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CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM THROUGH EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT

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Title: CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM THROUGH EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT


1
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISMTHROUGH EFFICIENT
TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY MANAGEMENT
  • Mrinal K.Ghose, Ph.D, D.Sc.
  • Consultant Asian Development Bank in Vietnam
  • 113 Regent Estate , Kolkata -700092
  • ghosemrinal_at_lycos.com

2
  • 2007
  • Al Gore and the U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on
    Climate Change (Chairman Dr. Rajendra K.
    Pachauri) won the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize for
    efforts to spread knowledge about global warming.
  • The level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    reaches 390 parts per million.

Al Gore Dr Rajendra K. Pachauri , IPCC
3
Maldives Underwater Cabinet Meeting, 17 October,
2009
  • To conduct the "most widespread day of
    environmental action in the planet's history"
    with
  • rallies,
  • banners on the Easter Island states,
  • underwater demonstrations,
  • bike rides etc
  • Top NASA climate scientist James Hansen - says
    that we have very little time to reduce this
    number 390 ppm

4
Clean development mechanism
  • Clean development mechanism involves the
    sustainable production and the creation of
    energy using processes and systems that are
    nonpolluting.
  • Conservation involves economically efficient
    energy, which is safe to the workers , general
    communities and consumers.
  • Sustainable consumption is the selection , use
    and disposal of products and services in a way
    that conserves energy and materials
  • It minimizes the depletion of natural resources
    , avoids toxic and hazardous substances , and
    optimizes the quality of life of consumers
  • Like sustainable production , sustainable
    consumption involves meeting present needs
    without compromising the capacity of future
    generations
  • 4

5
Primary Energy Consumption vs. per capita Energy
consumption
12/10/2013
5
16TH CONVENTION OF INDIAN GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS,
FEB 2-4 2009
6
About of this lecture
  • This lecture begins with discussion of energy
    demand.
  • It continues with an explanation summarizing the
    mechanisms that are driving global climate
    change.
  • It also describes some key provisions of the
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
    Change and the Kyoto Protocol, aimed at curbing
    global warming.
  • The discussion then highlights the impact of
    climate change on energy sector and its
    engineering solutions like
  • Clean development mechanism through efficient
    technologies for sustainable energy management
  • 6

7
What sort of development ?
  • Curbing green house gas does not mean economic
    slow down.
  • A clean development mechanism (CDM) has been
    established under Article 12 of the Kyoto
    Protocol
  • A paradigm shift is essential towards energy
    production with lower environmental impacts
    across their life cycle.
  • By 2015, China and India will account for 25 of
    world economy.
  • The question is what sort of development is to be
    ensured ?
  • Challenge lies in de-linking economic growth and
    environmental degradation.
  • 7

8
Energy demand
  • Of the total energy consumption , an estimated
    35 is obtained from traditional sources such as
    fuel wood, agricultural waste, animal dung etc.
  • Other 65, termed as commercial energy, is
    obtained from coal, oil, gas hydel, nuclear and
    renewable sources .
  • The share of various energy sources in the
    primary commercial energy consumption of the
    country is coal and lignite.
  • These are mostly used in power stations (75),
    steel plants (6.2), cement plants (3.6), other
    industries and brick making plants (15.2).
  • Petroleum and natural gas are mostly used for the
    transportation sector
  • There is a great demand and supply gap of energy
    in the country, which is widening every year .
  • 8

9
Growing energy demand
  • Coal enjoys the main primary energy source status
    in Asia Pacific, which comprises the largest
    population
  • The reserve-to-production (R/P) ratio in respect
    of major regions of the globe describes the life
    of different fossil fuels on earth
  • The fact remains that oil and gas have limited
    reserves to last 41 and 67 years respectively at
    current production level.
  • In contrast, world has a coal reserve to last 190
    years at the current production level.
  • It follows that due to limited oil and gas
    resources, countries allover the world will have
    to depend on coal in foreseeable future for their
    primary energy requirement.
  • 9

10
Order of Magnitude of Energy Resources
11
Global Oil Production
                                                  
                                                  
                                   
12
Survey of Energy Resources Oil
15
91
15
91
11
11
19
19
Europe
Europe
North America
North America
Asia
Asia
34
34
42
42
Middle East
Middle East
Africa
Africa
9
9
South America
South America
Oceania
Oceania
RESERVES 148 Gt
PRODUCTION 3.5 Gt/year
CONSUMPTION 3.5 Gt/year
R/P RATIO 41.2 years
RESERVES 148 Gt
PRODUCTION 3.5 Gt/year
CONSUMPTION 3.5 Gt/year
R/P RATIO 41.2 years
13
Total world proven oil reserves (2005) 1.2
trillion barrels
14
Survey of Energy Resources Natural Gas
56
gt100
40
9
Europe
North America
Asia
70
57
Middle East
Africa
29
South America
Oceania
RESERVES 171 tcm
PRODUCTION 2.6 tcm/year
CONSUMPTION 2.6 tcm/year
R/P RATIO 59.8 years
15
Survey of Energy Resources Coal
255
247
258
Europe
North America
Asia
50
0.4
20
Middle East
79
Africa
South America
Oceania
RESERVES 909 Gt
PRODUCTION 4.8 Gt/year
CONSUMPTION 4.8 Gt/year
16
Major Comments
  • R/P ratio for fossil fuels
  • Oil 40 years
  • Natural Gas 60 years
  • Coal 200 years
  • Uneven distribution of strategic resources around
    the world
  • Consumption areas do not all coincide with
    production areas.
  • New oil discoveries have not been forthcoming
    around the globe.
  • No shortage of global energy resources

17
Emission of CO2from different countries
18
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19
PETRO-DIESEL CO2 CYCLE
13 pounds of fossil CO2 released per gallon
burned
Fossil CO2 Release to Atmosphere
Refining
Exploration
20
CO2 Emissions and Projections
Source- From E. Macchi, Politechnico di Milano
27.12.2008
NESA XXI Annual Conference
21
(No Transcript)
22
Atmosphere
Vegetation
Global cycle
Soil
Fossil Fuel
Ocean
23
(No Transcript)
24
CLIMATE CHANGE
  • Is it real?
  • How do we know?
  • Why should we care?
  • How sure are scientists?
  • What nextwhat can we do?

25
Arctic and Antarctic aquatic ecosystems are
going to be depleted
This depletion will exacerbate the effects of
climate change
26
Dangerous Tipping PointsMelting of the
Greenland Ice Sheet
This would commit the world to a 20 foot increase
in sea level.
27
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28
CHANGES IN WIND PATTERN Warming of the oceans
will increase the frequency of storms and
hurricanes.
29
Draught
30
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31
(No Transcript)
32
Coal as the prime energy source
  • Globally, the coal accounts for 26 of the
    primary energy consumption, whereas in India, it
    has a share of 46.
  • In respect of generation of power, the share of
    coal on global basis is 36 and in Indian context
    it is 65
  • Growth of Indian economy would lead
    automatically to growth in energy consumption.
  • The World Energy Outlook forecasts that India
    would face high demand of energy in future and
    coal alone will meet its needs.
  • 32

33
Why India Should take part? Electricity
Generation World and India
Renewables 7.7
Nuclear 2.8
Hydro 25.3
Coal 57.7
Oil N. Gas 7.0
India
World
27.12.2008
NESA XXI Annual Conference
34
The share of various energy sources
  • Coal and lignite 56 Petroleum 32 Natural gas,
    8 Hydel 3 and Nuclear and renewable 1.
  • Coal and lignite are mostly used in power
    stations (75), steel plants (6.2), cement
    plants (3.6), and other industries and brick
    making plants (15.2).
  • Of the installed generating capacity , major
    share was thermal (71), followed by hydel (25)
    and the remaining 4 on nuclear and renewable.
  • The demand for the coal by the power sector was
    317 Mt in 2006-07 and it would be 469Mt in
    2011-12 .
  • Therefore, there is need to bring about quantum
    jump in domestic coal production so that plenty
    of coal is available for domestic consumption
  • 34

35
Commercial Energy Mix Indian Scenario (Source
Integrated Energy Policy Report, Planning
commission of India)
12/10/2013
35
16TH CONVENTION OF INDIAN GEOLOGICAL CONGRESS,
FEB 2-4 2009
36
Concern over global warming
  • The average surface temperature is maintained
    relatively comfortable 150C because of an
    atmospheric greenhouse effect
  • CO2 reabsorb much of the outgoing radiation and
    reradiate about half of it back to the surface.
  • Were this not the case , the surface temperature
    would be around 180C
  • It has become quite concerned about the
    possibility of significant changes in global
    climate
  • Most models predict global warming at least
    3-5.50C occurring over a period of just few
    decades
  • Such warming have profound effects on rainfall,
    plant growth, and sea levels, which might rise as
    much as much as 0.5-1.5 meters.
  • Severe draught conditions resulting from climatic
    warming could cut down substantially on CO2
    uptake by plants.
  • 36

37
Impact of climate change
  • Warmer conditions will would accelerate release
    of both CO2 and CH4 by microbiological
    biodegradation of organic matter
  • The plant and animal pests-insects, and rodents
    would thrive much better in warmer conditions..
  • Interestingly, acid-rain forming SO2 may have a
    counteracting effect on greenhouse gases .
  • The consequences of such an increase in average
    global temperatures within 100 years would be
    disastrous.
  • The IPCC estimates a sea level rise of 65 cm by
    the year 2100 putting millions of people and
    million square kilometers of land at risk of
    submergence.
  • Stretches of low lying areas will submerge and
    about sixty odd island countries shall face deep
    encroachment by sea water and some may disappear.
  • Changes in surface temperatures have profound
    effects on the water cycle and regional
    precipitation, evaporation and storm patterns.
  • 37

38
Kyoto Protocol
  • Kyoto Protocol of 1997 has brought to the surface
    a sharp differences in approach to the problem
    amongst major industrialized countries.
  • U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change
    (UNFCCC) was adopted in New York in May 1992 and
    signed at the Rio Summit in June 1992.
  • India ratified the UNFCCC in November 1993, and
    after ratification by sufficient number of
    countries, the convention came into force from
    21st March 1994
  • The main objective of UNFCCC is stabilization of
    greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations
  • UNFCCC established a Conference of Parties (CoP)
    as the supreme body of the convention
  • At the first CoP meeting, the developed country
    parties agreed to start negotiations to arrive at
    quantitative CO2 emission ceilings within
    specified time frames of 10-15 or 20 years.
  • 38

39
Conflicts over Kyoto Protocol
  • The per capita CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use
    in China and India, are much lower at 2.76 and
    1.16 tonnes compared to the world average per
    capita value of 3.9 tonnes .
  • The Kyoto Protocol was negotiated at the 3rd CoP
    meeting in 1997and has come into force on 16th
    February, 2005.
  • USA accounting for 24 per cent of the global
    emissions from fossil fuel use and with a per
    capita value of 20.1 tonnes has not yet ratified
    the Kyoto Protocol
  • USA has refused to ratify the Kyoto Protocol
    citing that China and India, have been left out
    of the requirement
  • The Protocol sets binding obligations on the
    industrialized developed countries to reduce
    their GHG emissions by at least 5 per cent below
    1990 levels by the year 2012.
  • 39

40
GHG emission reduction
  • Enhancement of efficiency in production,
    distribution and consumption of energy.
  • Development of renewable energy sources.
  • Protection and enhancement of sinks of GHGs and
    sequestration of CO2 in coal seams and
    underground geological formations including oil
    and gas reserves.
  • Emissions trading, joint implementation and
    clean development mechanism.
  • A clean development mechanism (CDM) has been
    established under Article 12 of the Kyoto
    Protocol through which joint implementation
    between developed and developing countries of GHG
    mitigation projects in developing countries would
    occur.
  • Imposition of tax on fossil fuel use, provision
    of tax credit for energy efficient vehicles and
    equipment, incentives for switching over to
    renewable energy sources etc.
  • 40

41
Carbon emission
  • Coal India Limited has prepared a 'Coal Vision
    2025 that shows coal demand will increase from
    460 Mt in 2006-07 to 1147 Mt in 2024-25 and over
    71 of this demand would be for power generation.
  • The CO2 emission from India is likely to go up
    at a rate of 5 to 6 percent in this scenario and
    is a matter of great concern to the
    environmentalists throughout the world.
  • For reduction of CO2 emission the following CDM
    are proposed
  • 41

42
Mine technology
  • Employing high capacity equipment will need to be
    used for higher productivity
  • The obsolete equipment would be replaced by
    higher capacity state- of- the art technology
    equipment to reduce operating costs.
  • Full Maintenance contracts with OEMs to ensure
    higher availability and low downtime of
    equipment.
  • The operations must be directed and controlled by
    the G PS based networked software system.
  • All such actions for improving effectiveness of
    opencast technology need to be guided by the
    international benchmarks.
  • The present mix of manual, semi-mechanized and
    mechanized u/g mines needs to change in favor of
    100 mechanized mines .
  • Technologies such as powered support long wall
    continuous miners must be explored where geo-
    technical characteristics permit so.
  • 42

43
Coal bed methane (CBM) Co-benefits
  • The CBM industry is basically an outgrowth of
    petroleum industry.
  • Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas, as its
    adverse impacts are felt more intensely due to
    its shorter residence and higher potency in the
    atmosphere than carbon dioxide.
  • Methane is associated with coal as a byproduct
    of the coal formation process.
  • It is trapped in coal beds and released during
    and after mining.
  • This methane does cause disasters in underground
    coalmines.
  • If effectively recovered, coal bed methane
    associated with coal reserves and emitted during
    coal mining could be a significant potential
    source of energy.
  • It is well known that coal is formed due to bio
    conversion of fossilized organic matter,
  • In the process of coal formation, anaerobic
    conditions led to generation and trapping of
    methane in this coal seams.
  • The pressure exerted by naturally formed water
    keeps the methane" absorbed" on internal surfaces
    of coal.
  • 43

44
Underground coal gasification --a neglected
option in India
  • There is an urgent need to explore  alternative
    methods for commercial extraction of those coal
    resources
  • One solution is  underground coal gasification
    (UCG). 
  • This is a viable means to exploit the deep
    seated, remotely located and uneconomical coal
    resources with lower cost. 
  • UCG also has the potential to work offshore coal
    reserves where traditional mining methods are
    inapplicable.
  • UCG employs a series of wells to convert in situ
    coal into product gas (syn gas), thus eliminating
    the expense of mining and reclamation.
  • The technology is based on the management of
    underground gasifiers without making mines.
  • 44

45
Clean coal technologies
  • Clean coal technologies have been put in four
    main categories
  • (i) Pre-combustion clean coal technologies
    include beneficiation of coal, desulfurisation of
    coal, blending or homogenization of coal.
  • (ii) During-combustion clean coal technologies
    are fluidized bed combustion, staged combustion,
    low NOx burners, boiler tuning for efficient and
    optimized combustion, super critical and ultra
    super critical boilers
  • (iii) Post-combustion clean coal technologies
    involve flue gas desulfurisation (FGD), flue gas
    denitrogenation, catalytic reduction of NOx,
    plasma reduction or selective catalytic reduction
  • (iv) Advanced clean coal technologies are
    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC)
    power generation,
  • 45

46
Power plant optimization
  • Power plant performance improvement component is
    to support and prepare public and private power
    plant operators
  • Main emphasis is to be given to energy
    performance assessment, education, training and
    awareness building
  • Energy efficient technologies, followed by
    enhanced investment in energy efficient
    industrial plant technologies
  • Increased competitiveness of industry and
    commerce through reduction of energy cost.
  • 46

47
Conclusion
  • There is an urgent need to adopt CDM in Mining
    Technology and clean coal technology for meeting
    the energy security
  • The use of ultra clean coal in gas turbines
    directly will enhance efficiency of power
    generation to 52-55 from the existing efficiency
    of pulverized coal power generation of 30-38
  • There is an urgent need for power plant
    optimization by using the least amount of energy
    to provide services and coming down energy losses
  • In the field of energy production, the choice
    should be made to adopt less emission producing
    and more energy efficient technologies such as
    carbon sequestration, integrated gasification
    combined cycle, fuel cell etc.
  • Clean development mechanisms proposed here can
    meet the energy security in a sustainable
    manner.
  • 47

48
Climate Change
  • Climate change poses a great challenge to our
    development prospects....we need global
    response, a national response and a local
    response
  • -------Hon. Dr. Manmohan Singh
  • Prime Minister of India

27.12.2008
NESA XXI Annual Conference
49
  • The most beautiful thing
  • Is to see a person smiling
  • Even more beautiful
  • Is knowing that you are the reason behind it.
  • Be a reason for others to SMILE

50
PROTECT OUR PLANET EARTH
51
Thank you for your kind attention!!
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