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Project Management: A BRIEF Overview

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Project Management: A BRIEF Overview Greg Magnan Associate Professor Albers School of Business & Econ November 8, 2003 Agenda A) What, why and life cycles stages of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Project Management: A BRIEF Overview


1
Project ManagementA BRIEF Overview
  • Greg Magnan
  • Associate Professor
  • Albers School of Business Econ
  • November 8, 2003

2
Agenda
  • A) What, why and life cycles stages of projects

B) PM Phases C) OTHER ISSUES
I. Definition People/Teams
II. Planning Status
III. Execution Software
IV. Delivery Communication
3
What is a Project?
  • One-time (or infrequent) set of activities that
    use resources to accomplish an objective
  • An effort to create a unique product/service with
    a precisely defined, desired outcome
  • Constrained by an end-date and resources
  • May be of any duration (hours to years)

4
Why Study Project Management?
  • Appear in all organizations, all functions
  • Perhaps 30-40 never completed
  • Business Dynamics/Customer Focus
  • Knowledge/Information Explosion
  • Limited Resources/ Unlimited to-do
  • How stuff gets done

5
Project Life Cycle Stages
6
I. Project Definition/Initiation
  • 0. Selection
  • Identify the Need
  • Criteria (may differ for strategic or
    operational)
  • Resources
  • Level, Owner
  • Justification
  • Feasibility
  • Financial Returns / Risks
  • Rank Possible Projects

7
I. Project Definition
  • State the Project
  • What, Why, When scope
  • Cost/Budget
  • Project Statement (short)
  • Action and end result
  • Time
  • Cost (optional)
  • 1b. Charter
  • Scope (risk limits, customer needs, spending
    limits, team composition, etc.)

8
I. Project Definition
  • 1c. Develop Objectives
  • Define benefits measures of success
  • What will this look like at the end?
  • Identify constraints
  • Identify requirements

9
SCOPE Checklist
  • Project Objectives
  • Deliverables
  • Milestones
  • Technical Requirements
  • Limits Exclusions
  • Reviews with Customer

10
Project Management Tradeoffs
Project Priorities?
11
II. Project Planning
  • To organize the work / avoid future problems
  • Assemble Team
  • Determine Tasks (Work Breakdown Structure)
  • Assign Responsibility
  • Sequence Deliverables
  • Schedule Milestones / Deliverables
  • Schedule Resources
  • Identify Risks / Protect the Plan (mitigation
    plans)

12
Leading Projects
  • People own what they help to create
  • Team members who truly understand the project
    will be more committed
  • Inspiration through meaning
  • Use team-based tools throughout
  • Show your appreciation for contributions
  • Empowerment through trust and respect
  • Stay on top of the details

13
II. Project Planning
  • Assemble Project Team / Kickoff
  • Who will be on the team?
  • Team Phases
  • Forming/Storming/Norming/Performing
  • Motivation throughout project
  • Kickoff Meeting
  • Icebreaker / Sponsor / Team contract
  • Inclusive / Parking Lot for issues
  • Review Charter w/ team / Feedback

14
II. Project Planning
  • Develop Work Breakdown Structure
  • A graphic or outline depicting how major
    deliverables relate to sub-elements
  • Establish specific outputs accomplishments
  • Hierarchical listing of all project elements
  • May include several levels
  • Lowest level detailed tasks (work packages)
  • Work that can be assigned to individual or group
  • Measurable outcome
  • List major deliverables
  • Enables planning, scheduling, budgeting

15
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Involve project team in creation
  • Creative / Brainstorming / Post-its
  • Mindmapping
  • At lowest level, work packages should include a
    noun and a verb (e.g., meet w/ customers)
  • Short duration tasks that have a definite start
    and stop point, consume resources, and represent
    cost.
  • A control point in the project
  • Use a consistent level of detail throughout WBS

16
WBS Mindmap
17
Work Packages
  • Defines work (what)
  • Ids how long
  • Ids a budget (WP cost)
  • ID resources (how much)
  • ID person responsible
  • ID monitoring points
  • Coding for info systems

18
WBS Structure
19
WBS Example
20
II. Project Planning
  • Identify Resource Requirements
  • To avoid future resource problems and help assign
    responsibility
  • For each WBS element, consider
  • Knowledge, skills, facilities, equipment,
    supplies, materials, special/unusual resources
  • Identify type, amount, and cost
  • ESTIMATE!

21
Identify Resource Requirements
22
II. Project Planning
  • Responsibility Assignment Matrix
  • To make responsibilities clear and visible
  • WBS elements down left side
  • Names of individuals/groups along top
  • Mark Primary responsibility (P)
  • One for each terminal element
  • Negotiate commitment from each person

23
II. Project Planning
  • Sequence Deliverables
  • To help schedule work efficiently
  • Consider all WBS elements
  • Estimate calendar duration for each
  • List precedence for each task
  • May construct network diagram
  • CRITICAL PATH path through the network showing
    minimum time needed
  • Delays to elements on the critical path delay the
    entire project!

24
Project Scheduling Node Elements
25
PERT Diagram(Activity on Node)
26
II. Project Planning
  • Schedule Deliverables / Gantt Chart
  • To provide basis for project monitoring
  • Identify start and finish dates
  • Review precedence to ensure that no terminal
    element starts or finishes too soon
  • Gantt charts, however, do NOT show precedence
  • Once again, uses WBS as main input

27
Sample Gantt Chart
28
II. Project Planning
  • Schedule Resources
  • Resource the Plan to help maintain commitment
    of resources
  • Resource managers allocate resources
  • Act in collaboration with Project Manager
  • Confirm or negotiate specific commitments for
    each resource
  • Be aware of resource managers constraints or
    policies (e.g., res. util. limits)

29
II. Project Planning
  • Risk Management / Protect the Plan
  • To help ensure that we meet or exceed the project
    objectives
  • Spot areas of concern ahead of time (risks)
  • Brainstorming / Mindmapping
  • Critical path? / Complex tasks / Unreliable
    resources
  • Estimate probabilities and impact!
  • Create contingency plans

30
III. Project Implementation / Execution
  • Begin work on time
  • Monitor project
  • Progress against objectives
  • Progress against milestones
  • Resource use and cost
  • Human performance
  • Set performance/deliverable expectations in
    advance
  • Few slidesbut longest project duration!

31
III. Project Implementation / Execution
  • This is where the art of PM comes alive
  • Overcoming obstacles
  • Budgets, technologies, contractors
  • Motivating peripheral players
  • Problem solving
  • Manage Change
  • Need a process!

32
III. Project Implementation / Execution
  • Status and Communication
  • Gantt Charts / Milestones
  • Sponsor
  • Areas to report
  • Schedule
  • Risks
  • Budget
  • Changes
  • Scope?

33
Milestone Tracking
34
Tacoma Narrows Sept. 2003
Milestones
35
IV. Project Delivery
  • 14. Project Closeout Evaluation
  • To ensure all objective were met and share
    lessons learned
  • Include closeout activities in WBS, resource
    requirements, RAM, and schedule
  • Review lessons learned
  • Identify Project Success Factors

36
Other Issues
  • People
  • Communication
  • Cannot overestimate the need
  • Report out
  • Frequency, audience, tools, next steps/resolution
  • Software
  • Many optionsbut learn the techniques first!!!

37
Conclusion
  • Projects are everywhere
  • Can be actively managed
  • Science AND art
  • http//www.pmi.org/
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