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EML, IMS Learning Design and IMS Simple Sequencing

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EML, IMS Learning Design and IMS Simple Sequencing Colin Tattersall Educational Technology Expertise Centre Open University of the Netherlands Overview A word or two ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EML, IMS Learning Design and IMS Simple Sequencing


1
EML, IMS Learning Design and IMS Simple Sequencing
Colin Tattersall Educational Technology Expertise
Centre Open University of the Netherlands
2
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion

3
Colin Tattersall
  • British, 11 years in NL
  • Computer Scientist
  • Exposure to Computer Based Learning and
    Intelligent Tutoring Systems in late 80s at CBL
    Unit, Leeds University
  • Last few years product manager at software
    company producing XML-based authoring/content
    management systems
  • Started at OUNL on Nov. 1st 2002
  • OTEC, Development

4
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion

5
Educational Modelling Language (EML)
  • Developed by OUNL in the late nineties
  • Made generally available December 2000
  • Language for describing Units of Learning
  • All the content and processes in function of
    learning something
  • A model of the activities, content, tools and
    workflow for learners and staff to accomplish one
    or more learning objectives
  • Examples module, course, curriculum, practical,
    lesson,

6
Educational Modelling Language
  • Brought into the standardisation process via IMS
    in 2001 (www.imsglobal.org)
  • IMS goals
  • Defining the technical specifications for
    interoperability of applications and services in
    distributed learning
  • Supporting the incorporation of the IMS
    specifications into products and services
    worldwide
  • IMS SIG on Instructional Design which led to

7
IMS Learning Design v1.0
  • Approved February the 10th 2003
  • EML will now no longer maintained or updated
  • EML and IMS Learning Design are very similar,
    though there are some differences

8
EML and Learning Design
9
But why EML/IMS LD?
  • Pedagogical meta model
  • Offers a level of abstraction enabling different
    educational models to be described
  • Software which knows about the meta-model can
    interpret specific modelsmodel an approach to
    learning (eg problem based learning) and have it
    executed (played)
  • Moves the focus from Learning Objects to Learning
    Activities .

10
My first steps in the e-learning world
  • Downloaded Microsofts LRN 3.0 Toolkit
  • IMS Content Packaging
  • IMS Meta-data
  • Downloaded all example content packages
  • Things were looking good .

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16
Things were looking good, but
  • Some engaging content, but each example seemed to
    be a slight variation of the previous
  • Learning felt like (only) consuming content
  • Support often looked like page-turning
  • Is this the style of e-learning that the IMS
    specifications are about?

17
From Learning Objects to Learning Activities
  • What about situations in which learning happens
    without learning objects?
  • What about when several learners cooperate to
    solve a problem?
  • Where are the teachers and staff?
  • Learning Design meta-model
  • Modelling the performance of individual and group
    learning activities designed to attain learning
    objectives and, in the process, making use of
    learning objects.

18
Making IMS-LD learning experiences
  • Learning processes are modelled in the IMS-LD
    language
  • These models are played in an IMS-LD-aware
    player
  • Analogous to marking-up learning materials in
    HTML and having a browser interpret them

19
IMS-LD concepts
  • People act in different roles
  • working towards certain objectives
  • by performing learning and/or support activities
  • within an environment, consisting of learning
    objects and services used in the performance of
    the activities.
  • Analogy with a play .

20
play
Activity- Description
21
Who does what, when?
22
But what do students and staff see?
  • The diagram helps to identify roles, activities,
    acts, etc, easing the creation of an XML-based
    representation of the learning process
  • Modelling is one thing, experiencing the learning
    design is another
  • Today there is no IMS-LD player, but
  • An impression can be gained through the prototype
    EML player
  • Warning you are about to see Dutch content

23
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25
Reflecting on IMS-LD concepts
  • People act in different roles
  • Students and facilitator
  • working towards certain objectives
  • Understanding the role of learning technology
    standards
  • by performing learning and/or support activities
  • Answering questions, discussing, reading,
  • within an environment, consisting of learning
    objects and services used in the performance of
    the activities.
  • Material on standards, discussion forum,

26
Having been introduced to EML and LD, heres
Simple Sequencing
27
IMS Simple Sequencing
  • Released March 2003
  • Will be part of SCORM 1.3
  • Simple" because it includes a limited number of
    widely used sequencing behaviours, not because
    the specification itself is simple.
  • WARNING some terminological differences with LD
    ahead

28
What Is Sequencing?
  • Predictable, consistent ordering and delivery of
    learning activities, in an instructionally
    meaningful manner, regardless of delivery
    environment
  • Designers/authors specify sequencing behaviors at
    design/authoring time.
  • Activities are sequenced at time of delivery
    depending on specified behaviors and the
    learners actions.
  • Sequencing behaviors are external from the
    content to enable greater degree of granularity
    and reuse

29
Problems that the IMS Sequencing Specification
is Trying to Solve
  • Code for sequencing is embedded with code inside
    learning resources
  • Sequencing behavior is inconsistent in different
    delivery systems
  • Models of sequencing are proprietary or
    idiosyncratic
  • Models of sequencing behaviors and activities are
    poorly defined

30
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31
SS Definition Activity Tree
  • LMS Sequencing behavior is described in terms of
    traversing the nodes of an activity tree to
    determine which activity to deliver to the learner

32
SS Content Package Structure
33
Example sequencing behaviour
34
Sequencing Rules
  • Rules have conditions which are based on Tracking
    Status (e.g. completed, satisfied, etc.)
  • Rules are evaluated at specific times during the
    various sequencing processes
  • Rules include
  • Precondition Rules
  • If then Disable this activity
  • If then Skip this activity in flow mode
  • If then Stop Forward Traversal
  • If then Hide this activity from Choice
  • Exit Action Rule
  • If then Exit
  • Post Condition Rules
  • If then Continue
  • If then Previous
  • If then Exit All
  • If then Retry
  • If then Retry All

35
Example Simple Sequencing Rules
  • Satisfied evaluates to True if the Objective
    Progress value of Objective Satisfied Status for
    the objective associated with the activity
    (indicated by Rule Condition Referenced
    Objective) is True.
  • Completed evaluates to True if the Attempt
    Progress value of Activity Attempt Completion
    Status for the activity is True

36
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion

37
LD and SS similarities
  • Both offer sequencing mechanisms
  • Both are packaged in the organizations section of
    an IMS Content Package
  • Both talk about learning activities
  • Both talk about learning objectives

38
Its not ..
because SS is single learner and LD is
multi-learner and so there are things in LD which
cant be modelled in SS SS does not address
synchronization between multiple parallel
learning activities simple sequencing
recognizes only the role of the learner (SCORM
1.3)
Simple Sequencing
Learning Design
39
But is it ..
Learning Design
Can everything that can be done in SS also be
done in LD?
Simple sequencing
40
Or is it ..
Learning Design
Are there things in SS which cant be done in LD?
Simple sequencing
41
IMS Learning Design is a Framework
  • An IMS Learning Design can/is likely to
  • Be packaged in an IMS Content Package
  • Use IMS Meta-data to describe various elements
  • Incorporate IMS QTI assessments
  • Use IMS Reusable Definition of Competency of
    Learning Objective to describe Learning
    Objectives
  • Map properties to IMS Learner Information Package
    elements
  • And may
  • Include IMS Simple Sequencing

42
SS in LD
  • Sub-manifests
  • A content package using LD contains a
    sub-manifest that used SS, etc.
  • In an LD instance document.
  • inside the environments elements,
  • used to sequence learning objects and items
    contained in the learning objects.
  • within the learning object element
  • used to sequence items that are contained within
    a learning object.
  • Places requirements on runtime engine

43
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion

44
LD and SS
multiple users single user
multiple roles single role (learner)
unlimited number of properties fixed set of properties in tracking model
no detailed behavioural model (left to implementers) detailed behavioural model
No SCORM plans yet Planned for SCORM 1.3
EduBox Player, WebMCQ tools GIUNTI, IBM engines being built
45
When to use which one?
  • Multiple users/roles IMS Learning Design
  • Single user choice
  • External requirements SCORM 1.3
  • Which players are available?
  • Which examples/tutorials are available
  • Both likely to have their markets
  • What about using SS in LD?
  • Through sub-manifests? Not Unlikely
  • Within an LD instance? Unlikely

46
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion

47
Summary
  • LD is approved learning and teaching are getting
    attention
  • Opportunity to move away from designing for
    lone-learners reading from screens to focus on
    the performance of individual and group learning
    activities designed to attain learning objectives
  • Horses for courses
  • LD and SS will have their own niches
  • IMS aware of terminology issues

48
Overview
  • A word or two on who I am
  • EML, Learning Design, Simple Sequencing
  • What are they?
  • How do they relate to each other?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses?
  • Summary
  • Discussion
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