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Martin L. Perl (martin@slac.stanford.edu)

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Matter, Energy, and the Universe Martin L. Perl (martin_at_slac.stanford.edu) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Martin L. Perl (martin@slac.stanford.edu)


1
Matter, Energy, and the Universe
Martin L. Perl (martin_at_slac.stanford.edu) SLAC
National Accelerator Laboratory and Kavli
Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
at Stanford University Talk presented at
University of Belgrade, April 2009
2
ORDINARY MATTER electrons atoms molecules people s
tars
ORDINARY ENERGY chemical electrical nuclear gravit
ational
DARK ENERGY ? ?
3
ORDINARY MATTER electrons atoms molecules people s
tars
4
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5
All ordinary matter made up of Elementary
Particles
6
The Electron is an elementary particle
We cannot break it up into smaller parts
7
The Electron is an elementary particle Mass
10-27 grams 1 gram /1000000.00000 Size less
than 10-16 centimeters May have no
size Smallest electric charge known
8
The Electron is an elementary particle
electric field
perhaps no center
9
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10
10
11
ORDINARY ENERGY chemical electrical nuclear gravit
ational
12
Chemical Energy
13
Electrical Energy
14
Nuclear Energy
15
Gravitational Energy in the Universe
16
Gravitational energy is more important than all
other ordinary energies in the behavior of
the universe.
17
Gravitational Energy on Earth
18
Gravitational Energy in the Heavens
Sun
OUR GALAXY
19
DARK MATTER ?
20
Dark Matter
In the 19303 Zwicky showed that the velocity of
galaxies would cause a cluster to fall apart
unless the galaxies has hidden mass called Dark
Matter
21
Dark Matter
Assumed distribution of dark matter in Solar
System
22
Dark Matter
23
Dark Matter
24
Dark Matter
We hypothesize that Dark Matter consists on a new
type of electrically neutral, elementary particle
but there is no proof. Therefore on earth
there are two kinds of searches for the
Dark Matter particle.
25
Dark Matter
First Method Assume the earth is passing through
Dark Matter particles and look for collisions
with ordinary matter.
No confirmed evidence
26
Dark Matter
When Large Hadron Collider in Geneva starts, look
for Dark Matter particles
27
Dark Matter
Warning Some astronomers dont believe in the
existence of Dark Matter. Instead they change the
equations describing the behavior of gravity.
28
DARK ENERGY ? ?
29
Dark Energy
  • First evidence, 10 years old,
  • that we do not understand the
  • rate of expansion of the universe.
  • A great surprise.
  • A great mystery

30
Dark Energy
Present model, not proven
Visible universe
31
Dark Energy
Present model, not proven
  • 4 ordinary matter ordinary
  • energy
  • 26 Dark Matter ordinary
  • energy
  • 70 Dark Energy

32
Dark Energy
Dark Energy is a new kind of energy hypothesized
to fill all of space. Therefore should be on
earth also. Most physicists believe its effects
on earth are too small to be detected. I
disagree and am looking for an experimental
method to directly detect Dark Energy.
33
There are more things in heaven and
earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in
your philosophy.
Shakespeare
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