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Mitosis vs. Meiosis No sex vs. Sex

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Mitosis vs. Meiosis No sex vs. Sex Which is better? Mr. Snider SOCES socesbio.com Why do Mitosis? Growth 1 cell to billions exponentially Maintenance replace skin ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mitosis vs. Meiosis No sex vs. Sex


1
Mitosis vs. Meiosis No sex vs. Sex
  • Which is better?
  • Mr. Snider
  • SOCES socesbio.com

2
Why do Mitosis?
  • Growth 1 cell to billions exponentially
  • Maintenance replace skin, stomach
  • Repair- injuries

3
Why do Meiosis?
  • Variation not FUN
  • Remember over 50 of sexual reproduction does not
    include intercourse

4
Mitosis vs. Meiosis
  • One cell forms 2 exact copies
  • 100 of DNA same
  • Represent all genes in gene pool
  • Clones
  • Susceptible to same diseases
  • 1 cell forms 4 daughter cells, each with ½ the
    original of chromosomes
  • Genetic recombination
  • Increase variation
  • New combinations

5
Quick video comparison
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vBa9LXKH2ztU
6
Physical structure vs. genetics
  • Physically Meiosis and Mitosis are similar
  • IPMAT
  • Interphase
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase (Cytokenesis)

7
Mitosis preview bear with 5 mins
  • Awesome video

http//www.youtube.com/watch?vQ6ucKWIIFmg
8
Interphase
  • Common to both Mitosis and Meiosis
  • DNA and organelles copy themselves
  • G1 growth 1 recovery (stop and stay)
  • S synthesis -copying
  • G2 growth 2 get beg for copying (stop)

9
Prophase
  • Chromatin condenses to become visible as
    chromosomes (sister chromatids)
  • Nuclear envelope breaks apart
  • Spindle apparatus (spindle fibers and centrosome)
    forms
  • spindle fibersmicrotubules
  • Animal cell centrosome includes centromere

10
Metaphase
  • Sister chromatids line up in the center of the
    cell
  • (spindle apparatus is fully formed)

11
Anaphase
  • Sister chromatids separate, and chromosomes
    (chromatids) move to the poles

12
Telophase (cytokenesis)
  • Spindle apparatus dissolves
  • Nuclear envelope reforms
  • Chromosomes dissolve into chromatin
  • Cytokenesis even division of organelles between
    daughter cells
  • Cleavage plane in animals
  • Cell plate in plants

13
Summary Mitosis
  • One cell forming 2 identical daughter cells
  • Growth, Maintenance, repair
  • Zygote- you 1000X
  • Cloning Asexual
  • Reproduction yeast? single celled protists
    (not bacteria binary fission)

14
Review Mitosis
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vkRWnJd1WRbA
15
Main Differences
  • Mieosis variation for offspring- gene reduction
  • Mitosis perfect copies to get big enough to do
    reproduction
  • Question which needs more energy?
  • How many times to do reproduction?

16
Meiosis
  • Diploid cell to haploid gamete
  • Diploid 2 copies of chromosomes(2N)
  • Haploid 1 copy (N or 1N)
  • If you add 2N2N during sex BAD things happen, so
    you must reduce 1st
  • 2 times Interphase Meiosis 1 (P-T) Meiosis 2
    (P-T) 9 phases
  • DNA changes only physical parts same)

17
Interphase
  • Same as in Mitosis DNA and organelles double
    (DNA during S phase)

18
Meiosis I
  • Prophase Tetrads become visible
  • Tetrad Homologous pair or Homologous chromatids
  • 2 pairs of sister chromatids that have same genes
    from different parents
  • Crossing over occurs here

19
Metaphase I
  • Tetrads line up in center of cell

20
Anaphase I
  • Tetrads (2 N) separate and Sister chromatids/
    Homologous pairs (N) move to the poles
  • This is tricky you only have one set of
    chromosomes, but 2 copies of that set

21
Telophase I
  • Homologous pairs/ Sister Chromatids sometimes
    uncondense (most dont- loss of Energy)

22
Interphase II
  • Its a trick dont fall for it! No such thing!

23
Prophase II
  • (Rest is same as Mitosis)
  • Sister chromatids/ Homologous pairs attach to
    spindle apparatus

24
Metaphase II
  • Sister chromatids/ Homologous pairs line up in
    center of the cell

25
Anaphase II
  • Sister chromatids/ Homologous pairs separate and
    Chromasomes/ Chromatids move to poles

26
Telophase II (Cytokenesis)
  • Chromosomes dissolve into chromatin
  • 4 daughter cells, each with ½ original of
    chromosomes

27
Meiosis video
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vkVMb4Js99tA
28
Summary (yet again)
  • Mitosis 1 cell forms 2 exact copies
  • Asexual reproduction cloning
  • Growth, maintenance, repair
  • Mutations lead to uncontrolled cell growth
    cancer
  • Meiosis- 1 cell forms 4 daughter cells, each with
    ½ the original of chromosomes
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Gamete production (sperm, egg)
  • Mutations lead to dead offspring of changes in
    gene frequency (evolution)

29
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30
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31
Advice
  • Follow up on youtube
  • mitosis vs. meiosis videos there are several
    good ones.

http//www.youtube.com/watch?v_llXzrz8oOc
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