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Chapter 9: ??? ???? ? ???? Realism and Naturalism in Literature

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Title: Chapter 9: ??? ???? ? ???? Realism and Naturalism in Literature


1
Chapter 9 ??? ???? ? ????Realism and Naturalism
in Literature
  • What is Realism?
  • Portrayal of life with fidelity (??????)
  • or
  • truthful representation of reality (??????)
  • Depiction (??) of subjects as they appear in
    everyday life,
  • without embellishment (??) or interpretation
    (??), and
  • without personal bias (??).
  • It is a mid-19th century movement following
    Romanticism.

2
II. What is Naturalism?
  • It is originally a philosophical term referring
    to materialism, Epicureanism (????), secularism
    (????), etc.
  • Later it becomes a belief that every existing
    thing is a part of nature and thus can be
    explained by natural and material causes.
  • It is an extreme form of Realism.
  • It is best explained in Zolas Le Roman
    expérimental (The Experimental Novel )
  • Today in the west, Naturalism is a literary
    movement/school hardly differentiated from
    Realism.

3
III. Similarities and Difference
between the Two Movements/Schools
  • ?
  • 1. Method inductive, observational, and hence
    objective (????????)
  • They want to observe and analyze a slice of
    life (???????) objectively.
  • 2. Implications
  • a. material determinism (?????)
  • b. all-inclusiveness of subject matter
    (????)
  • ?? heredity (??) environment (??)
  • ?? Nothing is unclean ??????
  • 3. Interest They are interested in
    contemporary (???), real life.
  • They want to write on the everyday, the
    normal, the observable,
  • the pragmatic (???), etc.
  • They do not want to write on the historical,
    the remote (???), the imaginary, the
  • fantastic, the idyllic (???), the
    idealistic, the unsullied (????), etc.
  • 4. Reaction against classicism, Romanticism,
    art for art sake
  • ? More than Realism, Naturalism is preoccupied
    with ugliness
    Naturalism ??? slums (???), poverty, disease,
    crime, sex, etc.

4
IV. Background of Realism/Naturalism
  • The invention of photography in 1839
  • Comtes application of scientific ideas to the
    study of society.
  • Taines application of deterministic (???)
    theories to literature
  • Darwins evolutionary (??) theories
  • English utilitarianism (????) Bentham and
    Mill
  • The realistic or naturalistic paintings of Courbet

5
Burial at Ornans by Courbet
6
V. Some Famous Sayings
  • A novel is a mirror walking along the road.
  • --Stendhal
  • My book is an analytical labor on two living
    bodies like that of a surgeon on corpses.
  • --Zola,
    Preface to Thérèse Raquin
  • To a chemist nothing on earth is unclean.
  • A writer must be as objective as a chemist
  • he must abandon the subjective line
  • he must know that dung heaps play a very
    respectable part in a
  • landscape, and that evil passions are as
    inherent in life as good
  • ones.
    --Chekhov
  • Even the most artful of writers will give
    himself (and his morality) away in about every
    third sentence.
  • --Conrad

7
VI. Two Orientations
  • Social realism
  • It emphasizes accuracy of external detail.
    (????)
  • It develops towards Marxism (?????).
  • 2. Psychological realism
  • It focuses on complexity of the inner
    workings of the mind. (??????????)
  • It develops towards the stream of
  • consciousness technique (???????).

8
VII. Representative Authors Works
  • France
  • Balzac (????) Père Goriot (???) in
    La Comèdie Humaine (90????)
  • Flaubert (????)
  • Madame Bovary (?????)
  • Dumas, fils (???)
  • The Lady of the Camellias
    (???)
  • Maupassant (???)
  • The Necklace (lt??gt)
  • Zola (??) Thérèse Raquin,
  • the Rougon-Macquart novels (20?)
  • Stendhal (????)
  • The Red and the Black (???)

9
Representative authors works
  • England
  • Dickens (???)
  • David Copperfield ?????,
  • Oliver Twist ???,
  • Hard Times ?????,
  • ATale of Two Cities ???
  • Thackeray (???) Vanity Fair (????)
  • George Eliot
  • Adam Bede ????,
  • Silas Marner ????,
  • The Mill on the Floss ????????
  • Hardy (??)
  • The Return of the Native, ??? Tess of
    the DUrbervilles ????, Jude the Obscure
  • Shaw (???) Pygmalion (?? My Fair Lady????)
  • Ireland
  • Joyce (???) The Dubliners????,???
    ? Clay (lt??gt)

10
Representative authors works
  • Russia
  • Gogol ??? The Cloak (lt??gt),
  • Turgenev ????
  • Fathers and Children (???)
  • Tolstoy ????
  • War and Peace (?????)
    Anna Kerenina (?? ????)
  • Dostoevsky ??? ????
    Crime and Punishment
    (???) The Brothers Karamazov
  • Gorky ??? The Lower Depths
  • Chekhov ???
  • The Cherry Orchard (???)
  • The Three Sisters
  • Germany
  • Hauptmann The Weavers

11
Representative authors works
  • Scandinavia ?? ? ??
  • Ibsen ??? A Dolls House (????),
    Hedda
    Gabler, Ghosts
  • Strindberg ???? Miss Julie (????)
  • America
  • Howells The Rise of Silas Lapham
  • Anderson Winesberg, Ohio (????)
  • Steinbeck The Grapes of Wrath (?????)
  • Dreiser Sister Carrie (????)
  • Mark Twain Tom Sawyer,
  • Huckleberry Finn (?????)
    Henry James The Portrait of a Lady,
    The Ambassadors,
  • Daisy Miller

12
VIII. Conclusion
  • There has been realism of all sorts since the
    year dot. (????????)
  • Realism is often hardly differentiated from
    naturalism. (?????????????)
  • Realism or naturalism is best expressed in the
    novel and the drama. (???????)
  • Realism or naturalism has spread from Europe to
    America and other parts of the world.
  • (??????????)
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