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Kinetic Theory of Matter (KTM)

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Kinetic Theory of Matter (KTM) AKA: Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) Molecular Kinetic Theory (MKT) Not associated with TKM the international postal code for Turkmenistan – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kinetic Theory of Matter (KTM)


1
Kinetic Theory of Matter (KTM)
  • AKA
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT)
  • Molecular Kinetic Theory (MKT)
  • Not associated with TKMthe international postal
    code for Turkmenistan

2
Rule 1
  • All matter is composed of particles in constant
    motion

3
Rule 2
  • Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of
    the particles.

4
Rule 2 (a and b)
  • Temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy of
    the particles.
  • a) When you heat a sample, the particles speed up
  • b) When you cool a sample the particles slow down

5
After that, things get hazy.
  • ?

6
Consider the state
  • Solid Liquid Gas

7
Particles in motion
  • Solid Liquid Gas

8
Particles in motion
  • Solid Liquid Gas

Vibrating about a fixed position
9
Particles in motion
  • Solid Liquid Gas

Moving over and around other particles, unlikely
to escape surface
10
Particles in motion
  • Solid Liquid Gas

Moving freely, colliding with other particles and
the walls of container
11
Consider state changes
Gas
Sublimation
Solid
Melting
Condensation
Freezing
Boiling, evaporation, vaporization
Liquid
12
Particles on particles
  • Solid Liquid Gas

Particles in contact
Particles not touching
Particles in contact
13
This is huge. Really.
14
Values and preferred units
  • Patmospheres
  • Tkelvins
  • VLiters
  • nmoles

15
Conversions
  • P 1 atm 760 mmHg760torr
  • 101.3 kPa101,325 Pa
  • T T(k) T(oC) 273
  • V 1L1000 ml.001 m3

16
How fast do particles move?
  • It depends on

17
How fast do particles move?
  • It depends on
  • Temperature
  • Size of the particle

18
How fast do particles move?
  • It depends on
  • Temperature High T ? faster motion
  • Size of the particle Smaller ? faster

19
Cool, medium, warm
20
Phase diagrams
What about water?
P
1 atm
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
21
Phase diagrams
What about water?
Water melts / freezes
Water boils/ condenses
P
1 atm
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
22
Phase diagrams
What about water?
P
Water is a solid
Water is a liquid
Water is a gas
1 atm
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
23
Phase diagrams
What about water?
Increasing pressure will melt ice
Decreasing pressure will boil water
P
Water is a liquid
Water is a solid
Water is a gas
1 atm
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
24
Phase diagrams
What about water?
P
Water is a liquid
Water is a solid
Water is a gas
1 atm
Sublimation occurs at low T and P
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
25
Phase diagrams
What about water?
P
Water is a liquid
Water is a solid
Water is a gas
1 atm
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
26
Phase diagrams
Describe these processes
Water is a liquid
A
B
H
P
Water is a solid
I
C
G
1 atm
E
Water is a gas
D
F
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
27
Phase diagrams
Describe these processes
P
Heating curve lab
1 atm
Vacuum pump demo
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
28
Phase diagrams
Water
P
Normal melting point
1 atm
Normal boiling point
Triple point
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
29
Phase diagrams
Water
P
1 atm
Critical pressure
0 atm
T
0 k
273 k
373 k
30
Phase diagrams
Most other substances
P
Critical pressure
Critical temperature
0 atm
T
0 k
31
The phase diagram for water
32
Phase diagrams
1 atm
P
0 atm
T
0 k
33
Phase diagrams
1 atm
P
Critical pressure
Critical temperature
0 atm
T
0 k
34
The phase diagram for CO2
35
The phase diagram for water
36
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Thermal expansion of a solidsolids expand when
    heated
  • Thermal expansion of a liquid liquids expand
    when heated
  • Thermal expansion of a gas gasses expand when
    heated

37
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Compressibility of gassesgasses can be
    compressed into a smaller volume
  • Incompressibility of liquids liquids cant be
    compressed into a smaller volume
  • Incompressibility of solids solids cant be
    compressed into a smaller volume

38
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Conduction of heat between two objects in
    contactthe cool one warms up.
  • Heat flow stops when temperatures are equal

39
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Fluidity of gassesgasses flow, they have no
    fixed shape
  • Fluidity of liquidsliquids flow, they have no
    fixed shape
  • Rigidity of solidssolids do not flow, they have
    a fixed shape

40
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Melting point of a solid at a certain
    temperature, a solid changes into a liquid
  • Boiling point of a liquid at a certain
    temperature, a liquid changes into a gas
  • Freezing point of liquids at a certain
    temperature, a liquid changes into a solid
  • Melting is endothermic (requires heat)
  • Boiling is endothermic (requires heat)

41
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Liquification of gasses is accomplished at low
    temperatures and high pressures
  • Sublimation of solids (to gas) at low pressures
  • Sublimation of solids (to gas) at high
    temperatures
  • Evaporation cools a liquid
  • You can see your breath on a cold day

42
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Boyles Law when the volume of a gas is reduced,
    its pressure increases
  • Charles Law when gasses are cooled, their
    volumes act as if they will reach zero volume at
    a temperature of absolute zero
  • Avogadros Law identical volumes of gasses
    contain the same number of particles
  • Grahams law heavier gasses diffuse slower
  • Daltons law of partial pressures the total
    pressure of a mixture of gasses is the sum of the
    pressures of each gas.

43
Can you explain why each of these phenomena
occurs?
  • Decrease in boiling point of a liquid with lower
    pressure
  • Increase in boiling point when solutes are added
    to a solvent
  • Decrease in freezing point when solutes are added
    to a solvent
  • Metals conduct heat better than other solids
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