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Application of a Strategic Environmental Assessment framework in the Palar River Basin Tamil Nadu, India

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Title: Application of a Strategic Environmental Assessment framework in the Palar River Basin Tamil Nadu, India


1
Application of a Strategic Environmental
Assessment framework in thePalar River
BasinTamil Nadu, India
  • Presentation at
  • Workshop on CEA, SEA and DPL
  • January 18, 2005
  • N. Harshadeep
  • Sr. Environmental Specialist
  • South Asia Environmental and Social Development
    Unit (SASES)
  • The World Bank

2
Outline
  • Introduction
  • How Policies, Programs and Projects caused
    environmental problems and how they are helping
    address these problems?
  • What helped? Opposition? Steps?
  • Outcomes and Next Steps

3
The FrameworkMerging SEA IWRM Approaches
Do No Harm Minimize environmental/social
risks Do Good Maximize sustainable
environmental/social benefits
Maximize Sustainable Productivity of Water (Net
Benefits of Water)
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Basin
EA Sectoral EA Regional EA
Integrated Water Resources Planning Management
(IWRM)
Issues/Information
Knowledge Base
Proactive Scoping/Screening
Supply, Demand, Quality
Holistic Basin Framework
Cumulative Impact Assessment
Analysis of Alternatives
Scenario Analysis Modeling
Stakeholder Consultation
Stakeholder Participation
Policy/Institutional Reforms
Institutional Capacity Building
Upstream Input into Decision Making
Decision Support Systems
Sustainable Basin Planning Management
4
Mainstreaming Environmental Social Safeguards
and Opportunities
Safeguards (National, Provincial, Local,
Donor)e.g. The Bank 101 Safeguard Policies
Environmental and Social Opportunities
  • Livelihood improvement, poverty alleviation,
    equity, benefits to vulnerable groups, gender
    sensitivity
  • Improving resource productivity and
    sustainability, sustainable agricultural
    practices, public health, water quality, wetland
    management, biodiversity land quality
  • Knowledge base, analytical capacity
  • Awareness, Training, Capacity-building
  • Environmental Assessment
  • Natural Habitats
  • Pest Management
  • Physical Cultural Resources
  • Involuntary Resettlement
  • Indigenous Peoples
  • Forests
  • Safety of Dams
  • Projects on International Waterways
  • Projects in Disputed Areas
  • BP17.50 Public Disclosure
  • 4.01
  • 4.04
  • 4.09
  • 4.11
  • 4.12
  • 4.20
  • 4.36
  • 4.37
  • 7.50
  • 7.60
  • Plus.

5
An Example of a Typical River Basin
Agriculture Department
Livestock Department
Forest Department
Rural Water Supply Department
Urban Water Supply Department
Irrigation Department
Power Department
River Basin Boundary
Industry Department
Fisheries Department
Environment Department
Transport Department
Tourism Department
Groundwater Department
Surface Water Department
Ocean Development/CZM Department
Irrigation
Trans-boundary Water Institutions
there is a need to share information and
integrate the activities of multiple actors
Ocean
6
Overall (environmental awareness, competition for
water, growing demands, construction and
operation-related safeguards, environmental
knowledge base and decision support systems,
adequacy of policies, institutions, instruments,
incentives coordination in management of the
resource base and service delivery cultural
property management, appropriate indigenous
knowledge use)
Typical Environmental Issues in a Basin Context
Climate Disasters (droughts, floods and other
natural disasters, climate change)
Land Forest Management (catchment protection
for soil and water conservation, soil
degradation, incl. salinization, biodiversity
conservation, recharge, water harvesting,
non-point source runoff)
Fisheries-related (exotic species, access to
resources, disease pollution)
Industry Power (access to required water,
industrial effluent and sludge management,
thermal pollution, industrial disasters)
Dams (siltation, dam safety, downstream releases)
Rural Water Supply Sanitation (access to clean
water, pollution of local water bodies, drinking
water quality testing)
Irrigation (access to water, waterlogging, water
quality, siltation/erosion)
Urban (health benefits from access to clean water
and sanitation, domestic and stormwater runoff
treatment/management, sludge management, solid
and hazwaste management)
Tourism (waste management, seasonal demands)
Navigation (dredging spoil management, spills)
Agriculture Livestock (pesticide and fertilizer
pollution, livestock fodder, grazing land
availability, medicinal plants, pest/pesticide
management, organic cultivation, clean milk
production)
Environment (water quality/pollution monitoring,
instream flow requirements (incl. community use),
wetlands protection, biodiversity conservation,
sand mining)
Groundwater-Related (Overexploitation Pollution
from natural sources e.g. of As, Fl and from
anthropogenic sources e.g. of Nitrates,
Pesticides, TDS)
Coastal Zone Management (Saline water intrusion,
coastal wetland management, ocean pollution,
coastal hazard management, fisheries-related)
7
Location Characteristics of the Palar Basin
TAMIL NADU
  • Palar Basin Characteristics
  • Basin Area 18,300 km2 (10,910 km2 in TN)
  • Rainfall 1039 mm (SW 458 mm NE 461 mm)
  • Potential Supply About 1,500 MCM SW 2,700 MCM
    GW
  • Current Demands 2560 MCM (88 Irrigation)
  • Industries 88 large 22,695 small (30 MLD
    effluent)
  • River flows for 15 days in year!
  • Storage 11 reservoirs, 4,900 rainfed tanks and
    661 system tanks
  • About 250,000 wells (mostly dug wells)
  • GW 50 blocks over-exploited 41
    critical/semi-critical
  • Population 5.4 million (62 million in TN)
  • Agricultural land 63
  • Farmers 62 marginal (lt0.5 ha) 18 small
    (0.5-1 ha) and 20 mediumlarge (gt1ha)
  • About 450 Tannery units (in Vellore) with 9
    CETPs

River Basin Map
Palar Basin
Boundaries are indicative and may be under dispute
First Multi-Stakeholder Basin Board in South Asia
Region
8
Bank-Financed Project contextTamil Nadu Water
Resources Consolidation Project (TNWRCP)
  • Objectives
  • Introduce water resources planning by river
    basins across all uses of water
  • Improve agricultural productivity through
    modernization and completion of irrigaiton
    systems, upgraded water management and farmer
    participation
  • Assure sustainability of water infrastructure and
    the environment
  • Improve institutional and technical capability
    for managing the states water resources
  • Environment-Related Activities
  • Institutional setting up active environmental
    cells, Institute for Water Studies, Basin Boards
    Technical Secretariat, guidelines, EIA
    capacity, inter-agency coordination
  • Monitoring water quality, resource degradation,
    knowledge base creation
  • Research Reporting Basin Environmental
    Reports, State Environmental Framework, Water
    Resources Research Fund, modeling
  • Groundwater Act, Well Census, Dam safety, solar
    technology, eco-friendly agriculture,
    water-saving crops and technologies
  • Pilots for low-cost domestic and industrial
    wastewater treatment
  • Awareness-raising outreach
  • Strategic Environmental Assessment

9
Many Environmental Resource Problems in the
Water Sector in TN
Inefficient Water Use
Drought
Weeds
Degraded Lands
Pollution
Solid Waste
Impact on Biota
10
Palar BasinMultiple Issues for Multiple
Stakeholders
Palar Basin Board Secretariat
Water Resources Organization Institute for Water
Studies
Water Pollution (Tanneries, Waste Dumps,
Textiles, Other Industries, Domestic,
Fertilizer/Pesticide)
Tank Degradation
Agr. Dept/Agr. Engr. Dept WUA/Farmers
Livestock Department
Sand Mining
Water Scarcity
TWAD Board
Inter-Basin Transfer
MetroWater
Salt-impacted Agricultural Productivity
Competing Water Uses Unclear Entitlements
Forest Department
Industry Department Tanneries/CLRI
Rural Water Supply
Fisheries Department
Catchment Degradation
TNEB
Environment Department TN Pollution Control
Board Loss of Ecology Comm.
Water Harvesting
Urban Water Supply Sewerage
Coastal Zone Management
Industrialists Local Government Academia NGOs,
Politicians, etc.
Tank/Canal/Groundwater Irrigated Agriculture
Groundwater Management
11
Work Undertaken So Far
  • Meetings, Workshops, Discussions
  • Consultant Inputs
  • Knowledge Base Development
  • Background Notes/Presentations
  • Training/Awareness Building
  • Vision Statement Action Plan
  • Mainstreaming into work supported by Tamil Nadu
    Water Resources Consolidation Project (TNWRCP)
    with WRO, IWS, State Surface and GW Data Center,
    River basin boards, technical secretariat,
    environmental cells, multi-disciplinary project
    preparation panel, industry groups, agriculture
    dept, Agr. Engr. Dept, Water User Associations,
    Research Institutions, Academia, etc.

12
Summary of Key Environmental Issues Possible
Approaches in the Palar Basin
  • WW Treatment
  • HRTS
  • IPM/IPNM
  • Other
  • Optimize Cropping Patterns and Irrigation
    Technologies
  • IPM/IPNM
  • Manage Pollution
  • Supply-Side (Desilt Tanks as appropriate,
    Improve Recharge, regulate sand mining)
  • Demand-Side (Use less water intensive crops
    irrigation systems)
  • Management (Improve water regulation)

13
Interaction of Issues
Social
Environmental
Livelihoods Equity Access to clean water Social
structure Migration Poverty Alleviation Health
Pollution (from industry, settlements) Sand
mining Groundwater depletion Tank
siltation Catchment degradation Sustainable
agriculture
Sustainable Incomes Subsidies Efficiency Sustainab
le Growth Investment Prioritization
Economic
14
Progression of Issues in the Palar
  • Costs involved in repairing tanks and shifting
    water supply structures

Macro Economic Basin Wide Issues (Costs of
Remediation Shifting, Rehabilitation of
structures, etc.)
Distortion on Employment and Income Generation
(Loss of livelihood Occupational shifts and
migrations)
  • Labour shifts from agriculture to industrial
    sector

Risks to Health Ecosystems (Water borne
diseases Occupational health Bioaccumulation of
pollutants)
  • Prevalence of water borne disease
  • and other health problems
  • Increased pollution of ground and surface waters
  • Degradation of Tanks and water supply structures
  • Siltation in tanks and intake channels
  • Decrease in the yield and quality of
    agricultural crops

Degradation of Environment (Water Soil Crops
Infrastructure)
  • Decreased availability of water due to
    overexploitation of groundwater resources
    Increased sand mining in the Basin

Depletion of Resources (Water Forests Sand)
15
Targeted Outcomes
  • Enhance knowledge base analytical capacity
  • Provide a focal point for stakeholder
    participation
  • Improve Awareness
  • Move to more level playing field
  • Elicit and discuss multiple stakeholder
    perspectives
  • Develop shared vision planning of basin
  • Improve networking, coordination
  • Inform decisions (e.g. tasks, investment
    priorities)
  • Determine priorities, low hanging fruit and
    areas of conflict
  • Move towards resolution of problems

16
Stakeholder MeetingsKey Ingredients (e.g. Dec03
mtg in Kancheepuram)
Good Stakeholder Group
Political Support
Balanced Breakout Groups
Facilities/ Equipment
Effective Facilitation
Enthusiastic Participation
Information Resources Preparatory Work
Hard work Behind-the-Scenes
Structured Interaction
17
Draft Vision Statement for the Palar Basin Board
  • The Palar River Basin Management and Development
    Board (PRBMDB) seeks to improve, safeguard and
    monitor the water and land resources programs of
    its member organizations. As an apex body, the
    PRBMDB endeavors the primary role in sustainable
    water resources planning and management in an
    integrated manner covering the activities of all
    departments concerned.
  • To promote, advice, direct and coordinate
    sustainable management and development of water,
    land and forest resources including the
    environmental aspects in the basin.
  • To increase awareness, participation and
    commitment of people and to protect and enhance
    their wellbeing.
  • To follow a participatory, transparent and
    objective approach and become a model for other
    river basins in India.

18
Structured Process to move from Vision to Action
Vision
Objectives
Principles
Issues
Strategies Problem solving process
Tactics How will it be done?
Tasks/Actions What? Alternatives? Who? When?
Where? Resources? Capacity? Indicators?
Institutions
Policy/Regulations
Resources
Information
Instruments
19
Sample Group Worksheet Table EntryObjective ?
Strategy ? Tactics ? Tasks
Group on Resource DegradationObjective One
Groundwater Resource Restoration
STRATEGY TACTICS TASKS
Water Demand Management Artificial Recharge Mininise Sand Mining Change In Cropping Pattern Water Reuse Recycling Withdrawal Priorities Micro Irrigation Systems RWH at Community Level Conjunctive Use Substitutes For Sand Implementation In Critical Areas Systematic Assessment Of Resources Municipal Sewage Treatment And Use Awareness Creation Apportioning Among Sources/Sectors Augmentation Through Recharge Structures Community Wells Research And Development for Substitute For Sand Sprinkler Drip Irrigation
20
A Proposed Development Plan
21
Types of Public Interaction
Information Disclosure
22
Next Steps
  • Palar Basin SEA Multi-stakeholder Workshops
  • Refinement, initial implementation monitoring
    of Action Plans on
  • Pollution Management
  • Health and Agriculture
  • Water Resources
  • Integration into FutureWater Resources Projects
    (social and environmental assessment, decision
    support systems, investments considered,
    partnerships facilitated)

A long way to go, but a good start
23
Limitations of Approach
  • Limited awareness of environmental issues, SEA,
    or IWRM
  • Multiplicity of Stakeholders
  • Fragmentation of Institutions
  • Lack of effective consultative frameworks
  • Limitations of Knowledge Base/Analysis
  • Strong political will to implement
    recommendations
  • Mental move from crisis management to shared
    vision planning and management
  • but there are few other options left for many
    basins such as the Palar

24
Summing Up
  • Requirements for an SEA approach for IWRM
  • Manifestation of real problems
  • Political, bureaucratic other stakeholder
    commitment to achieve consensus to move ahead
    emergence of champions
  • The 4 Is Institutions, Information, Instruments,
    Incentives
  • Work demonstrates inextricably interlinked nature
    of environmental, social, economic and water
    issues
  • A Structured SEA process complements and
    supplements basin management
  • Processes are as important as Products
  • Shows great potential for other basins but it
    is essential to develop customized approaches for
    each basin!
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