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Culture and the Individual

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Big Five Personality Model Western Culture ... Variability in Scale Results Examples of Indigenous Personality Models Sow s African Model Indian Jiva ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Culture and the Individual


1
Culture
and the Individual
  • Enculturation, Socialization Personality
  • Kimberly Porter Martin

2
Personality
  • -characteristics of an individual resulting from
    the interaction of genetics, socialization,
    enculturation and life experience.

3
Personality Trait
  • A lasting characteristic attributed to persons in
    varying amounts of strength.
  • Fiske, 1971

4
Anthony F.C. Wallace
Societies deal with individual differences in
personality in two general ways 1. They
enculturate and socialize children, shaping them
to suit cultural expectations 2. They provide
alternative roles that accommodate different
personalities
5
Enculturation Vs. Social Stratification
  • The Enculturation, Socialization and Personality
    PowerPoint ( this one!) focuses on enculturation
    and socialization of individuals to try to shape
    them to cultural ideals.
  • The Social Stratification and Personality
    PowerPoint will deal with how society shapes
    personality and the kinds of roles it provides
    for individuals with different personalities.

6
Personality Models
  • Measures of personality are based on models of
    the range of and importance of specific
    personality traits.
  • Studying measures gives us insight about the emic
    views of the culture in which the measures were.

7
The Big Questions
  • To what extent are we using ethnocentric
    measures?
  • To what extent are we measuring ethnocentric
    concepts.
  • If some personality traits are completely outside
    the experience of the researcher,
  • How will the researcher know what to look for?
  • How will the researcher know how to measure them?

8
Big Five Personality Model
9
Western Cultures Big Five
  • The Five Factor Model (FFM)
  • Conscientiousness
  • Persistence and reliability
  • Goal directedness
  • Agreeableness
  • Compassion, warmth
  • Gentle and sensitive
  • Openness to Experience
  • Curiosity and imagination
  • Extraversion
  • Positive attitude
  • Seeks stimulating social interaction
  • Neuroticism
  • Emotional instability
  • Anxiety and hostility

http//www.personalitytest.net/cgi-bin/ipipneo1.cg
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10
Kagitcibasis Three Family Styles
  • Independent family
  • Afluent, educated, middle class
  • Nuclear family units
  • Smaller families
  • Independence, self-sufficiency, uniqueness
    training
  • Interdependent family
  • Agrarian,
  • Children help w/ subsistence, care for aging
    parents
  • Intergenerational closeness, extended families
  • Obedience training
  • Psychological interdepence family
  • Emotional interdependence between family members
  • Socialized for family loyalties
  • Childrearing for a combination of autonomy within
    the context of family loyalty
  • Compromise between the other styles

11
Eysenck Personality Model (EPQ) Western Culture
  • Three qualities
  • 1. psychoticism
  • 2. extroversion
  • 3. neuroticism
  • Psychoticism aggression and interpersonal
    hostility. Predisposes for mental
    illness/schizophrenia.

12
Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI)
  • Added a sixth dimension to the Big Five
  • Interpersonal Relatedness (importance of harmony,
    face and relationship orientation)
  • Openness dimension missing from CPAI
  • Interpersonal Relatedness (importance of harmony,
    face and relationship orientation)
  • Found in China, Hawaii and Singapore.
  • Western blind spot with regard to personality
    traits

13
Variability in Scale Results
  • Locally derived measures are better
  • Some traits overlap, but not predictable
  • Sometimes traits dropped or added
  • Other times blended into different variations

14
Examples of Indigenous Personality Models
  • Ubuntu Africa a person is a person through
    other persons
  • Senegal three layers of a person
  • shell (body)
  • physiological functioning
  • psychological existence
  • spiritual existence

15
Sows African Model
16
Indian Jiva Personality Model
17
Examples of Indigenous Personality Models
  • Japanese Amae passive love and dependence as an
    infant has for its mother.
  • Permeates Japanese culture throughout the
    lifespan.
  • Creates an expectation of passive connection to
    all others in the group.
  • Concealed amae leads to mental illness.

18
Examples of Indigenous Personality Models
  • Bambara
  • A symbolic system
  • Person is not separate from spirit world, human
    community and/or ecological context.
  • Sixty dimensions or elements in pairs, one male
    and one female.
  • Thought-reflection
  • Speech-authority
  • Future-destiny

19
Value Systems
  • Kluckhohn and Strodbeck
  • Hofstede
  • Locus of Control

20
Kluckhohn Strodbecks Values Matrix (Item
Examples)
Culture Type 1 Culture Type 2 Culture Type 3
The Innate Nature of Humans Most people cant be trusted. There are both good and evil people in the world and you have to check people out to find out which they are. Most people are basically pretty good at heart.
The Human Relationship to Nature Life is largely determined by external forces, such as God fate or genetics. A person cant surpass the conditions life has set. Humans should, in every way, live in harmony with nature. The human challenge is to conquer and control nature. Everything from air conditioning to the green revolution has resulted from our having met this challenge.
Time Orientation Humans should learn from history and attempt to emulate the glorious ages of the past. The present moment is everything. Lets make the most of it. Dont worry about tomorrow. Enjoy today. Planning and goal setting make it possible for humans to accomplish miracles. A little sacrifice today will bring a better tomorrow.
Modality of Human Activity It is enough to just be. Its not necessary to accomplish great things in life to feel your life has been worthwhile The human purpose for being placed on this earth is for our own inner development. If people work hard and apply themselves fully, their efforts will be rewarded.
Humans Relationship to Others Some people are born to lead others. There are leaders and followers in this world. Whenever I have a serious problem, I like to get the advice of my family or close friends in how best to solve it. All people should have equal rights, and we should all have complete control over our own destiny.
21
Kluckhohn Strodbecks Values Matrix (Core
Value)
Culture Type 1 Culture Type 2 Culture Type 3
The Innate Nature of Humans People are inherently evil. People are a mixture of good and evil. People are inherently good.
The Human Relationship to Nature Humans are subjugated to nature. Humans should live in harmony with nature Humans should dominate nature
Time Orientation Past oriented. Present oriented. Future oriented.
Modality of Human Activity Being. Becoming. Doing.
Humans Relationship to Others Lineal/hierarchical relationships predominate. Collateral relationships predominate. Individualism is more important than relationships.
22
Hofstedes Value Dimensions
  • 1. POWER DISTANCE
  • The degree of inequality between a less powerful
    person and a more powerful other (Mulder
    1977).
  • The distance at which boss/supervisor and
    employee comfortably function within a given
    society.
  • The boss's style of decision making along with
    employees level of fear about disagreeing with
    superiors.

23
Hofstedes Value Dimensions
  • 2. UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE
  • The tolerance for uncertainty in a society,
    coped with in society by technology, law and
    religion, and in organizations by technology,
    rules and rituals.

24
Hofstedes Value Dimensions
  • 3. INDIVIDUALISM
  • The relationship between the individual and the
    collectivity in which prevails in a given
    society.
  • The degree to which the individual is valued
    over the group, or the group is valued over the
    individual.

25
Hofstedes Value Dimensions
  • 4. MASCULINITY
  • The degree to which a society focuses on
    assertion and competition as opposed to
    nurturance and the development and maintenance of
    relationships.

26
Locus of Control
  • Who or what controls your life?
  • External outside forces that you do not control
    or influence
  • Internal you are empowered to make changes and
    choices in your life. You have control of your
    own life.
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