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Globalization

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There were different schools in ancient Indian Buddhism, ... Islamic culture vs. Western values The social order of Islam is opposed to some prominent Western values. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Globalization


1
  • Globalization
  • Theme Impact of globalization and related
    responses (2)

6 Impact of cultural globalization
2
Theme Mind Map
Different perceptions of globalization
The mainland and Hong Kong under globalization
Different reactions to globalization
1
11
Different discourses on globalization
2
10
Factors which influence the spread and evenness
of the impact of globalization
Impact of globalization and related responses
Economic dimension of globalization
3
9
Impact of economic globalization
4
8
Impact of political globalization
7
5
6
Cultural dimension of globalization
Political dimension of globalization
Impact of cultural globalization
3
To know about the arguments of cultural
imperialism
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
To explore the relationship between
McDonaldization and cultural homogeneity
To analyze whether cultural globalization
necessarily causes cultural homogeneity
To treasure and appreciate unique local cultures
6 Impact of cultural globalization
To understand the meaning of hybridization,
glocalization and localization
To learn about in what ways glocalization is
manifested
To assess the impact of cultural globalization on
life
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity -
Is it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
To reflect upon the relationship between cultural
globalization and cultural conflict
To pay attention to the value of diversified
cultures in a state of peace and harmony
4
Exploration
Journey
1
5
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the relationship between cultural
imperialism and homogeneous culture?
Cultural imperialism manifests cultural
homogenization
Related terms of cultural imperialism
Disneyization
Coca-colonization
McDonaldization
6
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the relationship between cultural
imperialism and homogeneous culture?
Cultural imperialism manifests cultural
homogenization
  • The above terms reflect
  • Cultural power is not evenly distributed but is
    largely held by the West, which spreads its
    culture to different parts of the world, and this
    cultural flow is one-way.
  • The result will be cultural homogenization.
  • People will have a worldwide standardization of
    lifestyles.

Cultural homogenization
7
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the relationship between cultural
imperialism and homogeneous culture?
Cultural imperialism manifests cultural
homogenization
Some scholars point out cultural imperialism,
they argue
Certain dominant cultures threaten to overwhelm
other more vulnerable ones.  
Cultural imperialism triggers other discussions
on cultural expansion and invasion.
8
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the relationship between cultural
imperialism and homogeneous culture?
Cultural imperialism manifests cultural
homogenization
  • It is argued that cultural imperialism leads to
    the diffusion of Western values through the
    cultural products produced by transnational
    corporations, replacing other cultures.  

culture
9
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does McDonaldization reflect that transnational
corporations promote a homogeneous culture?
The definition of McDonaldization and its impact
McDonaldization describes the socio-cultural
processes by which the business cultures of the
fast food restaurant are coming to dominate more
and more sectors of American society as well as
the rest of the world.
10
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does McDonaldization reflect that transnational
corporations promote a homogeneous culture?
The definition of McDonaldization and its impact
  • Four key aspects of McDonaldization

Calculability
Efficiency
Control through the use of technology and
automation
Predictability
  • These four aspects not only impact the customers
    and employees of McDonalds, but have also spread
    to other modes of business operation and
    different sectors of society all over the world.

11
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Let's learn more
Does McDonaldization affect public health?
Some critics point out that the mechanized
operation of fast food restaurants weakens the
creativity of humans and impersonalizes social
relationships. Besides, fast food generally has
low nutritional value (but is high in fat). This
causes more and more people to suffer from
serious health problems, such as heart disease,
diabetes mellitus, cancer and youth obesity.
Source Adapted from various newspapers.
12
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does McDonaldization reflect that transnational
corporations promote a homogeneous culture?
McWorld is a symbol of cultural imperialism
  • Scholars think that a social order, which is the
    so-called McWorld, is dominating everywhere.
  • Here, profit making becomes the primary function
    of social organization and the individual is
    simply treated as a consumer. The relationship
    between the society and the individual is
    simplified into one of production and
    consumption.  

13
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does McDonaldization reflect that transnational
corporations promote a homogeneous culture?
Travel is increasingly McDonaldized
  • Under globalization, the shopping element is
    added to almost any contemporary leisure
    activity.

14
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does McDonaldization reflect that transnational
corporations promote a homogeneous culture?
Travel is increasingly McDonaldized
  • Travel activities can fully reflect how cultural
    and leisure practices are commodified, creating
    McDonaldization of tourism.

Efficiency
Calculability
Predictability
Can be controlled



15
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Let's think
Apart from tourism, what are the other aspects
influenced by McDonaldization in your opinion?
16
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the operational feature of transnational
corporations?
Advertising and marketing strategy
  • The operational feature of transnational
    corporations is creating a brand effect and
    expanding through services, communication,
    entertainment and lifestyle under advertising and
    marketing.
  • Through advertising and marketing, transnational
    corporations connect their products with peoples
    emotions and ways of life. New desires and wants
    are generated, and these are attached to specific
    commodities.

17
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
What is the operational feature of transnational
corporations?
Case Coca-Cola tops the best global brand for
nine years
18
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does a homogeneous culture create a one-language
world?
English is a global language
The development of Britain and the US in the 19th
and 20th centuries has made English a global
language. However, a few thousand languages are
on the verge of extinction due to the dominance
of English.  
19
Let's learn more
Proficiency in English()
China Vietnam Hong Kong Japan Korea Singapore Taiwan
Unable to speak English 60.0 44.9 27.8 32.6 27.3 3.5 51.7
Able to speak a bit of English 33.8 36.7 45.2 54.6 55.6 14.1 40.2
Proficient English that can handle daily needs 5.6 16.0 23.1 11.5 16.3 28.4 6.6
Speaks fluent English 0.7 2.4 3.9 1.3 0.8 54.0 1.5
Average mark 0.47 0.76 1.03 0.82 0.91 2.36 0.58
Rank 7 5 2 4 3 1 6
Average mark 0 Unable to speak English 1
Able to speak a bit of English 2 Proficient
English that can handle daily needs 3 Speaks
fluent English. (Source Asian Barometer survey
2006.)
20
Exploration Journey 1 Does cultural
globalization bring about homogeneity in ideas
and values?
Does a homogeneous culture create a one-language
world?
Putonghua will become the new global language
  • As Chinas economic power is getting stronger and
    more and more foreign students choose to learn
    Chinese, Putonghua has gradually become a new
    global language.
  • Learning Putonghua has become an essential skill
    for people looking for opportunities in China.

21
Exploration
Journey
2
Cultural heterogeneity - Is it the ultimate
consequence of cultural globalization?
22
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Has cultural globalization brought cultural
integration?
Hybridization and glocalization
Terms such as hybridization, localization and
glocalization reflect the increasing
heterogeneity in the cultural sphere and the
widespread cultural mixing.
23
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Has cultural globalization brought cultural
integration?
Hybridization and glocalization
Hybridization different cultures incorporate
elements from each other, generating cultural
life with integrated forms.
Localization Local people transform products
from different parts of the world into products
with local cultural features.
Glocalization It advocates the consideration of
cultural differences to make adjustments to
products and services when transnational
corporations expand globally. Local cultural
elements from different parts of the world are
added to the products and services, so that the
products can be amended to satisfy market demands
everywhere.
24
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Has cultural globalization brought cultural
integration?
Hybridization and glocalization
  • Cultural interaction under globalization is not
    necessarily from rich countries to poor
    countries. Instead, it can be from the poor South
    to the rich North.  
  • Even if people in the non-Western countries are
    consuming cultural products originating from the
    West, they would decide whether to accept them
    according to their local concerns and interests.
     

25
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Has cultural globalization brought cultural
integration?
Hybridization and glocalization
  • Accepting foreign cultures does not mean
    detaching from local cultures. Cultural
    interaction always involves interpenetration and
    localization.


26
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Does Buddhism reflect cultural hybridization?
Buddhism, originating from India, integrated
into traditional Chinese culture after being
introduced to China. It developd into a religion
with Chinese characteristics and became an
important part of Chinese culture. In the
course of spreading Buddhism in China, the common
features between Buddhism and Chinese culture
were promoted in order to gain recognition in
Chinese society. For example, when sutras (??)
were translated into Chinese, the translators
emphasized the parts concerning obedience to
parents and respect for emperors in the original
copy. Similarly, the parts of the sutras which
were not accepted in Chinese society were deleted
or rewritten. There were different schools
in ancient Indian Buddhism, each of them
promoting different ideologies about human
behaviour. Chinese Buddhist monks compared and
organized these theories and hence established
different sects. Though these sects originally
came from ancient India, they evolved, retaining
little of ancient Indian Buddhism and became
distinctive ones after they were introduced to
China centuries ago. Among the sects, Zen
Buddhism (????) is the most influential. Zen
Buddhism was influenced by traditional Chinese
religions, absorbing not only the beliefs of
philosophical Taoism (??) which emphasizes nature
and omnipresent Tao in the universe, but also
Confucianism which values filial piety and
loyalty and emphasizes ethics. That is why it is
called Chinese Buddhism.

Source Adapted from various newspapers.
Let's learn more
27
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Let's think
Apart from food and religious cultures, what are
the other aspects that can manifest cultural
hybridization?
28
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Has cultural globalization brought cultural
integration?
Cultural globalization and glocalization
  • Under globalization, the two concepts of
    locality and globe are not mutually
    exclusive.  
  • Conversely, things regarded as local are always
    included within the globe.

29
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
The spread of universal values
  • Under cultural globalization, cultural
    interaction in different places occurs more
    frequently, so that traditional local cultures
    are inevitably challenged in the face of the
    inflow of foreign cultures.  
  • When ways of life are greatly influenced by other
    cultures, there are changes in peoples values.

30
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
The spread of universal values
  • People can get in contact with imported universal
    values (the concepts widely accepted by people
    all over the world). They also think about
    whether the traditional concepts they believe are
    right and applicable. In this case, this has
    brought challenges to traditional values and
    beliefs.  

A banner promoting education is basic human
rights.
31
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
Islamic culture vs. Western values
  • The social order of Islam is opposed to some
    prominent Western values. For example, human
    rights, democracy and gender equality are
    incompatible with the Muslim religious doctrine.
  • Cultural globalization prompts some of the
    Islamic world to resist so that conflicts among
    different civilizations are caused.  

32
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
The causes of cultural conflicts brought by
cultural globalization
  • Under globalization, it brings more frequent
    interpersonal and intercultural interactions but
    makes some ethnicities fear and distrust the
    foreign cultures.
  • Such a psychological state gives people stronger
    self-identity of their local cultures. To protect
    the culture they identify with, they resist
    foreign cultures by repelling the foreigners.
    Cultural conflicts between ethnicities thus
    occur.  

33
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
The clash of civilizations
  • One scholar defines civilization as a cultural
    entity, the highest grouping of people at the
    broad level of cultural identity which is
    related to language, customs, institutions and
    self-identification.  

The tributes to the victims of the September 11
attacks
  • The great differences in values of civilizations
    can even result in conflicts and competition.
  • The September 11 attacks were regarded as an
    example of the clash of civilizations.

34
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
How does cultural globalization lead to cultural
conflicts?
Is the clash of civilizations orientalism?
Some scholars have criticized the clash of
civilizations as orientalism, reflecting a
biased image of Asia and the Middle East in
Western culture. Moreover, it is a fallacy which
puts the Oriental and the Western cultures into
an opposing relationship.
35
Exploration Journey 2 Cultural heterogeneity- Is
it the ultimate consequence of cultural
globalization?
Let's think
What ways can you suggest that would reduce
cultural conflicts?
36
END
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