necessary to protect those investments. In
    order to protect those investments America built
    the "great white fleet" that had been requested
    by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan.

Josiah Strong
  • One of the leading proponents of imperialism was
    Minister Josiah Strong.
  • Strong claimed that America as the leading nation
    in the world it was our destiny to acquire new
    lands. This idea sounds a lot like Manifest
    Destiny because it is the same idea.

Sewards Folly, 1867
  • An eager expansionist, Seward was the energetic
    supporter of the Alaskan purchase and negotiator
    of the deal often called "Seward's Folly" because
    Alaska was not fit for settlement or farming.

Annexation of Hawaii, 1898
  • By the late 1800s, U.S. had exclusive use of
    Pearl Harbor. In July 1898, Congress made Hawaii
    a U.S. territory, for the use of the islands as
    naval ports.

Causes of Spanish-American War, 1898
  • An explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana
    crippled the warship Maine. The U.S. blamed Spain
    for the incident and used it as an excuse to go
    to war with Spain.

Open Door Policy, 1899
  • Hay sent imperialist nations a note asking them
    to offer assurance that they would respect the
    principle of equal trade opportunities,
    specifically in the China market.

Roosevelt Corollary, 1904
  • U.S. would act as international policemen. An
    addition to the Monroe Doctrine.
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