IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13) Safety and security in the transport of radioactive materials - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13) Safety and security in the transport of radioactive materials PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 49a631-NDNjN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13) Safety and security in the transport of radioactive materials

Description:

IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13) Safety and security in the transport of radioactive materials 13th International Radiation Protection Association Congress – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:362
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 74
Provided by: gary1161
Learn more at: http://www.s281354445.websitehome.co.uk
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13) Safety and security in the transport of radioactive materials


1
IRPA13 Refresher Course (RC13)Safety and
security in the transport of radioactive materials
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress Glasgow, 16 May 2012
  • Stephen Whittingham
  • Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR)

2
  • The following slides are intended to illustrate
    some of the main regulatory requirements for the
    various package types and material
    classifications cited in the transport
    regulations. Some regulatory aspects have not
    been covered to meet the time limitation
    allocated for the presentation.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
3
Transport model to deliver societal needs of RAM
Delivery of societal benefits (B)
Transport of radioactive material
Societal needs (A)
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
4
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What, how much, who and societal needs
  • The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • Transport of radioactive material
  • Material and package types
  • Denial of shipments
  • Future trends and challenges

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
5
Introduction
  • What is radioactive material used for
  • In health care - diagnosis and treatment of
    cancer, heart disease and organ failure. Eighty
    percent of surgical gloves and nearly 50 of
    disposable medical devices are sterilized using
    radioactive materials.
  • In industry - non-destructive testing and
    measurement in the mechanical and civil
    engineering sectors, production of plastics,
    detergents and semiconductors
  • In our homes and work places, smoke detectors and
    energy saving lights often contain small
    quantities of radioactive material. Some foods,
    packagings and the sterilisation of the natural
    ingredients in cosmetics and medicines
  • In the environment - control of disease carrying
    insects. The removal of pests in food and other
    goods, thus reducing the use of fumigation that
    is both toxic and harmful to the ozone layer
  • Civil nuclear power generation programmes

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
6
Introduction
  • What is radioactive material used for
  • Mobile phones computers and mobile phones
    contain electronic components made of tantalum
    metal.
  • Tantalum is not radioactive, but most of the
    minerals from which it is extracted are. These
    minerals have to be transported to processing
    facilities and in most cases have to be declared
    as radioactive materials. Besides electronics,
    tantalum is used to create advanced materials for
    aircraft engines and medical implants.
  • Cobalt-60 is used for treating cancer and is
    involved in some 45,000 treatments/day in more
    than 50 countries around the world
  • Nearly 50 of all single-use medical disposable
    products including gloves, sutures, needles and
    dressings are sterilized using Co60

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
7
Introduction
  • How much radioactive material is transported
  • Several millions of shipments of radioactive
    material occur each year, much less than 5 by
    the nuclear industry
  • Commercial shipping (eg larger sources, bulk
    material Uranium ores, etc)
  • Transport by air (short half-life material
    Radiopharmaceuticals)
  • Almost, if not all, by road
  • Small percentage by rail

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
8
Introduction
  • Who is involved
  • Everyone has a contribution to make to support
    the safe, secure, efficient, effective and
    reliable transport of radioactive material
  • Previous work for the IAEA identified 44
    stakeholder groups for the transport of
    radioactive material
  • Each can have an adverse effect upon delivery,
  • All have the capability to stop transport
  • Negative perceptions need to be addressed to
    provide the necessary reliable transport
    capabilities

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
9
Introduction
  • Who is involved

OTHER GROUPS
Trade unions
Local council
Regional / canton officials
Stakeholder groups
RPA, RPS
DGSA
Trade associations
Training providers
Media
General public
Shipping agents
Local stakeholder groups (mainly nuclear sites)
NGO's
Politicians
Ship owner
End user (eg healthcare patients)
OTHER AUTHORITIES
Airport authorities
Port authorities
Rail authorities
Tunnel authorities
EMERGENCY SERVICES
Police
Fire
Ambulance
Coastguard
TRANSPORT WORKERS
Conveyance. loaders/unloaders
Distribution depot staff
Freight forwarders
Cargo handlers
Consignee
DUTY HOLDERS
Package designer
Packer/filler
Consignor
Carrier
Driver
Dockside/airside loaders
Packaging manufacturer
REGULATORS
Environment
Transport (Road, Rail, Sea, Air)
Security
OTHER GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS
Customs
Border officials
Employees
Embassy officials
Department for Health
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
10
Introduction
  • The importance of information to change
    perceptions
  • People need to be informed in an attempt to
    improve perceptions of risk and allay fears
  • There is a comprehensive international and
    national regulatory requirements and safety and
    security regulator infrastructures to oversee
    compliance, technically assess package designs
    and transport operations and issue authorisations
    relating to the the design, manufacture, use,
    maintenance and repair of transport packages
  • It is also important to provide information
    concerning the scope of applications for
    radioactive material and its vital use in medical
    healthcare programmes now and in the future

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
11
Cancer statistics of developing countries
Societal needs an example
  • 4 million of the 6 million deaths due to cancer
    in the year 2000 occurred in developing countries
    lacking radiotherapy machines, in fact some parts
    of Africa and Asia do not carry out any diagnosis
  • 80 of cervical cancers occur in Africa, Asia and
    South America with some 225,000 deaths recorded
    each year according to 2003 reports
  • 1 million new cancers are diagnosed each year in
    India
  • 15 African nations and several countries do not
    have one radiotherapy machine
  • 50 60 of cancer victims would benefit from
    radiotherapy
  • Globally, deaths from cancer is expected to rise
    from 6 million in 2000, to 9 million in 2015,
    to 12 million in 2030
  • The number of shipments will need to increase to
    meet the demands of health programmes involving
    many more Member States we will need to deliver
    the material and remove it at the end of its
    operational life

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
12
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What, how much, who and societal needs
  • The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • Transport of radioactive material
  • Material and package types
  • Denial of shipments
  • Future trends and challenges

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
13
The international regulatory framework
  • Definition of transport (SSR6 para 106)
  • Transport comprises all operations and conditions
    associated with, and involved in, the movement of
    radioactive material these include the design,
    manufacture, maintenance and repair of packaging,
    and the preparation, consigning, loading,
    carriage including in-transit storage, unloading
    and receipt at the final destination of loads of
    radioactive material and packages.
  • Regulatory approach (SSR6 para 106)
  • A graded approach is applied in specifying the
    performance standards which are characterized in
    terms of three general severity levels
  • (a) Routine conditions of transport (incident
    free)
  • (b) Normal conditions of transport (minor
    mishaps)
  • (c) Accident conditions of transport.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
14
The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • In 1961 the IAEA created its first set of
    Transport Regulations for radioactive material
    (RAM)
  • The 2012 edition, SSR6, will signify 50 years of
    the IAEA successfully managing their continued
    development
  • We should recognise the importance of the IAEA
    approach to manage its work - it has created a
    robust transport safety and security culture in
    many governments, institutions and industries
    throughout the world
  • SSR6, in its current form TS-R-1, forms the basis
    of transport regulations for RAM in all IAEA
    Member States (through the UN Model Regulations)
  • Some Member States adopt TS-R-1 directly
  • This will continue with SSR6 (2012)

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
15
The international regulatory framework - safety
IAEA TS-G-1.1
Advisory Material
Emergency response
IAEA TS-G-1.2
Radiation protection programmes
IAEA TS-G-1.3
IAEA GSR Part 3
Management System
IAEA TS-G-1.4
Compliance assurance
IAEA TS-G-1.5
Radiation protection and the safety of radiation
sources
Schedules
IAEA TS-G-1.6
SSR 6 (2012)
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
16
The international regulatory framework - safety
  • Overview of regulatory framework (TS-R-1) SSR6
  • Prescriptive requirements - revised on biennial
    basis
  • Supported by Advisory Material aids consistent
    interpretation
  • Global, multi-modal but not mandatory
  • All 137 IAEA member countries can participate
  • Transposed into UN Model Regulations
  • Text does not look like UN or modal texts
  • No guidance for UN or modal provisions, so legal
    texts need to address everything
  • Modes take Class 7 provisions from UN, not from
    SSR6
  • Few UN national delegations include Class 7
    experts

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
17
The international regulatory framework - safety
  • Overview of regulatory framework UN Model
    Regulations
  • UNITED NATIONS SUB-COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON THE
    TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS
  • A body established by ECOSOC (UN Economic and
    Social Council) in 1957

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
18
The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework UN Model
    Regulations
  • Was originally the UN Committee of Experts on the
    Transport of Dangerous Goods
  • Now a sub-committee of UN Committee of Experts on
    the Transport of Dangerous Goods and on the
    Globally Harmonized System of Classification and
    Labelling of Chemicals
  • Originally consisted of experts drawn from
    countries with demonstrable expertise and
    interest in the transport of dangerous goods

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
19
The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework UN Model
    Regulations
  • Draws up non-mandatory Recommendations on the
    Transport of Dangerous Goods for all modes of
    transport throughout the world
  • Written in the form of Model Regulations
  • for international and national legislation
  • Known as the Orange Book

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
20
The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework UN Model
    Regulations
  • Makes decisions by simple majority voting - not
    by consensus
  • Currently 27 voting countries, increasing
    geographical representation but European
    dominated
  • Non-voting countries and inter-governmental
    organisations can attend as observers
  • International trade associations in UN
    consultative status may also attend
  • Currently working on the 18th. revised edition
    taking effect from 1 January 2013
  • Works on 2 year revision cycle
  • Meets in Palais des Nations in Geneva each June
    and December
  • Ad hoc Working Groups meet (inter-session) if
    required

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
21
The international regulatory framework - safety
IAEA TS-G-1.1
Advisory Material
IAEA GSR Part 3
Emergency response
IAEA TS-G-1.2
Radiation protection programmes
IAEA TS-G-1.3
Radiation protection and the safety of radiation
sources
Management System
IAEA TS-G-1.4
SSR 6 (2012)
Compliance assurance
IAEA TS-G-1.5
Schedules
IAEA TS-G-1.6
UN Recommendations on the Carriage of Dangerous
Goods Model Regulations
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
22
The international regulatory framework - safety
All 9 Dangerous Goods Classes - All modes
Class 7 - All modes
Road, Rail and Inland Waterway
Air
Sea
20th April 2012
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
23
The international regulatory framework - safety
National regulations Modal Regulations UN
Model Regulations IAEA SSR6 (2012)
State variations
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
24
The international regulatory framework - security

IAEA Recommendations on the Physical Protection
of Nuclear Material and Nuclear
Facilities INFCIRC/225/Rev.5 IAEA Nuclear
Security Series 13
IAEA Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear
Material INFCIRC/274/Rev.1
IAEA Code of Conduct for the Safety and Security
of Radioactive Sources
IAEA Security in the Transport of Radioactive
Material IAEA Nuclear Security Series 9
IAEA Guidance and Considerations for the
Implementation of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 IAEA
TECDOC-967 (Rev.1)
IAEA Guidance on the Import and Export of
Radioactive Sources
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
25
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What, how much, who and societal needs
  • The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • Transport of radioactive material
  • Material and package types
  • Future trends and challenges

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
26
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • The paragraphs and tables throughout the document
    have been renumbered to reflect the changes made
  • SSR6 - Definitions
  • New paragraph 107 (d) - Radioactive material in
    or on a person who is to be transported for
    medical treatment because the person has been
    subject to accidental or deliberate intake of
    radioactive material or to contamination
  • Definition of Design (paragraph 220) extended
    to include fissile material excepted under
    paragraph 417 (f)
  • Definition of Exclusive use (paragraph 221)
    extended to include and shipment

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
27
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Definitions
  • Definition of Fissile nuclides and fissile
    material (paragraph 222) exclusions from
    definition of fissile material extended from
    existing (a) and (b) to include
  • (c) Material with fissile nuclides less than a
    total of 0.25g
  • (d) Any combination of (a), (b) and/or (c).
  • These exclusions are only valid if there is no
    other material with fissile nuclides in the
    package or in the consignment if shipped
    unpackaged.
  • Definition of Freight container (paragraph 223)
    extended to include of a permanent character
    and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for
    repeated use specially

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
28
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Definitions
  • Definition of Management system (paragraph 228)
    added - Management system shall mean a set of
    interrelated or interacting elements (system) for
    establishing policies and objectives and enabling
    the objectives to be achieved in an efficient and
    effective manner.
  • SSR6 - Duties of manufacturer and consignor
  • The requirements of paragraph 306 placed on a
    manufacturer, consignor or user have been
    replaced by
  • (a) To provide facilities for inspection during
    manufacture and use
  • (b) To demonstrate compliance with these
    Regulations to the competent authority.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
29
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 non-compliance radiation level or
    contamination
  • In the event of non-compliance with any
    regulatory limit applicable to radiation level or
    contamination (paragraph 309(a)), those to be
    notified have been extended to The consignor,
    carrier and any organization involved during
    transport, who may be affected as appropriate
  • UN Numbers
  • Table 1 extended to include - UN3xxx RADIOACTIVE
    MATERIAL, EXCEPTED PACKAGE - URANIUM
    HEXAFLUORIDE, less than 0.1 kg per package,
    non-fissile or fissile-excepted

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
30
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 Basic radionuclide values
  • Basic radionuclide values not listed in Table 2
    (paragraph 403) has been rewritten to reference
    the BSS principles for activity concentrations
    for exempt material and activity limits for
    exempt consignments
  • IAEA Radiation protection and safety of
    radiation sources International Basic
    Safety Standards GSR Part 3
  • Use of the GSR Part 3 principles will require
    multilateral approval

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
31
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Fissile material exceptions
  • Fissile material and packages containing fissile
    material exceptions (paragraph 417) has been
    rewritten
  • existing sub-paragraph (c) and (d) now (a) and
    (b)
  • (c) Uranium with a maximum uranium enrichment of
    5 by mass uranium-235 provided
  • There is no more than 3.5 g of uranium-235 per
    package.
  • The total plutonium and uranium-233 content does
    not exceed 1 of the mass of uranium-235 per
    package
  • Transport of the package is subject to the
    consignment limit provided in paragraph 570(c).
    (c) U Hex samples

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
32
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Fissile material exceptions
  • (d) Fissile nuclides with a total mass not
    greater than 2.0 g per package provided the
    package is transported subject to the consignment
    limit provided in of paragraph 570(d)
  • (e) Fissile nuclides with a total mass not
    greater than 45 g either packaged or unpackaged
    subject to limits provided in paragraph 570(e)
    (c) U Hex samples
  • (f) A fissile material that meets the
    requirements of paragraphs 570(b), 606 and 802.
    CA approved fissile exceptions
  • Table 4 (Consignment mass limits for exceptions
    from requirements for packages containing fissile
    material) has been deleted

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
33
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Fissile material exceptions
  • Fissile material exceptions (paragraph 570)
    added
  • Fissile material meeting one of the provisions
    (a)-(f) of para. 417 shall meet the following
    requirements
  • Only one of the provisions (a)-(f) of para. 417
    is allowed per consignment.
  • Only one approved fissile material (para 417(f))
    in packages is allowed per consignment unless
    multiple materials are authorized in the
    certificate of approval.
  • Fissile material in packages (para 417 (c)) shall
    be transported in a consignment with no more than
    45 g of fissile nuclides.
  • Fissile material in packages (para 417(d)) shall
    be transported in a consignment with no more than
    15 g of fissile nuclides.
  • Unpackaged or packaged fissile material (para.
    417(e)) shall be transported under exclusive use
    on a conveyance with no more than 45 g of fissile
    nuclides.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
34
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 Fissile material exceptions
  • Requirements for material excepted from fissile
    classification (paragraph 606) added
  • A fissile material excepted from classification
    as FISSILE under para. 417(f) shall be
    subcritical without the need for accumulation
    control under the following conditions
  • (a) The conditions of paragraph 673(a)
  • (b) The conditions consistent with the assessment
    provisions stated in paragraphs 684(b) and 685(b)
    for packages
  • (c) The cconditions specified in para. 683(a),
    if transported by air.
  • Guidance document will be issued in the next 12
    months

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
35
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 Radiation shielding of a package under
    routine conditions (paragraph 617) added
  • A package shall be so designed that it provides
    sufficient shielding to ensure that, under
    routine conditions of transport and with the
    maximum radioactive contents that the package is
    designed to contain, the radiation level at any
    point on the external surface of the package
    would not exceed
  • 5 µSv/h on the external surface of an excepted
    package
  • 2 mSv/h (not under exclusive use, limit for
    transport by air)
  • 10 mSv/h at surface of package or overpack (under
    exclusive use) with
  • 2 mSv/h at any of the outer surfaces of the
    vehicle, and
  • 0.1 mSv/h at any point 2m from the vertical
    planes represented by the outer lateral surfaces
    of the vehicle

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
36
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 General Package Designs (paragraph 674)
    added
  • Packages NOT surviving normal condition tests
    (NCT)
  • CSI 50 x 5 x Fissile Mass Appropriate U value
    from Table 13 or 280g Pu
  • Maximum CSI 10
  • Packages surviving NCT 30cm minimum dimension
  • CSI 50 x 2 x Fissile Mass Appropriate U value
    from Table 13 or 280g Pu
  • Maximum CSI 10
  • Packages surviving NCT but not 30cm minimum
    dimension
  • CSI 50 x 2 x Fissile Mass U(100) value from
    Table 13 or 280g Pu
  • Maximum 15g per package
  • Packages can be transported as any other fissile
    package (not fissile exception) CSI label and
    fissile UN number label but CA approval not
    required

37
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Marking
  • Paragraph 423(b)(iii) added Other instruments
    or articles too small to bear the marking
    RADIOACTIVE do not require markings, provided
    that they are transported in a package that bears
    the marking RADIOACTIVE on its internal surface
    in such a manner that a warning of the presence
    of radioactive material is visible on opening the
    package.
  • Marking (paragraph 531) extended to include
    overpacks
  • Each overpack shall be legibly and durably
    marked on the outside of the overpack with an
    identification of either the consignor or
    consignee, or both unless these markings of all
    the packages within the overpack are clearly
    visible.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
38
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 Requirements for first and subsequent
    shipments of packages
  • Requirements before first shipment (paragraph
    501) now requires confirmation that -
  • it has been manufactured in conformity with
    the design specifications to ensure compliance
    with the relevant provisions of these Regulations
    and any applicable certificate of approval.
  • New requirement before each shipment (paragraph
    502)
  • Before each shipment of any package, it shall be
    ensured that the package contains neither
  • (a) Radionuclides different from those specified
    for the package design nor
  • (b) Contents in a form, or physical or chemical
    state different from those specified for the
    package design.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
39
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Documentation
  • Particulars of consignment (paragraph 546 (d))
    added
  • (d) The subsidiary hazard class or division
    number(s) corresponding to the subsidiary risk
    label(s) required to be applied, when assigned,
    shall be entered following the primary hazard
    class or division and shall be enclosed in
    parenthesis.
  • Retention of transport documents (paragraph 555)
    added
  • The consignor shall retain a copy of each of the
    transport documents for a minimum period of
    three months. When the documents are kept
    electronically the consignor shall be able to
    reproduce them in a printed form.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
40
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Documentation
  • Availability and retention of transport documents
    by carriers (paragraphs 584 - 588) added
  • A carrier shall not accept a consignment for
    transport unless
  • - A copy of the transport document and other
    documents or information as required are
    provided, either paper or electronic form
  • - The information applicable to the consignment
    shall accompany the consignment to final
    destination, . This information shall be given
    to the consignee when the consignment is
    delivered.
  • - When the information applicable to the
    consignment is given to the carrier in electronic
    form, the information shall be available to the
    carrier at all times during transport to final
    destination. The information shall be able to be
    produced without delay as a paper document.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
41
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 - Documentation
  • Availability and retention of transport documents
    by carriers (paragraphs 584 - 588) added
  • - A carrier shall retain a copy of the transport
    document and additional information for a minimum
    period of 3 months
  • - When the documents are kept electronically or
    in a computer system, the carrier shall be
    capable of reproducing them in a printed form.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
42
SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • SSR6 Fissile material
  • Paragraph 501(d) reworded - each packaging
    intended to contain fissile material, it shall be
    ensured that the effectiveness of the criticality
    safety features is within the limits applicable
    to or specified for the design,
  • Requirements relating to transport and storage in
    transit of fissile material extended (paragraph
    570) to include -
  • Fissile material meeting one of the provisions
    (a)-(f) of paragraph 417 shall meet the following
    requirements
  • Only one of the provisions (a)-(f) of paragraph
    417 is allowed per consignment.
  • Only one approved fissile material in packages
    classified in accordance with paragraph 417(f) is
    allowed per consignment unless multiple materials
    are authorized in the certificate of approval.
  • Fissile material in packages classified in
    accordance with paragraph 417(c) shall be
    transported in a consignment with no more than 45
    g of fissile nuclides.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
43
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What, how much, who and societal needs
  • The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • Transport of radioactive material
  • Material and package types
  • Future trends and challenges

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
44
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Activity Limits Packaging Type
    Accumulation of Packages
  • and Classification and Consignment
    Limits
  • Activity Content (Bq) Package Type Limits
    TI / CSI
  • Activity Concentration (Bq/g) Package
    Requirements Dose rates
  • Solid, Liquid or gas Package Certification
    - unshielded (3m)
  • Radionuclide(s) - surface
  • Activity Content (A1, A2) - 1 m / 2m
  • Radiometric survey
    Temperature
  • Special Form
    Contamination
  • I-White, II III Yellow

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
45
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Objectives of IAEA SSR6
  • To establish requirements that must be satisfied
    to ensure safety and protect persons, property
    and the environment from the effects of radiation
    during transport
  • The protection is achieved by
  • Containment of the radioactive contents
  • Control of external radiation levels
  • Prevention of criticality
  • Prevention of damage caused by heat
  • Controls such as routeing or physical protection,
    which may be instituted for reasons other than
    radiological safety, are not specified
  • SSR6 recommends that measures should be taken to
    ensure the radioactive material is kept secure
    during transport to prevent theft or damage and
    to ensure control of the material maintained at
    all times

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
46
Transport of radioactive materials
  • General Provisions of IAEA SSR6
  • Radiation protection shall be optimised using
    ALARA, social and economic factors being taken
    into account
  • Radiation protection programme shall be
    established
  • Emergency response provisions, established at
    national and/or international levels shall be
    observed
  • Management systems shall be established to
    standards acceptable to the competent authority
  • The competent authority is responsible for
    assuring compliance with SSR6 and arranging or
    periodic assessments of the radiations doses to
    persons due to the transport of radioactive
    material
  • Duty holder notifications are defined in the
    event of a non-compliance with the prescribed
    limits for radiation level or contamination
  • Training the provision of appropriate radiation
    protection training for workers and general
    awareness/familiarisation training for others and
    the need for training records are cited

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
47
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Activity limits and material restrictions for
    transport
  • The activity limitation on the contents of Type A
    packages (A1 for special form material and A2 for
    material not in special form) for any
    radionuclide or combination of radionuclides is
    derived on the basis of the radiological
    consequences which are deemed to be acceptable,
    within the principles of radiological protection,
    following failure of the package after an
    accident.
  • The is no prescribed limit on the number of Type
    A packages transported on a conveyance.
  • It is not unusual for Type A packages to be
    transported together, sometimes in large numbers.
  • As a result, it is possible for the source term
    in the event of an accident to be greater than
    the release from a single damaged package.
  • However, most Type A packages carry a small
    fraction of an A1 or A2 quantity indeed only a
    small percentage of consignments of Type A
    packages comprise more than the equivalent of one
    full Type A package.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
48
Transport of radioactive materials
  • A1 and A2 values
  • A series of exposure routes are considered, each
    of which might lead to radiation exposure
    (internal or external) to persons in the vicinity
    of a Type A package involved in a severe
    transport accident
  • External photon dose
  • External beta dose
  • Inhalation dose
  • Skin and ingestion due to contamination transfer
  • Submersion dose (gaseous isotopes)
  • Effective or committed dose to a person in the
    vicinity ?50 mSv
  • ?0.5 Sv for individual organs or 0.15 Sv to the
    lens of the eye
  • Assumed a person will remain at 1m from a damaged
    package for lt 30 minutes
  • f(i) fraction of activity in mixture
  • X(i) appropriate value of A1 and A2 for
    radionuclide i

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
49
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Mixtures of radionuclides
  • A1 and A2 for mixtures of radionuclides are
    calculated by (SSR6 para.405)
  • ?
  • f(i) fraction of activity in mixture
  • X(i) appropriate value of A1 and A2 for
    radionuclide i

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
50
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Exempt materials
  • If a material contains radionuclides where either
    the activity concentration or the activity for
    the consignment is less than the limits in Table
    2, then the shipment of that material is exempt
    (i.e. the Regulations do not apply)
  • The general principles for exemption are that
  • (a) the radiation risks to individuals caused by
    the exempted practice or source be sufficiently
    low as to be of no regulatory concern
  • (b) the collective radiological impact of the
    exempted practice or source be sufficiently low
    as not to warrant regulatory control
  • (c) the exempted practices and sources be
    inherently safe, with no appreciable likelihood
    of scenarios that could lead to a failure to meet
    the criteria in (a) and (b).
  • Exemption values (IAEA GSR (Part 3) are in part
    based upon an individual effective dose of 10 mSv
    in a year for normal conditions.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
51
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Activity limits and material restrictions for
    transport
  • The transport regulations adopt a graded approach
    to safety
  • The performance criterion of a package type
    therefore depends upon its permitted contents
    (specified by isotope specific A1 and A2
    contents)
  • In IAEA SSR6 the following categories are
    defined
  • Excepted packages
  • Industrial packages Type (IP-1, IP-2, IP-3)
  • Type A package
  • Type B(M), Type B(U) package
  • Type C package
  • Low specific activity (LSA-I, II and III)
  • Surface contaminated objects (SCO-I, II)
  • Special Form
  • Low Dispersible Radioactive Material (LDRM)

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
52
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Excepted Package
  • Permitted package contents and release following
    an accident

Package type Permitted contents (package) Permitted release following accident
Excepted 10-3A1 (solid) 10-3A2 (solid) 10-4A2 (liquid) 2x10-2A1 (tritium) 10-3A1 (SF) 10-3A1 (Gas) Entire contents
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
53
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Excepted package - requirements
  • Designed to be properly secured during transport
  • Only external features intended for lifting are
    available during handling
  • The external surfaces can be easily
    decontaminated
  • The external surfaces shall not retain
  • Capable of withstanding the effects of
    acceleration, vibration and vibration resonance
  • Materials of construction, components and
    structures shall be physically and chemically
    compatible
  • All valves should be protected against
    unauthorized operation
  • The design shall take into account ambient
    temperatures and pressures

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
54
Transport of radioactive materials
  • LSA-I
  • Uranium and thorium ores
  • Natural uranium, depleted uranium, natural
    thorium or their compounds, unirradiated in solid
    or liquid form
  • Radioactive material for which A2 value is
    unlimited (excluding fissile material)
  • The average specific activity is ? 30 times the
    exempt activity concentration listed in Table 2

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
55
Transport of radioactive materials
  • LSA-II
  • Water with a tritium concentration ?0.8 TBq/L
  • Average specific activity ?10-4A2/g for solids
    and gases, and 10-5A2/g for liquids
  • LSA-III
  • Solids (eg consolidated wastes) not powders
  • Radioactive material distributed throughout a
    solid (essentially uniformly distributed)
  • Relatively insoluble, under loss of packaging the
    loss of radioactive material by leaching in water
    would be ?0.1A2 in 7 days
  • Estimated average specific activity of the solid
    (excluding shielding material) ?2 x 10-3A2/g

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
56
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Surface contaminated object SCO-I
  • A solid object on which
  • the non-fixed contamination on 300 cm2 accessible
    surface ? 4 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters
    and low toxicity alphas or 0.4 Bq/cm2 for all
    other alpha emitters
  • The fixed contamination on 300 cm2 accessible
    surface ? 4 x 104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma
    emitters and low toxicity alphas or ? 4 x 103 cm2
    for all other alpha emitters
  • The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed
    contamination on 300 cm2 accessible surface ? 4 x
    104 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low
    toxicity alphas or ? 4 x 103 cm2 for all other
    alpha emitters

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
57
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Surface contaminated object SCO-II
  • A solid object on which
  • the non-fixed or fixed contamination on 300 cm2
    accessible surface exceeds SCO-I limits, and on
    which
  • The non-fixed contamination on 300 cm2 exceeds
    400 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low
    toxicity alphas or 40 Bq/cm2 for all other alpha
    emitters
  • The fixed contamination on 300 cm2 accessible
    surface ? 8 x 105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma
    emitters and low toxicity alphas or ? 8 x 104 cm2
    for all other alpha emitters
  • The non-fixed contamination plus the fixed
    contamination on 300 cm2 accessible surface ? 8 x
    105 Bq/cm2 for beta and gamma emitters and low
    toxicity alphas or ? 8 x 104 cm2 for all other
    alpha emitters

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
58
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type IP-1 package - requirements
  • Excepted package requirements, plus
  • The smallest overall dimension shall not be less
    than 10 cm
  • Type IP-2 package - requirements
  • Type IP-1, plus
  • Loss or dispersal of contents would be prevented
    and no more than 20 increase in the maximum
    surface dose rate at any external surface when
    subjected to
  • A free drop from a height of 0.3m to 1.2m
    (depending on package mass)
  • Stacking test (24 hours), the greater of 5 times
    package mass or 13kPa x vertically projected area

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
59
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type IP-3 package - requirements
  • Type IP-1, plus
  • A security seal to indicate the package has been
    opened
  • Tie down attachments
  • Take account of component temperatures ranging
    from -40C to 70C
  • Design and manufactured in accordance with
    national and international standards
  • Positive fastening device on containment system
  • Retain contents under a reduction of ambient
    pressure to 60 kPa
  • When subjected to water spray test, followed by
    free drop test, stacking test and penetration
    test (normal conditions of transport), loss or
    dispersal of contents would be prevented and no
    more than 20 increase in the maximum surface
    dose rate at any external surface

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
60

Transport of radioactive materials
  • Industrial package requirements for LSA and SCO

Radioactive content Industrial package type Exclusive use Not exclusive use Industrial package type Exclusive use Not exclusive use
LSA-I Solid Liquid Type IP-1 Type IP-1 Type IP-1 Type IP-2
LSA-II Solid Liquid and gas Type IP-2 Type IP-2 Type IP-2 Type IP-3
LSA-III Type IP-2 Type IP-3
SCO-I Type IP-1 Type IP-1
SCO-II Type IP-2 Type IP-2
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
61

Transport of radioactive materials
  • Conveyance activity limits for LSA and SCO in
    Industrial Packages

Activity limit for Conveyances Hold (inland waterway) Activity limit for Conveyances Hold (inland waterway)
LSA-I No limit No limit
LSA-II and LSA-III Solid (NC) No Limit 100 A2
LSA-II and LSA-III Combustible solids, liquids and gases 100A2 10A2
SCO 100A2 10A2
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
62
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type A content limits
  • B(i) is the activity of radionuclide i as special
    form radioactive material.
  • A1(i) is the A1 value for radionuclide i.
  • C(j) is the activity of radionuclide j as other
    than special form radioactive material. and
  • A2(j) is the A2 value for radionuclide j.

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
63
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type A package - requirements
  • Type IP-3, plus
  • If designed to contain liquid radioactive
    material, the free drop test will be from a
    height of 9m onto an unyielding target
  • Followed by a penetration test from an increased
    height of 1.7m
  • The design should include shall include
    sufficient absorbent material to absorb twice the
    volume of liquid contents, or
  • A containment system composed of a primary inner
    and secondary outer containment components
    designed to enclose and retain the liquid
    contents
  • For packages designed to contain gases, the
    package shall prevent loss or dispersal (tritium
    and noble gases are excepted)
  • Additional requirements for fissile material

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
64
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type B content limits
  • The content limit is as defined in the package
    design safety case which is submitted to the
    competent authorities for assessment and approval
  • Type B package requirements
  • Type A, plus
  • Capable of operating in ambient temperatures of
    -40ºC to 38 ºC
  • Be capable of being left unattended for one week
    in an ambient of 38ºC plus insolation at
    equilibrium thermal conditions with the heat
    generated by radioactive contents not adversely
    affecting the package meeting its applicable
    requirements for containment, shielding and
    criticality control (fissile contents)

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
65
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Type B package requirements
  • Restrict the loss of radioactive contents to
    10-6A2 per hour when subjected to normal
    conditions of transport tests
  • Restrict the loss of radioactive contents to A2
    in a week when subjected to
  • A free drop from 9m onto an unyielding target
  • A penetration test
  • An enveloping fire of 800ºC for 30 minutes
  • A water immersion test of 15m for a minimum of 8
    hours
  • A water immersion test of 200m for 1 hour
  • A maximum normal operating pressure of 700 kPa
    (gauge)
  • Additional requirements for fissile material

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
66
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Permitted package dose rates
  • unshielded radioactive contents
  • 10 mSv/h for packages under exclusive use
  • (except by air which is limited to ?2
    mSv/h)

Package type Dose rates Dose rates Dose rates
Package type Surface 2m 3m
Excepted 5µSv/h s
IP-I, II, II ?0.1 mSv/h ?10 mSv/h
Type A ?2 mSv/h ?0.1 mSv/h
Type B ?2 mSv/h ?0.1 mSv/h
Type C ?2 mSv/h ?0.1 mSv/h
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
67
Transport of radioactive materials
  • Special Form requirements
  • At least one dimension not less than 5mm
  • Impact test free drop from a height of 9m
  • Percussion test drop a 25mm diameter bar, 1.4
    kg mass, from 1m height
  • Bend test minimum length 10cm, rigidly clamped
    in horizontal position with half length exposed
  • Heat test 800 ºC for 10 minutes

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
68
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What, how much, who and societal needs
  • The international regulatory framework
  • Overview of regulatory framework
  • SSR6 (2012) outline of changes
  • Transport of radioactive material
  • Material and package types
  • Future trends and challenges

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
69
Future trends and challenges
  • Future trends
  • The number of shipments will increase (nuclear
    decommissioning and medical sector)
  • The number of Member States involved will
    increase
  • Health care programmes in developing countries
    will require the development of regulatory
    infrastructures and oversight for transport
    safety and security
  • The removal of orphan sources also needs to be
    pursued in an effective and efficient way
  • Several Member States have ambitions to develop
    civil nuclear power programmes and the
    development of small size reactors
    (transportable) is intended to provide a cost
    effective solutions

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
70
Future trends and challenges
  • Future challenges
  • Financial constraints in many Member States will
    remain or intensify
  • The regulatory infrastructure and resources will
    be limited in some Member States
  • Security will remain an issue in some regions
  • We need to speed up the development of effective
    regulatory infrastructures and regulatory
    oversight in some Member States to reflect the
    timescales to introduce healthcare programmes and
    the timely recovery of orphan sources
  • Remember, not all Member States are able to
    attend IAEA meetings and benefit from interaction
    with other national regulators and industry to
    a great extent they are isolated

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
71
Transport model to deliver societal needs of RAM
Delivery of societal benefits (B)
Transport of radioactive material
Societal needs (A)
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
72
Transport model to deliver societal needs of RAM
Delivery of societal benefits (B)
Worker and public confidence
International coordination / cooperation

Future trends and challenges
National regulator oversight / intervention
Industry compliance with regulatory requirements
Regulatory infrastructures of Member States
Regulations transport safety and security

An overview of transport of radioactive material
Societal needs (A)
13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
73
  • Thank you for your attention
  • Contact details
  • Stephen Whittingham
  • Office for Nuclear Regulation
  • ONR-RMT
  • Rose Court
  • 2 Southwark Bridge
  • London SE1 9HS
  • Steve.whittingham_at_hse.gsi.gov.uk

13th International Radiation Protection
Association Congress, Glasgow, 13-18 May 2012
(IRPA13)
About PowerShow.com