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Africa Institute of South Africa
Presentation to Science and Technology Portfolio
Committee, Parliament, Cape Town 12 October
2011 By Dr Matlou Chief Executive Officer
(No Transcript)
Purpose of the Presentation
  • To present on the
  • AISA Annual Report
  • and
  • Audited Financial Statements
  • 2010-2011

AISAs Vision and Mission
  • Vision
  • An indispensable African voice on African
  • Mission
  • To produce relevant research products aimed at
    informing sustainable political and
    socio-economic development in Africa.
  • Position Statement
  • Development Through Knowledge
  • Brand Promise
  • Africa's knowledge resource

AISAs Values
  • AISAs Corporate Values are entrenched in the
    acronym PRIDE
  • Participation
  • Responsibility
  • Integrity
  • Development and
  • Excellence

  • Policy and commitment
  • AISA is an organ of state governed mainly by
  • AISA Act (Act 68 of 2001)
  • Public Finance Management Act (Act 1 of 1999)
  • AISAs Current Research Agenda
  • African Continental Integration- 2008-2011

AISAs Mandate
  • AISAs mandate is derived from the AISA act (Act
    68 of 2001), which establishes it as a statutory
    body aimed to
  • Provide research and policy development support
    in its pursuit of programmes that contribute to
    the development of the African continent
  • Conduct research and embark on training
    programmes that foster continental patriotism and
    that promote increased awareness and
    understanding of the African continent among the
    peoples of South Africa and across the globe and
  • Establish and participate in and maintain
    networks in Africa and globally which will
    contribute to the peace development and
    prosperity of the continent.

AISAs Objectives
  • The institute pursues three objectives
  • Promote knowledge and understanding of African
    affairs through leading social scientists acting
    in concert and across various disciplines and
    through training and education on African
  • Collect, process and disseminate information on
    African Affairs, give effective advice and
    facilitate appropriate action in relation to the
    collective needs, opportunities and challenges of
    the continent and
  • Promote awareness and consciousness of Africa at
    grassroots level.

Divisions within AISA
  • Research organised in 5 units, namely
  • Peace and Security
  • Sustainable Development
  • Governance and democracy
  • Science and Technology, and
  • Knowledge Transfer and Skills Development Unit
  • Publications
  • Library and Documentation
  • Outreach and International Liaison
  • Corporate Affairs
  • Finance and Administration
  • Human Resources

AISA Management
  • Dr Matlotleng Matlou Chief Executive Officer
  • Vacant Executive Director Research
  • Prof Phindile Lukhele-Olorunju Director
    Research Natural Sciences
  • Prof Narnia Bohler-Muller Director Research
    Social Sciences
  • Mr. Solani Ngobeni Director Publications
  • Ms. Elsie Maritz CFO
  • Ms. Ingrid Canham HR Manager
  • Ms Nadema Jainoo/Ms Cecilia Silolo-Tshishonga -
    Corporate Affairs Manager

AISA 2010-2011

Research Output 2010/2011

i. Governance and Democracy
  • Seeks to promote and encourage the
    institutionalization and entrenchment of
    democracy and governance fundamentals as a basis
    for integration. Work focuses on
  • International partnerships with Africa
    including Brazil/ China/
  • India/ Russia/USA- Africa, PRAU/IGD/AISA
  • through DIRCO and AU
  • Auditing the African Peer Review Mechanism
    processes in
  • Africa, in particular the implementation of
    the national plans
  • of actions
  • Political leadership, parties and the
    sustainability of
  • democracy in Africa
  • Researching key socio-political and economic
    issues in
  • international relations and cooperation and
    how these affect
  • South Africa, Southern Africa and the
    African continent.

RESEARCH THEMATIC UNITi. Governance and Democracy
  • Projects undertaken 2010/2011
  • The Role of South Africa in African Continental
  • Assessing the AU Industrialization Plan Through A
  • Model In the Case of Mineral
  • Results
  • 3 journal articles, 5 policy briefs and
    presentations at
  • national and international conferences/seminar
  • Unit briefed various government organizations on
  • transformation of the PAP and Zimbabwe
  • impasse.
  • Two interns were capacitated by the unit.

RESEARCH THEMATIC UNITii. Peace and Security
  • Seeks to promote Africas Peace and Security
    Agenda, in view of the continents aspirations to
    create stable, peaceful and enabling environments
    for sustainable development. Focus is on
  • Promotion of democratic processes for conflict
  • and management
  • Conflict prevention, management and resolution
  • mechanisms at national, regional,
    continental and
  • international levels
  • Migration and security
  • Crime and human insecurity and its impact on
  • integration and
  • Management of trans-border resources and
  • for regional security.

RESEARCH THEMATIC UNITii. Peace and Security
  • Projects undertaken 2010/2011
  • Central Africas evolving natural resource
  • paradigm The case of the Congo Basin
    Rainforest and
  • implications for Peace and Security in the
    Sub region
  • The nexus of social capital and national
    reconciliation in
  • Burundi and its implications for human
    security in the
  • Great Lakes region.
  • Results
  • 4 journal articles, 6 policy briefs, book chapter
    in the Nile River book project and presentations
    at national and international conferences/seminars
  • Unit gave lectures at the SANDF and SAN War
    Colleges on Multi-lateral Organizations The
    African Union and Regional Security.
  • One intern was capacitated from this unit.

iii. Sustainable Development
  • In line with Africas commitment to promote
    peoples empowerment as a basis for its
    development, this unit promotes grassroots
    driven, equitable and inclusive use and
    management of resources (both renewable and
    non-renewable) with a focus on
  • Development of common standards for the access,
  • management and sustainable use of all
  • Monitoring performance in terms of commitments
    to empowerment e.g.
  • Millennium Development Goals
  • Indigenous knowledge systems and appropriate
    technologies for
  • beneficiation processes
  • Options for the empowerment of critical actors
    in development in
  • particular the youth and women, and
  • Examination and development of proposals for
    poverty intervention
  • strategies.

  • Projects undertaken 2010/2011
  • Informal trading networks a loose canon, or
    circuits of
  • integration from below? The case of
  • informal trade interface
  • Indigenous rights and the influence of the new
  • constitution on Indigenous development.
  • Results
  • 4 journal articles, 4 policy briefs and
    presentations at national and international
  • Policy briefs on Mubarak and Indigenous People of
    Lamu District, Kenya attracted attention from
    DIRCO, Egyptian and Kenyan embassies.
  • One intern was capacitated by this unit.

iv. Science and Technology
  • AISA seeks to spearhead work towards the
    development and advancement of Africas science
    and technological platforms as a basis for the
    pursuit of its common aspiration for sustainable
    development through
  • Supporting processes towards harmonization of
    regulations that promote
  • the application and safe use of technology
    and promotion of the
  • development of centres of excellence in
    science and technology
  • Promoting the development of frameworks that
    protect intellectual
  • property in Africa, particularly the Pan
    African Organisation of Intellectual
  • Property
  • Facilitating frameworks for technology sharing,
    transfer and adaptation
  • among and across African countries, and
  • Monitoring the implementation of Science and
    Technology plans by the
  • relevant ministries and departments.

RESEARCH THEMATIC UNITiv. Science and Technology
  • Projects Undertaken 2010/2011
  • Determining Africas future energy needs,
  • demand and investment requirements through
  • dynamics.
  • The value of spatial based-analytical tools (GIS
  • Remote Sensing) in understanding the impacts
    of the
  • agrarian reform on food security in the SADC
  • Special focus on South Africa and Zimbabwe.
  • AISA/Standard Bank Seminar Series projects.
  • Results
  • 4 journal articles, 5 policy briefs and
    presentations at
  • national and international
  • Unit concentrated on the Energy Transition in
    Africa book
  • project with the target of having it
    published for 2011 COP
  • 17 together with the IGD and UNISA book
  • One intern was capacitated by this unit.

RESEARCH THEMATIC UNITv. Knowledge Transfer and
Skills Development
  • Focus was on
  • Internal AISA Flagship projects
  • Internship Programme
  • Fellowship Programme
  • AISA Young Graduates Scholars
  • AISA Campus Lecture Series
  • SA Campus Lecture Series
  • Archie Mafeje Memorial Lecture
  • Scramble for Africa Conference
  • Results
  • 7 interns mentored and 7articles published , 4
    Fellows appointed, 61 participated at AYGS
    Conference, 505 attended seminars delivered at 5
    universities, 71 attended the Archie Mafeje
    Memorial lecture held at WSU and a successful
    international conference on Scramble for Africa
    held in Pretoria.

Special Projects and Initiatives
  • Electoral monitoring project (Sudan Referendum)
  • Women and Defence ( financially supported
    conferences organised by DoD)
  • Support to SADC Armed Forces ( Lectures at SAND
    and SAN War Colleges )
  • North Africa Project ( organised conference and
    reviewed book chapters)
  • Nile River Project (organised conference and
    reviewed book chapters)
  • The Standard Bank Project (Conducted Seminars
    being collated for publication in 2011)
  • Social Science Research Council (SSRC) HIV/AIDS
    Book Published
  • AISA Autobiography
  • Growing partnerships (Worked closely with DIRCO,
  • Russian Academy of African Affairs at AISA
    (Signed MoU)
  • Other research-related activities
  • Research Seminars (Within and outside AISA)
  • Engagement with the Media (Radio, TV and Print)
  • Capacity Building (7 interns mentored)

Research Output 2010/2011

  • Introduction
  • The Publications Division is a conduit
    through which AISAs research outputs are
    disseminated. However it needs to be noted that
    the division not only publishes internally
    generated research outputs but those from
    external stakeholders as well.
  • The Publications Division publishes books,
    monographs, policy briefs, occasional papers, as
    well as an International Bibliography of Social
    Sciences (IBSS) listing and the South African
    Department of Higher Education and Training
    (DHET) accredited journal, Africa Insight.
  • Although the majority of what the division
    publishes is internally generated, it also
    publishes commissioned and unsolicited journal
    articles, books, occasional papers and monographs
    from other researchers from various South African
    and African universities and from the Diaspora.
    We also co-publish with other like-minded
    research institutions such as the Institute for
    Global Dialogue (IGD), South Africa.

Publications Outputs
  • Figure 1 shows the titles published by the
    division in the reporting year 2010/2011.
  • Books 6
  • Journal articles 66
  • Occasional papers 10
  • Monographs 1
  • Policy briefs 17

Publications Results
  • Representation at local and international
    conferences, book fairs and colloquiums
  • Cape Town Book Fair (CTBF)
  • Standing Conference of University Presidents at
    the University of South Africa (UNISA)
  • Department of International Relations and
    Cooperation (DIRCO) Literacy Week
  • Launch of the Thabo Mbeki African Leadership
    Institute (TMALI) in Sandton, Johannesburg
  • South African Society of Education (SASE)
    conference at the University of Venda
  • MAP Africa conference at the International
    Convention Centre in Cape Town
  • Annual DIRCO conference in Tshwane
  • Taylor Francis Editors Indaba in Rosebank,
  • African Studies Association of the United
    Kingdoms biannual conference in Oxford, UK.

Publications Results
  • In conjunction with its research counterpart,
    held a colloquium in Nairobi, Kenya on
    Co-operative Diplomacy, Regional Stability and
    National Interests The Nile River and the
    Riparian States the proceedings of which have
    been published as a book.
  • Apart from conferences, book fairs and
    colloquiums, Publications attended a number of
    seminars and book launches during which AISAs
    research outputs were showcased.
  • We achieved our strategic objective of forging
    links with like-minded research Institutes in
    areas such as co-publishing by entering into a
    collaborative initiative with the Institute for
    Global Dialogue (IGD), which resulted in a joint
    publication entitled, Natural resource governance
    in Southern Africa by Emmanuel Kisiangani and
    Lesley Masters (eds).
  • The division capacitated 2 interns.

Library and Documentation Services (LDS)
  • Expanding Library Holdings
  • Books Added 251 ordered books to 67,158 books
    Total of 67,409 books ( this total include the
    Pierre Botha collection and Mikelle Antoine
  • Journals Added 884 direct subscription journals
    to 18,494 journals Total of 19,378 journals.
  • Ready reference collection Added 32 annuals to
    4644 annuals Total of 4676 books.
  • Exchanges Added 530 exchanges ( 120 books 369
    journals 21 discussion papers 10 newsletters 6
    bulletins 4 annual reports)
  • Gifts Added 85 gifts (41 books 42 journals 2
    annual reports)
  • Archives The archives stands at 4706 individual
  • The total library collection stands on 96, 784
    volumes. Shows an increase of 1,782 volumes from
    95,002 in 2009/10.

Library and Documentation Services (LDS)
  • Providing Efficient and Effective Services to
  • Users were divided into the following percentages
  • AISA 65.85
  • Academics 7.2
  • Corporates 1.03
  • Individuals 5.92
  • Students 5.15
  • Government 12.8
  • Embassy 0.25
  • Other 1.8
  • AISAs own researchers made up 66 of the
    enquiries and outside clients made up 34 of the

Library and Documentation Services (LDS)
  • Creating an increased awareness of AISA mandate,
    products and services
  • Seminars
  • Records Management seminar on the 29th March
    2011, where record practitioners shared
    information about good standards and practices on
    records management.
  • Workshop
  • 20 library students from the University of
    Limpopo on the 7th October 2010. LDS staff did
    presentations on the LDS in general, a practical
    session on how cataloguing is done in LDS and a
    presentation on how the periodicals section
    functions. The students thus gained hands-on
    training on library science and information

Library and Documentation Services (LDS)
  • Creating an increased awareness of AISA mandate,
    products and services
  • Geo-Portal launch The AISA geo-portal was
    launched on the 13th October 2010. The interface
    shows 28 themes for all African countries and is
    updated on an ongoing basis.
  • AGIRN (Africa Geo Info Research Network) project
    AISA, the Human Sciences Research Council
    (HSRC) and EIS agreed on compiling the AGIRN
    portal and AISA portal to ensure maximum
    dissemination and marketing.
  • School outreach Outreach was done in the
    Eastern Cape (30 schools), Limpopo (102 schools)
    and KwaZulu-Natal (107 schools). A total of 209
    schools were reached. This is an increase of 88
    schools compared to the 121 visited in 2009/10.

Library and Documentation Services (LDS)
  • Maps Collection
  • A list of 1047 commercially bought maps and
    inherited maps from other libraries was captured
    in separate Word documents according to country
    from A-Z.
  • Information includes the kind of map, scale and
    date published.
  • A total of 3448 maps have been captured during
    this period.

Corporate Affairs, Outreach and International
Liaison (OIL)
  • Corporate Affairs and OIL are responsible for all
    stakeholder and media relations, events,
    branding, marketing, communications and
    reputation building of the Institute as well
    governance and compliance issues.
  • Ambassadorial Forum
  • AISAs flagship project undertaken in
    partnership with the City of Tshwane generated
    keen interest in African affairs during the
    period with the hosting of 7 events
  • Walter Sisulu Paediatric Cardiac Centre for
  • Sudans decisions and implications The elections
    and the referendum
  • Russia investments in Southern Africa
  • Nigeria_at_50 Trends, issues and options
  • Inaugural Africa Expo Launch Expo
  • Investment opportunities in Rwanda
  • South Sudan referendum and South Africas role in
    taking the process forward

Corporate Affairs, Outreach and International
Liaison (OIL)
  • Conferences
  • Professor Bernard M Magubane at 80 The
    celebration of a life
  • AISA Young Graduates and Scholars Conference
  • Workshop
  • Aligning diplomacy to the SADC development Agenda
  • AISA Campus Lecture Series
  • University of Limpopo
  • University of Venda
  • University of Zululand
  • The Archie Mafeje memorial lecture

Corporate Affairs, Outreach and International
Liaison (OIL)
  • Seminars
  • Kaduna come down Intricacies of informal
    entrepreneurs along the Cameroon/Nigeria border
  • Central Africas evolving natural resource
    management paradigm The case of the Congo Basin
  • Technology Intervention as a means of meeting
    development needs for Africa with special
    reference to Remote Sensing and GIS and the
    launch of the AISA Geo-portal
  • Robbers or rebels? Understanding the role of
    greed and grievance in fragile societies
  • The politics of indigenous rights in Kenya
  • Taking a preventative approach towards Records
    Management and ensuring Compliance acroscs
    different locations
  • The challenges of industrialisation and
    infrastructure development in SADC and the

Corporate Affairs, Outreach and International
Liaison (OIL)
  • Partnerships
  • AISA maintained its policy of pursuing
    partnerships in support of regional integration
    and the development of knowledge based economies
    in Africa.
  • Key AISA Partnerships include
  • Department of International Relations and
  • Ebukhosini Solutions
  • Information Decision Support Centre
  • Tshwane University of Technology
  • North-South Centre
  • Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
  • City of Tshwane
  • Africa Expo in partnership with Enov8 New Media.

Business Environment Analyses
  • External Factors Affecting the Business of AISA
  • Competition from other organizations focusing on
    Africa, both in RSA and globally,
    e.g. universities, research consultancies and
    non-governmental organizations
  • The necessity to create varied sources of funding
    to augment the parliamentary grant

Business Environment Analyses
  • Identified Internal Factors Affecting the
    Business of AISA
  • Lack of attractiveness of AISA as an employer as
    portrayed by the high staff attrition rate and
    difficulty in attracting quality researchers
  • Non-competitive remuneration
  • Management challenges.

Proposed Solutions to AISA Challenges
  • Delineate AISAs niche as dictated by its
    legislative mandate and location within the DST
  • Identify and partner with other similar research
    and governmental organizations in order to have a
    better impact
  • Develop a clear communication and marketing
    strategy that will ensure that AISAs products
    and services are visible and attractive to all
    its stakeholders and widely accessible to
    policy-makers and decision-makers and
  • Implement recommendations cited in the 2010
    Institutional Review relating to improving
    research capacity, funding from government,
    co-operation with like-minded institutions and
    good management.

Human Resources
  • The AISA Invested 55 of the MTEF allocation to
    our labour cost (including statutory skills-levy
    contributions and Interns)
  • We developed 8 interns and received 3
    interns from NRF during the period.
  • Over and above 1 of this was invested in the
    training and development of our staff.

Employment Targets Set vs. Actual as at 31 March
Division Target Actual Variance Interns/ Fellows Total
Research 16 13 3 4 17
Library and Documentation Services 9 8 1 1 9
Publications 5 4 1 1 5
CEO/ OIL/ CA 6 6 0 1 7
Corporate Affairs (HR, FIN Research Admin) 21 20 1 2 22
Total 57 51 6 9 60
Employee Age Distribution as at 31 March 2010
Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011 Employee age distribution as at 31 March 2011
Female 7 12 18 32 5 9
Male 7 12 13 23 7 12
Total 14 24 31 55 12 21
AISA Scientific Qualifications
Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011 Quality of Scientific Capacity as at 31 March 2011
Staff Qualification Number Race Gender South African/Non-South African Current Percentage Previous Year
Research staff with PhD Degrees 9 7 Blacks 1 White 1 Coloured 7 Male 2 Female 7 South African 2 Non South African 64 64
Research staff with Masters degrees 5 5 Blacks 3 Male 2 Female 3 South African 2 Non South African 36  36
Staff enrolled for Masters or PhD degrees 2 1 Black 2 Male 1 South African 1 Non South African  14 14
Finance Strategic objectives
  • Finance, Administration and Information
    Technology focused on the following strategic
    objectives during the 2009/10 financial year
  • Improve the control environment and comply to all
    relevant legislation
  • Ensure that AISAs budget is utilized effectively
    and efficiently in pursuance of its mandate 
  • Comply with GRAP standards, relevant audit
    requirements and National Treasury regulations
  • Achieve financial management excellence through
    efficient and effective controls and processes 

Finance Strategic objectives (Cont.)
  • Assess and mitigate the impact of the top risks
    across AISA
  • Review and update policies on an annual basis
  • Liaise with the internal and external auditors to
    correct all identified control environment
  • Manage the institutes cash flow to facilitate
  • Effective management and safe-guard of assets
  • Ensure that AISAs insurance policy is adequate
    and covers all assets and possible liabilities
  • Increase the revenue to AISA to augment the grant
    received by government
  • Develop, maintain and improve AISAs IT
  • Improve business efficiencies.

Internal Control Environment
  • One of the areas in which AISA rightfully
    excelled over the last three years was our
    commitment in improving the internal control
    environment. Vigorous monitoring, implementation
    of policies and procedures, a firm hand of the
    Chief Executive Officer and a zero tolerance
    approach from the Audit Committee and commitment
    from staff contributed to the improvements.
    Although AISA obtained an unqualified audit
    report for the financial year under review, AISA
    will continue to improve on matters identified
    and will endeavor to obtain a clean audit report
    in the years to come.

Audit Opinions Expressed over the last 5 years

Audit Opinions received Audit Opinions received
2009/10 Unqualified
2008/09 Unqualified
2007/08 Qualified
2006/07 Disclaimer
2005/06 Qualified
Financial Performance
  • AISA ended the financial year with an
    deficit of (R2,430) million (Surplus R3,997
    2008/9). The deficit derived from two risk
    identified liabilities at year end which
    comprised of Post retirement medical aid and the
    Pension fund conversion liabilities.
  • Although AISA ended the 2009/10 financial year
    with an accumulated surplus, it must be
    emphasized that the financial statements have
    been prepared on an accrual basis of accounting
    and are in accordance with historical cost
    convention which differs from cash basis of
  • Included in the accumulated surplus is committed
    projects to the amount of R1,168 million as per
    note 24 (P120) stated in the annual financial
    statements that was not expensed at year end.
    From the remaining R10,224 million R3,2 (SFP P95,
    N5) million refers to the retirement benefit
    asset, a non distributable asset. This refers to
    the surplus funds in terms of the current Defined
    Benefit Plan.

Financial Performance (Cont.)
  • However, the surplus funds for the retirement
    benefit assets will be distributed when the fund
    is converted to a Defined Contribution Plan.
    Also, included in the accumulated surplus are the
    non-current assets (property, plant, equipment
    and intangible assets) of the Institution to the
    amount of R4,847 (N2,3 P95) million to ensure
    that operations can be conducted and objectives
    be achieved.
  • From the above AISA also ring-fenced an amount
    of R3,935 million of which R1,804 million was not
    expensed at year end. Taking this above into
    account the accumulated surplus funds available
    for distribution are calculated at R371 thousand
    for the year ending 31 March 2010.
  • Total income generated for the 2009/10 financial
    year amounted to R30,684 million (R31,584 million
  • 95,4 (96,5 2008/9) of Total Income
    generated, comprised of the grant received from
    the Department of Science and Technology.

Financial Performance (Cont.)
  • Total expenditure amounted to R33,114 million
    (R28,207 2008/9). 49 (53 2008/9) of the
    expenditures incurred refers to employee related
  • Non-current assets increased from R5,957 million
    to R8,050 million. The increase is as a result
    from acquisition of property, plant, equipment
    and intangibles. The retirement benefit asset
    also grown from R2,418 million to R3,202 million.
  • Current assets decreased from R11,953 million to
    R7,932 million. The decrease can be attributed
    to a decrease in trade and other receivables at
    year end.
  • Non-current liabilities increased from R4,088
    million to R4,560 million from the prior year.
    The increase refers to a substantive increase of
    R2,661 million in provisions.
  • Trade and other payables decreased from R4,088
    million to R1,929 million at year end.

Financial Performance (Cont.)
  • AISA was solvent at year end with total assets
    less current liabilities at R11,392 million. In
    terms of liquidity, the Institution is liquid
    with the current ratio at 1,73 1 which means
    that for every R1 of current liabilities the
    entity has R1,73 of assets to cover its
  • AISA managed through improved monitoring to
    reduce the accumulated surplus from
  • R13,282 million to R11,392 million.

Budget utilisation
  • The tables below reflect the budget versus actual
    in income and expenditure for the
  • 2009/10 financial year

Budget utilisation
Budget utilisation
  • AISA managed to utilise their budget more
    effectively and efficiently during the 2009/10
    financial year. Although the objective was to
    have reached a break-even financial scenario at
    year end, AISA ended its financial year with a
    deficit of (R2,430) million.
  • Although income generated reflects a 4,19
    variance on the overall actuals, it must be noted
    that income to the amount of R1,167 million was
    carried forward for committed projects not
    completed at year end. (See note 13 and 23).
  • Expenditure reflects a 3,39 variance. This can
    be attributed to employee-related costs with
    regard to the post-retirement conversion
    liability as well as the post-retirement medical
    aid obligation brought in at year end.
  • The overall variance in budget reflected is