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Bangladeshi tourism - network strategy for sustainable tourism


Bangladeshi tourism - network strategy for sustainable tourism A Views On Tourism Project presentation Jagannath University 9th June 2010 Network in tourism - an ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bangladeshi tourism - network strategy for sustainable tourism

Bangladeshi tourism - network strategy for
sustainable tourism
  • A Views On Tourism Project presentation
  • Jagannath University
  • 9th June 2010

Personal profile
  • Majbritt Thomsen
  • MA Tourism
  • Marketing, policy, organisation
  • Danish expat since late 2007
  • BD travel experience
  • Royal Danish Embassy, DANIDA report on BD tourism
  • Business studies BD tourism
  • Interaction tourism sector
  • Huge number of visionary people, resources,
    organizations and initiatives in Bangladesh
  • Views On Tourism Project

Photo Up-comming Panigram Eco-resort, Jessore
The Views On Tourism Project
  • Voluntary initative since 2008
  • Vision
  • Encourage an active sustainable tourism movement
    in Bangladesh
  • All players can make an impact!
  • Online blog
  • Tourism knowledge and inspiration
  • National, regional and international resources
  • This presentation is available
  • Online group
  • Tourism network and discussion forum for people
    interested in a sustainable tourism development
    in Bangaldesh
  • LinkedIn an international professional network

  • World best practice and theory
  • Understanding tourism challenges
  • Sustainable tourism
  • Practices and lessons
  • Bangladesh
  • Status and sustainable tourism potential
  • How to develop national tourism through knowledge
    and network
  • Summing up

Understanding tourism demand Without tourists no
World tourism demand since 1950
  • Regional outbound anno 2008
  • Push-factor why leave home?
  • Economic factors
  • More wealth
  • Social factors
  • More time
  • Demographic changes
  • Family size, population increase, urbanisation,
    increased life expectancy
  • Technological factors
  • Transportation
  • Political factors
  • Freedom of mobility
  • Western Europe Dominates Tourism Flow Outbound
  • Strong Outbound Flow from Asia-Pacific
  • Economic Stability in Eastern Europe Favors
    Outbound Flows
  • Wealthy North Americans Passionate Travelers

Source Euromonitor International's Tourism
Flows Outbound World (2008)
World tourism destinations
  • Pull-factor where to go?
  • International arivals 2008
  • France 79.3 milion
  • USA 58.0
  • Spain 57.3
  • China 53.0
  • Italy 42.7
  • United Kingdom 30.1
  • Ukraine 25.4
  • Turkey 25.0
  • Germany 24.9
  • Mexico 22.6
  • Accessibility to markets
  • Affordability
  • Availability of attractions
  • Availability of services
  • Cultural links
  • Geographical proximity to markets
  • Peace and stability
  • Positive market image
  • Pro-tourism policies

Source UNWTO
Understanding travel motivation
  • Physical motivators
  • Refreshment of body and mind health, sport and
  • Cultural motivators
  • Desire to see and know more about other cultures
  • Interpersonal motivators
  • Meet new people, visit friends or relatives
  • Status and prestige motivators
  • Personal development or education

Theory McIntosh, Goeldner and Ritchie (1995)
A new world view A new world view
Dominant western environmental paradigm Green paradigm
Humans are separate from nature superior to nature Humans are part of nature and nature are equal
Reality is objective can be compartmentalised Reality is subjective integrated and holistic
The future is predictable The future is unpredictable
The universe has order The universe is chaotic
The importance of rationality and reason The importance of intuition
Hierarchical structures Consensus-based structures
Competitive structures Cooperative structures
Emphasis on the individual Emphasis on the communal
Facilitation through capitalism Facilitation through socialism
Linear progress and growth Maintenance of a steady state
Use hard tecnology Use soft tecnology
Patriarchal and male Matriarchal and female
Source Weaver Lawton (2002)
Increased world demand for nature
  • Historical tourism view
  • 1980s increased tourism demand for more
    nature-based travel adventures
  • 1994 40-60 international tourists (528.4
    million) were nature tourists
  • Now Nature-based tourism is one of the fastest
    growing sectors of the world's largest industry

Eco-tourism demand
  • More than a niche market!
  • Environmentally minded travelers
  • Hard core eco-tourism
  • Nature - the reson to go!
  • Nature professionals or people with serious
  • Soft eco- tourism
  • Nature important, but not main holiday
    motivation or activity

The new traveler stereotype
  • Green consumer
  • Knowledgeable about environmental issues
  • Conscious of social justice concerns
  • Motivated by a desire for self-fulfilment and
  • More independent-minded and quality conscious
  • Carefully assesses tourism products in advance
  • Preferes flexible and spontaneous itineraries
  • Sensitive to local cultures
  • Searches for authentic and meaningful experiences
  • Searches for physical and mentally challenging
  • Wishes to have a positive impact on the
  • Source Weaver Lawton (2002)

Understanding tourism sector
  • Most important supporters of tourism demand and
  • Attractions
  • Often motivation for visit
  • Accommodation
  • Most visible sub-sector
  • Transportation
  • Most important element in destination development
  • Public sector and policy
  • Crucial management organisations
  • Tour operators/planers
  • Almost exclusively product packaging and
  • High influence on tourism demand and hence sector
    succes and failure
  • Multiple SMEs and tourism related stakeholders
  • Different agendas, resources and focus on tourism

Tourism development is complex!
  • Tourism often praised as an effective development
    tool, especially in rural areas and the
    developing world
  • Tourism always cause environmental and
    socio-cultural as well as economic impacts on

Tribal people in Bandarban
Positive tourism impact
Source Why Tourism Matters campaign
Washington State, USA
  • Economy
  • Direct / indirect revenue for country, community
    and private sector
  • Nature
  • Protect environment and preserve nature
  • Society / Culture
  • Preserving local culture and heritage
  • Social wellbeing and stability
  • Promotion of cross-cultural understanding

Negative tourism impact
  • Economy
  • Increased local living cost
  • External money flow
  • Nature
  • High pressure on environment ressources
  • Disturb fauna and flora
  • Society / Culture
  • Lost of cultural values and traditions
  • Prostitution and crime

Destination impact from tourism
  • Less developed destinations are vulnerable,
    especially to rapid tourism development!
  • Tourism in developing world
  • Industry focus often inbound tourism (expect high
  • Often huge cultural, which may cause large
    negative social implications
  • New discussion Long-term social and economic
    benefit best from national tourism?

Sustainable tourism is the solution!
  • Definition Tourism that meets the needs of
    present tourists and host regions while
    protecting and enhancing opportunity for the
    future Source UNWTO
  • A tourism value
  • Development Balancing the needs of tourists and
  • New tourism management cooperation government,
    tourism sector and all stakeholders

Sustainable tourism values and principles
Community based economics
Environment economy integration
Conservation With Equity
Source Hall (1998)
Best case Bhutan national strategy
  • National tourism status
  • Successful poverty alleviation through tourism
  • Core development values
  • Brutto National Happiness
  • Pro-poor tourism development
  • Long-term sustainability
  • Restricted level of tourist activity
  • Management Department of Tourism Coordination
  • Tourism advisor since 2002 SNV (Dutch NGO)
  • Department of Tourism, Regional Trade and
    Industry Office, Association of Tour Operators,
    Nature Conservation Division

Eco-tourism - a sub-category
  • Definition
  • Ecotourism is a responsible travel to natural
    areas that covers the environment and sustains
    the well being of local people
  • (Epler Wood, 1996)
  • Goal
  • Ecotourism can become an important tool to
    preserve and develop remote areas

7 characteristics of eco-tourism
  • Involves travel to natural destinations
  • Minimizes impact
  • Respects local culture
  • Builds environmental awareness
  • Supports human rights and democratic movements
  • Provides financial benefits and empowerment for
    local people
  • Provides direct financial benefits for

Source The International Ecotourism Society
(No Transcript)
Best case Ecotourism in China
  • Meilixueshan Conservation Area
  • Principle tourist attractions
  • Majestic views of the Meilixueshan mountain
  • Trekking through forest and traditional Tibetan
  • Glaciers and waterfalls along a Tibetan
    pilgrimage route
  • Tibetan cultural and religious heritage
  • Tibetan-run guesthouses or homestays
  • Local Tibetan guides
  • Development partners
  • Deqin County Government
  • The Nature Conservancy, world conservation

South Asian tourism cooperation
  • Regional tourism status in 2007
  • Inbound tourism India, Nepal and Bangladesh
  • Total arrival 5,7 million
  • Total income 12,3 billion UD
  • Already a multicountry activity
  • 1/3 Indian tourists, visit primerly Nepal
  • 46 Bhutan tourists also visit Nepal
  • and/or Indian
  • The South Asia Travel Tourism economy 2010 is
  • Number 10 in absolute size worldwide
  • Number 1 in long-term (10-year) growth

Source ADB (2009)
Source WTTC (2010)
Best case Regional cooperation
  • Asian Development Bank project
  • Target markets
  • Thailand, Korea, China, UK, France, Germany,
    Italy, USA, Canada and Australia
  • Subregional tourism cooperation 2009-2014
  • India, Nepal Bangladesh
  • Governments co-investment
  • Sustainable heritage tourism development (UNESCO)
  • Bangladesh Heritage Highway
  • Site access and condition
  • Protect, manage and promote heritage

Bangladesh - tourism demand
  • Forecast WTTC Travel Tourism economic Impact
    Bangladesh 2010
  • 3,9 to 4,1 GDP from 2010 to 2020
  • 2010 265,9 billion Taka
  • 2020 788,4 billion Taka
  • Who are the present tourists?
  • National / international tourist numbers?
  • Demographic and geographic profile?
  • Travel motivation and satisfaction?
  • Product consumption?
  • Who are welcome?
  • National, regional or international tourists?
  • Mass tourists, high spenders, long time and
  • Leisure or business tourism?
  • Who supports positive development?

Photo a group of tourists in Sundarbans
International tourism image
  • Destination image Sum of beliefs, ideas and
    impressions that a person has of a destination
    Kotler et al. (1994)
  • Different image sources
  • News/NGO
  • Only focus on the negative stories?
  • International tourism focus
  • New7Wonders
  • Lonely Planet (tourism guide books) 2009 top ten
    interesting travel destination
  • 2 new travel guide books
  • The personal experience
  • Hear stories from people who lived in Bangladesh
  • Travel Bangladesh visit, business, expat, work,

(International) product potential?
  • Sustainable products
  • Eco tourism
  • Cultural tourism
  • Nature tourism
  • Heritage tourism
  • Religious tourism
  • Adventure tourism
  • Volunteer / study tourism
  • Pro-poor tourism
  • The everyday life
  • Sustainable world icons?
  • Coxs Bazar - not likely
  • Sundarbans potential
  • Other possibilities

The tourism industry
  • National status
  • Bangladesh is still one of
  • the countries in the South
  • Asian region with the
  • fewest arrivals and the
  • lowest revenue earned
  • from the tourism industry.

Never the less, tourism has since the 1990s been
a small but rapidly growing sector of the
Bangladeshi economy. Royal Danish Embassy (2008)
New sustainable tourism initiatives
  • ADB Heritage Highway
  • USAID/IPAC Teknaf Peninsula Community-Based
    Ecotourism Strategy
  • Katalyst Tourism capacity development
  • Government
  • National tourism policy
  • National Tourism Board
  • Succes depend on long-term sustainable tourism
    strategies, knowledge and cooperation!

Present tourism organisation
  • Bangladeshi tourism is a scattered industry
  • Huge competion for the existing markets
  • Lack of cooperation on all levels
  • Goal fast economic industry groth
  • Focus existing problems
  • Blame between government and tourism industry
  • Many isolated sustainable tourism resources,
    visions and initiatives .
  • United forces will make a sustainable tourism

Networking in tourism
  • Advise
  • The partners must truly want sustainable tourism
    development and be prepared to cooperate and
  • When setting up partnerships structures share
    income and risk.
  • Invite an expert on tourism to participate at the
    earliest posible date

Source GTZ Sustainable Tourism as a
Development Option
Network in tourism- an overview of the
Organisations of the multilateral and bilateral
  • Private sector
  • Tour operators
  • Travel agencies
  • Incoming agencies
  • Employees in tourism
  • Business associations
  • Suply industry, souvenirs
  • Advertising and marketing
  • Hotels, BB
  • Transportation compagnies
  • Restaurents
  • Agriculture
  • Guides
  • Public sector
  • Tourism officials
  • Community and regional administrations
  • Ministries of Economic and Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry for Environmental Affairs and Nature
    Conservation Agriculture

Tourism experts
NGO/SHO (Non-governmental and self-help
organisations) International nature conservation
organisations National NGOs Organisations of
indigenous peoples Local NGOs Local
Source GTZ Sustainable Tourism as a
Development Option
New tourism management
  • Industry should
  • Potential Bangladeshi players
  • Adapt strategic thinking to develop tourism with
    benefits for everyone
  • Include less powerful individual providers and
  • Extend and diversify product offerings to improve
    return on investments and social value
  • Spearhead innovative management and help spread
    best practice through corporate social
  • International
  • National
  • Associations TOAB, ATAB, TGAB, Bangladesh
    Tourism Foundation
  • Best practice players Panigram, Guide Tours
  • World brands in BD Radisson, Emirates, Intrepid
  • Individual tourism players

Source WTTC (2003)
New tourism management
  • Potential Bangladeshi players
  • Government should
  • International
  • Regional cooperation
  • Bhutah, Nepal, India, Myanmar
  • National
  • Government
  • All relevant ministries
  • Municipalites
  • Bangladesh missions abroad
  • National tourism board
  • Parjatan
  • Show leadership defining management structures
    that can efficiently drive New Tourism
  • Elevate travel and tourism to strategic national
    level with senior level policy-making
  • Factor travel and tourism into all policies and
    decision-making, to promote sustainable tourism
  • High involvement Attractions (nature and
    culture), regulation, research, planning,
    promotion etc.

Source WTTC (2003)
New tourism management
  • All stakeholders should
  • Potential Bangladeshi players
  • Cooperate in identifying opportunities for growth
  • Focus on building travel and tourism that opens
    up prospects for people
  • Work together to remove impediments to growth
  • International
  • Bimtec, SNV, USAID
  • National
  • Development Grameen, Katalyst
  • Conservation Urban Study Group, Nishorgo, Contic
  • Media tourism and general
  • Private sector Chambers of commerce and
    industry, investors and banks
  • Higher education service schools and

Source WTTC (2003)
Summing up
  • Status
  • General sector obstaceles
  • National tourism obstacles
  • Tourism development goals
  • Sustainable tourism values
  • National and regional cooperation
  • Active sustainable movement
  • Long-term sustainable values
  • Knowledge sharing and cooperation on all levels
  • Goal new tourism management
  • The Views On Tourism Project
  • A sustainable tourism movement communication