The Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA) has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEPP. A certificate of - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA) has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEPP. A certificate of

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Title: The Air Movement and Control Association International (AMCA) has met the standards and requirements of the Registered Continuing Education Providers Program. Credit earned on completion of this program will be reported to RCEPP. A certificate of


1
The Air Movement and Control Association
International (AMCA) has met the standards and
requirements of the Registered Continuing
Education Providers Program. Credit earned on
completion of this program will be reported to
RCEPP. A certificate of completion will be issued
to each participant. As such, it does not include
content that may be deemed or construed to be an
approval or endorsement by NCEES or RCEPP.
2
What Green Means to the Air Movement and
Control Industry (A Call to Sustainable Action)
  • Terry Townsend, P.E., FASHRAE
  • ASHRAE Presidential Member
  • October 16, 2008

3
Learning Objectives
  • At the end of this presentation you will be able
    to
  • Describe how sustainability is impacting the air
    movement and control industry
  • Learn how to optimize air movement and control
    for sustainable design
  • Learn how to better incorporate IAQ strategies in
    your designs
  • 4. Describe how air movement and control is
    incorporated in ASHRAE design guidance and LEED

4
Why is a Call to Action Needed?
  • The Air Movement and Control Industry is the
    primary reason that an ideal green building with
    optimal conditions for both its inhabitants and
    the environment can exist. However, the biggest
    impact that the Air Movement and Control Industry
    may have on this planet is in delaying
  • Tipping Points for
  • Worlds Energy Crises
  • Worlds Environmental Crises

5
Worlds Energy
  • Bal. 1 trillion barrels peak production met
    2007 annual consumption 29 billion barrels
  • Natural gas peak in U.S. (1973) and declining at
    5 percent year
  • Coal plentiful fossil fuel resource but heavily
    subsidized by governments GWP is exceptionally
    high

6
Worlds Environment (UN-IPCC Three Working
Groups Reports)
  • WG-1 trends past to present
  • Pre-industrial revolution lt 250 PPM CO2
  • Current level 385 PPM CO2 2 PPM/year average
    increase
  • Average global temperature increase
  • 0.6C (1901-2000)
  • 0.2C (2000-2006)

7
WG-2 Measurements/Observations
  • 25 of coral reefs damaged/irreparable
  • Gulf Stream at 75 of full flow
  • Ocean temperature increase (2 miles depth)
  • Ocean pH decrease/year 0.1 units
  • Greenland glaciers melt gt 1 cubic mile/year
  • Amazon rain forest reduction 25

8
WG-3 Projections and Impacts (21st Century)
  • Global temperature increase 1.4C (aggressive
    CO2 reductions) to 5.8C (business-as-usual) over
    20th Centurys temperature increase
  • Greenland melts 23 sea level increase
  • Antarctica melts 230 sea level increase
  • Amazon reduction of 30 Savannah and
    re-generation initiated

9
Latest Data on Climate Change
  • Kiel Institute for World Economy
  • The world is already at or above the IPCC worst
    case scenarios in terms of CO2 emissions.
  • National Academy of Science
  • In 2006 over 8.4 gigatons of CO2 were put into
    the atmosphere from fossil fuels which equaled
    the IPCC worst case prediction.
  • International Energy Agency
  • If current emissions policies are not changed,
    the world could warm 6C by 2030

10
CO2 Targets for a Sustainable Future
  • IPCCs goal (1992) for CO2 stabilization 1.3 Kg
    CO2/person/day
  • CO2 baseline measurements (2000)
  • World emissions 8.9 Kg CO2/person/day
  • U.S. emissions 58.7 Kg CO2/person/day

11
Comparing International Emissions Data
12
CO2 Targets for a Sustainable Future
  • Required CO2 emissions reduction to meet IPCCs
    goal 85
  • Target U.S. emissions 8.8 Kg CO2/person/day
  • This would limit global warming to 2C by 2050
    (EUs target)
  •  Increased global temperature ? Increased Carbon
    Cycle Feedbacks

13
2C (EUs Target)
  • 4 billion people water shortages heat waves
    greater than 2003
  • ....Carbon Cycle Feedbacks.
  • Greenland irreversible melting ?millions of tons
    of CO2 release
  • West Siberian peat melt 70 billion tons of
    methane release (73 years of manmade CO2)

14
2C (EUs Target)
  • .Carbon Cycle Feedbacks.
  • Arctic Circle permafrost warming and begins
    release of methane
  • 1/3 of plant and animal species become extinct
  • 70 chance of 3C increase
  • 30 chance of 4C increase

15
  • We are on the precipice of climate system
    tipping points beyond which there is no
    redemption.
  • James Hansen, Director, NASA Goddard Institute
    for Space Studies
  • In the past, if we got things wrong and wrecked
    our environment, we could pack up and move
    somewhere else. Migration has always been one of
    our species great survival strategies. Now we
    have nowhere else to go. No new frontier. We have
    only one atmosphere only one planet.
  • Fred Pearce, With Speed and Violence

16
Why Should We Care?
  • Buildings consume
  • 40 of all energy used and 70 of electrical
    energy use
  • 17 of all fresh water
  • 25 of wood produced

17
Why Should We Care?
  • Buildings produce 33 of CO2 emissions
  • Buildings generate 30 of all landfill waste
  • Architects, engineers and AMCA members can
    effectively reduce the effects of mankind on the
    environment and climate change, and our
    dependency on fossil fuels

18
Why Should AMCA Care?
  • Fan Energy 40 of HVAC Systems Energy Use
    (5.22 Quads or 940 Million Tons CO2)
  • Proper Air Distribution Saves 20 - 30 of Annual
    Heating Cooling Costs
  • Economizers Reduce Energy Costs Sick Leave (8X
    Savings Over Energy Cost Reductions)
  • High Ventilation Rates 35 Reduction in
    Short-term Absence

19
Why Should AMCA Care?
  • Demand-Controlled Ventilation ? Min. 20
    Reduction In Electrical Energy
  • HVAC Systems w/Energy Recovery Lowest
    Life-Cycle Costs
  • Energy Recovery Savings 21.5 Reduction of
    Cooling Costs
  • Energy Recovery for Indoor Swimming Pools 70
    Savings Over Standard A/C Systems

20
Why Should AMCA Care?
  • ERVs National Energy Savings Potential 0.6
    Quads for Commercial Buildings 108 Million Tons
    of CO2
  • ERVs Can Reduce Peak Heating and Cooling Loads
    by 1/3rd
  • Demand-Controlled Ventilation Reduces
    Ventilation, Heating Cooling Loads by 10 - 30

21
Air Movement and Control Industrys Influence on
Green Buildings
  • Energy Conservation
  • ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1
  • ASHRAE/USGBC/IESNA Standard 189.1P
  • ASHRAE/AIA/IESNA/USGBC/DOE Advanced Energy Design
    Guides (AEDGs)

22
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • ASHRAE Standard 62.1
  • ASHRAE Standard 170
  • Building Performance Metrics Protocols
  • Comfort and Occupant Performance
  • ASHRAE Standard 55
  • High Performance Buildings Database
  • Building Performance Metrics Protocols

23
Reference Points Today
  • CBECS-2003 EUI 91 kBTU/SF/yr
  • 90.1-2004 EUI 51 kBTU/SF/yr
  • 90.1-2010 target EUI 36 kBTU/SF/yr
  • 189.1-2010 target EUI 25 kBTU/SF/yr

24
Energy Conservation ASHRAE Standard 90.1
  • HVACR systems are responsible for 45 of all
    building's energy consumption

25
  • Load Reduction Strategies
  • Control of ventilation rates
  • Night pre-cooling
  • Air-side cooling economizer cycle
  • Energy recovery strategies
  • Right-sizing fan systems ?match buildings
    actual flow requirements with right-sized,
    energy-efficient motors and belts
  • Improving control of fan systems
  • Variable speed drives ?match actual operating
    conditions

26
Standard 189.1P and Advanced Energy Design Guides
(AEDGs)
  • Prescriptive guidance for achieving 30, 50, and
    70 energy savings over the Code requirements of
    ASHRAE Standard 90.1

27
  • AEDG Energy Goals and Strategies
  • (ASHRAE, AIA, IESNA, USGBC DOE)
  • Reduce loads on energy-using systems
  • Size HVAC system equipment for reduced loads
  • Use the most efficient systems HVAC, O/A,
    fans, controls and proper air distribution
  • Refine integration of building systems

28
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29
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30
  • Typical AEDG 189.1P
  • HVAC Equipment and Systems Recommendations
  • Higher efficiency HVAC equipment air
    conditioners, furnaces and heat pumps
  • Motorized O/A damper control
  • Economizers application varies with climate
    zone
  • Demand-controlled ventilation (CO2 sensors)

31
  • Typical AEDG 189.1P
  • HVAC Equipment and Systems Recommendations
  • Lower duct friction rate (0.08 WC/100 ft)
  • Reduce interior ductwork leakage
  • Duct insulation R-6
  • Ductwork sealing Class B

32
Net-Zero-Energy Buildings
  • Conceptually, a building that has no adverse
    energy or environmental impact because of its
    operation.
  • Net-Zero Site Energy
  • Measured at buildings meter
  • Encourages energy-efficient building designs and
    operations

33
ASHRAEs Building Code Energy Use Index Targets
  • ASHRAE 90.1/189
  • 2010 36 kbtuh/ft2/yr
  • 2013 30
  • 2016 25
  • 2019 20
  • 2022 15
  • 2025 10
  • 2028 5
  • 2030 Net 0
  • Architecture 2030
  • 2010 36 kbtuh/ft2/yr
  • 2015 27
  • 2020 18
  • 2025 9
  • 2030 Net 0

34
NZEB and NREL
  • Assessment of the Technical Potential for
    Achieving Net-Zero-Energy Buildings in Commercial
    Sector
  • December 2007
  • With current technologies and design practices,
    62 of all U.S. commercial buildings could be
    Net-Nero-Energy.

35
NZEB and Beyond.
  • Countdown to a Sustainable Energy FutureNet-zero
    and Beyond
  • March 2931, 2009
  • Hyatt-Regency at Fishermans Wharf
  • San Francisco, CA

36
Indoor Air Quality ASHRAE Standard 62.1
37
ASHRAE Standard 62.1 IAQ Control Principles
  • Source Control
  • Reduction
  • Elimination
  • Ventilation
  • Dilution
  • Air Cleaning
  • Removal of contaminants

38
IAQ Strategies Common Today
  • Heat recovery ventilation
  • Demand controlled ventilation
  • Economizer operation
  • Enhanced particle filtration
  • Envelope tightness
  • OM
  • Commissioning and Retro-commissioning

39
More Complex IAQ Strategies
  • Natural and hybrid ventilation
  • Displacement ventilation
  • Decoupled ventilation (DOAS)
  • Task ventilation/occupant control
  • Local exhaust
  • Air cleaning and lower O/A rates (Ventilation
    Rate Procedure)

40
IAQ Strategies Optimization Functions
  • O/A Ventilation
  • Neutralize wind pressure _at_ intakes and exhausts
  • Dynamic control of fans per measurements
  • Use of hermetic dampers _at_ intake and exhaust
    points
  • O/A Economizer Cycles
  • Separate from non-economizer ventilation
  • Location of intakes for low enthalpy air

41
  • IAQ Strategies Optimization Functions
  • Exhaust Air Recovery
  • Optimize heat recovery zoning
  • Optimize sensible and latent recoveries
  • O/A Dehumidification
  • Improved efficiency of latent H/E
  • Proper air pre-conditioned equipment
  • O/A Contaminant Removal
  • Optimize equipment effectiveness, reliability and
    economy
  • O/A Protection/Safety (terrorism concerns)

42
LEED NC and IAQ
  • EQ Prerequisite
  • All sections of Standard 62.1 must be complied
    with
  • EQ Credit 1
  • CO2 ventilation monitor only for densely occupied
    spaces
  • Other spaces ? outdoor air flow measurement
    devices
  • EQ Credit 2
  • Increase ventilation rates 30 gt 62.1-2004

43
Comfort Occupant Performance ASHRAE Standard
55, High Performance Buildings Database and
Building Performance Metrics Protocols
  • Key Areas of Consideration
  • Indoor air quality and ventilation
  • Thermal comfort
  • Acoustics and noise
  • Lighting and day-lighting levels
  • Visual perception

44
  • Occupant Performance Considerations
  • Offices
  • Individual speed
  • Accuracy
  • Effectiveness
  • Creativity
  • Impairment and absenteeism
  • Commercial/Retail
  • Increased sales
  • Increased street traffic
  • Reduced vandalism shop-lifting

45
  • Occupant Performance Considerations
  • Schools/Educational Facilities
  • Increased test scores
  • Increased student information retention
  • Reduced absences
  • Healthcare Facilities
  • Shortened recovery periods
  • Increased personnel performance
  • Reduced personnel absences

46
  • Back to the Future
  • Building Performance Metrics and Protocols
  • (Priorities)
  • Energy consumption
  • IEQ
  • Lighting and daylighting
  • Water consumption
  • Acoustics/noise

47
  • Building Energy Labeling
  • Provide motivation for reducing energy use in
    commercial buildings by expressing the energy
    performance of buildings in a tangible way

48
Example Building Label in Europe
49
  • Back to the Future
  • Carbon Footprint Design Tools
  • Time-of-day utilities fuel sources
  • Accurate for specific locations
  • Interface with building load programs (design
    options/choices)
  • Web-based option
  • Tool for use in Carbon Trading activities

50
  • Back to the Future
  • Performance-Based Energy Benchmarks
  • Expansion of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix (G)
  • 198 buildings for 22 different building types in
    all U.S. climatic zones
  • Web-based baseline tool for LEED building rating
    calculations
  • ASHRAEs possible first step toward a
    performance-based energy conservation standard

51
  • Back to the Future
  • International High Performance Building Database
    Information (New Buildings)
  • Energy Utilization Indices (EUI)
  • IEQ
  • Lighting and daylighting
  • Water consumption/conservation
  • Occupant performance data
  • R/E data
  • Carbon emissions

52
  • Back to the Future
  • International High Performance Building Database
    Information (Existing Buildings)
  • Benchmarking Tool for Savings Potential
  • Incorporate 30 Years of ESCO Databases
  • Web-based, Global in Scope Regional Data for
    Different Building Profiles
  • Provides Savings Potentials (As-Is and Best-Case
    Scenarios per ECMs)

53
  • Back to the Future
  • Integrated Design Process and Building
    Information Modeling (BIM)/Interoperability
  • Advanced Energy Guides for Existing Buildings
    (ASHRAE, AIA, IESNA, USGBC, BOMA, GSA EPA)
  • (Target Audiences)
  • Business owners and decision-makers
  • Operation and maintenance personnel
  • Technicians/designers

54
  • Advanced Energy Guides for Existing Buildings
  • (4 Prescriptive Options)
  • Achieve EUI of comparable facilities
  • Achieve minimum 15 increase over comparable
    facilities EUIs
  • Achieve Code-level EUI for type of facility
  • Achieve 30 increase in energy efficiency over
    Code requirements

55
Global Energy Conservation Initiatives
  • Wal-Mart, Retail Energy Alliance (Costco, Target,
    Big Box retailers and grocery chains) and ASHRAE
    Collaboration
  • Clinton Climate Initiative and Energy Efficiency
    Building Retrofit Program
  • C40 cities
  • U.S. Conference of Mayors
  • ACUPCC
  • BOMA

56
Your Role, Your Duty and Your Responsibility
  • Your influence begins with you.....your
    family.your community.your country and.your
    world
  • What will you do today, tomorrow or next week
    that will make a difference? (Floyd Lee the
    Pegasus Chow Hall, Baghdad)

57
Challenges to AMCA
  • 1. Lead in Increasing Equipment Efficiencies vs
    Being Led by Government Regulations/Mandates.
  • Implement Cradle-to-Cradle Concept in
    Manufacturing/Recycling/Reuse of Materials
  • 3. Become a Stake-holder in Net-Zero Energy
    Buildings

58
Thank you for your time!
QUESTIONS?
This concludes the educational content of this
activity
Provider Terry E. Townsend, P.E.,
FASHRAE Website terry_at_townsend-engineering.com
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